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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2019

Subhash Jha, M.S. Balaji, Marla B. Royne Stafford and Nancy Spears

This paper aims to examine the effects of purchase environment, product type and need for touch (NFT) on cognitive response, affective response and overall product…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of purchase environment, product type and need for touch (NFT) on cognitive response, affective response and overall product evaluation in the USA and India.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted in two different consumer markets. In Study 1, participants evaluated haptic and non-haptic products and gave responses on cognitive response, affective response and overall product evaluation measures in the US market. In Study 2, the authors replicate Study 1 in a culturally different market of India and extend Study 1 by examining the moderating role of instrumental and autotelic dimensions of NFT on the effect of purchase environment on cognitive and affective responses.

Findings

Research findings suggest that cognitive and affective responses are the underlying mechanism between the purchase environment and overall response only for haptic product among Indian consumers. In contrast, affective response is the underlying mechanism explaining this relationship among US consumers. Furthermore, the instrumental dimension of NFT moderates the impact of purchase environment on cognitive but the autotelic NFT moderates the effect of purchase environment on affective response only for the haptic product but not for the non-haptic product.

Research limitations/implications

The study uses a relatively homogenous sample in the Indian market in contrast to the US market.

Practical implications

Results advance the understanding of the importance of haptic information processing in consumer decision-making across different purchase environments, product types and NFT using psychological distance (proximity) as a theoretical underpinning. With non-haptic shopping environments (i.e. online and mobile) growing rapidly, the results have critical implications for development of marketing strategies in Asian and US markets.

Originality/value

Empirical research examining the underlying mechanism by which purchase environment influences overall evaluation for haptic product is scarce. Additionally, understanding of the differential roles of instrumental and autotelic dimensions of NFT on cognitive and affective responses is very limited. This research fills this void and provides an understanding of the specific environment in evaluating haptic and non-haptic products in two distinct markets.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Rajasree K. Rajamma, Audhesh Paswan and Nancy Spears

User-generated content (UGC), e.g. YouTube videos on social media, is all around us. These UGCs are primarily demonstrational and/or informational in their execution…

Abstract

Purpose

User-generated content (UGC), e.g. YouTube videos on social media, is all around us. These UGCs are primarily demonstrational and/or informational in their execution format. However, viewers could easily misclassify the UGCs and that may be detrimental to the focal product in the UGC. This study aims to investigate this phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an online survey (N = 459). The respondents were randomly exposed to one of the two UGCs – informational or demonstrational – and then responded to questions measuring their attribution and their purchase intention towards the focal product in the UGC.

Findings

Results indicate that about 20% of the respondents misclassified the type of UGC. Further, UGC characteristics such as vicarious experience, transparency and connectedness significantly enhance purchase intention, especially for demonstrational videos; demonstrational UGC, when correctly perceived yield the most favorable results; and misclassification does suppress these relationships.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the theory and practice by linking the viewer evaluation of UGC on various evaluative dimensions (i.e. vicarious experience, connectedness, transparency and perceived risk), purchase intention towards the focal product in the UGC and correct or incorrect classification of the UGC format (demonstrational or informational). This study adds to the knowledge base about UGC by highlighting some of the pitfalls when viewers misclassify the UGC format and emphasizes the importance of a match between the content of the UGC and the perceptions and expectations associated with the medium on which it is uploaded. Like any other research, this study too has its limitations. It has only looked at a few possible variables that would predict the purchase intention in the context of the complex and rich phenomenon of UGC. Future studies should look at other sources of misclassification.

Practical implications

Given the ubiquitous nature of social media and their role in consumer decision-making, the findings of this study have serious practical implications. The results of the study highlight steps to be taken by both creators and marketers to improve effectiveness of UGCs.

Social implications

While this study does not focus on the social aspects of UGCs, it is not difficult to imagine the phenomenon of UGC misclassification, either as a mistake or deliberately induced and its social implications. Fake news seems to be not uncommon.

Originality/value

Even though the impact of consumer-to-consumer information exchange and UGC on consumers’ brand attitude and purchase intention is well recognized, there is limited research on this topic. Further, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to explicitly examine the concept of misclassification and corresponding issues in the context of UGCs.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Kelly Naletelich and Nancy Spears

New product development (NPD) is increasingly being delegated to consumers, yet little research has investigated consumer-centric factors that may influence this…

Abstract

Purpose

New product development (NPD) is increasingly being delegated to consumers, yet little research has investigated consumer-centric factors that may influence this delegation. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to uniquely combine regulatory focus and analogical reasoning to investigate new product ideation and downstream consumer-brand responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of experiments were undertaken.

Findings

Study 1 revealed that promotion-focused consumers (as opposed to prevention-focused consumers) have significantly greater purchase intentions if given an analogical reasoning task before engaging in new product ideation due to their cognitive flexibility. Study 2 tested the effects of near vs far analogies and found that promotion-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if primed with far analogies because regulatory fit is enhanced. However, analogical thinking and purchase intentions significantly drop if primed with near analogies. In contrast, prevention-focused consumers use analogical thinking to a greater extent and have significantly higher purchase intentions if shown near analogies, compared to far analogies, because of improved regulatory fit. Both studies confirm a serial mediation chain involving task engagement, self-brand connection, and brand sincerity.

Research limitations/implications

This research extends current understanding regarding the role of creative tasks within consumer NPD. It also uniquely links regulatory focus and consumer task engagement in NPD to increase favorable brand responses.

Practical implications

Findings offer managerial insights that can positively increase consumer-brand outcomes during NPD.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the importance of analogical thinking and consumer-centric factors (i.e., regulatory focus) during the NPD process. This avenue of research is important, as most studies have neglected ways in which to increase consumer NPD task engagement, leaving resources unutilized.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2018

Atefeh Yazdanparast and Nancy Spears

This study aims to investigate how comparing physical aspects of the self to fashion models in mass-mediated images result in body dissatisfaction and what mechanisms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how comparing physical aspects of the self to fashion models in mass-mediated images result in body dissatisfaction and what mechanisms could be used to interrupt the potentially harmful emotional and motivational outcomes of such evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental design studies are conducted in which objective self-awareness (OSA; self-focus) is manipulated. In the first study, participants are assigned to control vs relevant vs irrelevant standards of appearance, and in the second study, all participants receive relevant standards of appearance and are randomly primed to experience pride or shame.

Findings

Focusing on the physical aspect of the self (i.e. state of OSA) and having access to relevant standards of appearance such as viewing images of beautiful fashion models (vs irrelevant standards of appearance such as images of plants) initiate the process of self-standard evaluation that may lead to body image state dissatisfaction (BISDS). Negative emotions mediate the relationship between BISDS and motivations to pursue cosmetic procedures. Pride and shame are two important self-conscious emotions that differently influence these relationships.

Originality/value

The present research identifies how pride could act as a self-affirming factor to intervene the undesirable outcomes of body image dissatisfaction and discourage unnecessary cosmetic procedures. Pride diminishes the motivation to undergo cosmetic procedures by shifting the focus from pursuing unachievable standards of appearance to pride-inducing achievements and self-affirming positive qualities. Shame, however, keeps individuals focused on discrepancies and lowers their ability to think of substitute goals, resulting in enhanced motivations for cosmetic procedures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Charles Blankson, Julian Ming‐Sung Cheng and Nancy Spears

The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand international consumers' selection criteria of banks using the USA, Taiwan, and Ghana as illustrations.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review, the paper adopts the classical multi‐step scale development process which demanded that thorough attention be paid to every step of the process. The study employed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess the reliability of the results.

Findings

The study reveals three key dimensions/factors/strategies that are consistent across all three economies. The paper concludes that open and liberalized business climate appear to explain consumers' decisions.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on the college student cohort and thus the results do not represent the public. This poses generalizability questions without further replications and validations. This study did not examine whether there were consumers' switching behaviors involving banks.

Practical implications

Insights derived from this study will provide bank managers and advertising executives with the building blocks for understanding consumers' choice criteria of banks in industrialized, newly industrialized and liberalized developing economies.

Originality/value

A comprehensive validated scale measuring international consumers' selection of banks is proposed. In view of the scarce stream of empirical studies dealing with consumers' selection of banks in liberalized developing nations, this research comes at an opportune time, as several governments in these economies are encouraging bank savings, channeling college students' loans through bank accounts and proactively attracting global banks to establish branches in their countries. This study complements the extant literature dealing with consumers' selection of banks. Finally, a cross‐national and cross‐cultural dataset of consumers' choice criteria of banks have been put forward that would enhance further appreciation of the subject of banks selection in varying economies.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Audhesh K. Paswan, Nancy Spears and Gopala Ganesh

The purpose of this study is to focus on the feeling associated with being rejected by the preferred service brand, and its effect on consumer assessment of the alternate brand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to focus on the feeling associated with being rejected by the preferred service brand, and its effect on consumer assessment of the alternate brand.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected using a self‐administered questionnaire in the context of higher education services targeted at the international market.

Findings

Consumers who do manage to get their preferred service brand tend to be more satisfied with the features of the obtained brand and exhibit higher levels of brand loyalty towards that brand. In comparison, consumers who end up with a service brand that is not their first choice seem to have lower levels of satisfaction with and loyalty towards the obtained brand.

Research limitations/implications

A key limitation of this study is the sampling frame. Future studies should replicate this study in different service and product contexts and with different target population. In addition, the disconfirmation of expectations or desires within the framework of preferred brand attainment should be explored.

Practical implications

Managers should ensure that one's service brand is high in the consideration set. This has implications for service branding and brand positioning as well as fulfilling service brand promise through services elements. It also has implications pertaining to winning over new customers and retaining through superior service delivery – particularly the service augmentation elements, and the selection and training of service delivery personnel.

Originality/value

This study provides answers to a crucial question – “Can the number two brand ever achieve a prominent position or is it doomed to remain in the second place waiting to be picked only when consumers do not get their first choice?”

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Audhesh K. Paswan, Nancy Spears, Ron Hasty and Gopala Ganesh

Financial services are inherently intangible and high on experience and credence qualities. In order to promote them effectively, a service provider must first identify…

Abstract

Financial services are inherently intangible and high on experience and credence qualities. In order to promote them effectively, a service provider must first identify the dimensions used by consumers to evaluate the service quality of banks prior to becoming a customer. Based on responses from customers of a credit union, the current study identifies four dimensions – empathy/assurance, tangibility, routine transaction cost, and loan transaction cost – which form the domain of consumer's evaluation of search quality in the financial services industry. Further, the relationships between these search quality factors and overall assessment of respondents' current bank is also investigated. The results indicate that higher levels of importance accorded to search quality factors, especially loan transaction costs, were associated with extreme (good or bad) assessment of current bank. The importance accorded to these search quality factors was also tested against contingency variables such as gender, marital status, age, household income, employment status, education, and house ownership. Of these, gender and home ownership emerged as the strongest determinants. These findings suggest that bank managers should be cognizant of search quality factors and their relations with the appropriate contingency variables.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Richard Germain and Nancy Spears

The research proposes a theory that organizational design mediates completely the effect of context on quality management. The results show that the greater the level of…

Abstract

The research proposes a theory that organizational design mediates completely the effect of context on quality management. The results show that the greater the level of the organizational design variables (formalization, technocratic specialization, and strategic decentralization), the greater the level of quality management. The context variables of size, production technology (which varies from custom to flow production types), and product dynamism predict organizational design to varying extents. Statistical analysis shows that the indirect effect of size, production technology, and product dynamism on quality management are significant and positive. Direct effects of context on quality management were tested and found not to be significant. The conclusion is drawn that organizational design transmits the effect of context to quality management.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Emilio Audissino

The Final Girls (Todd Strauss-Schulson, 2015) is the story of a group of teenage friends that, during the screening of a Friday the 13th-like 1980s slasher horror, happen…

Abstract

The Final Girls (Todd Strauss-Schulson, 2015) is the story of a group of teenage friends that, during the screening of a Friday the 13th-like 1980s slasher horror, happen to be sucked into the film. Trapped in the gruesome narrative, they have to survive the deranged killer that haunts the premises of the campsite by applying their knowledge of the rules and cliches of the slasher genre. The film is of interest not only because it mixes horror and comedy and exaggerates the horror genre’s conventions – as Scream and other neo-slashers already did. By employing the device of the screen rupture, the film constructs a complex network of self-reflexive moments and intertextual references. The metalinguistic play involves in particular the notoriously sexophobic and gender-led dynamics of the 1980s slashers – those more emancipated girls who have sex are killed; the most prudish girl is the one that eventually manages to defeat the monster, the ‘Final Girl’. In this sense, the film is almost like a video essay that reprises and illustrates one of the most seminal study of the slasher genre, Carol Clover’s 1992 Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. The chapter presents the defining elements of the slasher subgenre as theorized by Clover and then focusses on the analysis of the metalinguistic elements of The Final Girls vis-à-vis Clover’s classic text.

Details

Gender and Contemporary Horror in Film
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-898-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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