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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Yan Han

This paper seeks to discuss a grant‐funded digitization project for unique Afghanistan gray literature. It aims to address the digitization tasks, workflow, challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss a grant‐funded digitization project for unique Afghanistan gray literature. It aims to address the digitization tasks, workflow, challenges, and solutions. Persistent identifiers, file‐naming conventions, page‐naming rules, and a digitization management system are discussed in detail since they were critical to the success of the project.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the unique requirements of the project, and analyzes difficult issues related to the separation of pre‐digitization and post‐digitization in two remote locations. The approach includes persistent identifiers, file‐naming rules, page‐naming conventions and a digitization management system. After one and a half years of operation, the approach has been effective and efficient.

Findings

The paper analyzes the unique challenges for a long‐distance collaboration on digitization. Pre‐digitization and digital imaging were carried out in Kabul, Afghanistan, with all the physical materials located there, while post‐digitization and quality control were performed in Tucson, Arizona. The paper found that several components such as persistent identifiers, file‐naming conventions, page‐naming rules, and digitization management system were critical to the success of the project.

Practical implications

The project demonstrates an approach to address a unique digitization project due to the separation of pre‐digitization and post‐digitization. In addition, the approach has served other digitization projects well.

Originality/value

The paper was written for both project managers and technical staff. Project managers can find out the usefulness of a digitization management system and understand digitization issues; while technical staff can find interests in a persistent identifier scheme, file‐naming conventions and page‐naming rules.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2003

Fengru Li and Nader H. Shooshtari

Applying brand names to international markets remains a challenge to multinational corporations. Consumers’ sociolinguistic backgrounds shape their responses to brand names

Abstract

Applying brand names to international markets remains a challenge to multinational corporations. Consumers’ sociolinguistic backgrounds shape their responses to brand names. This paper uses a sociolinguistic approach as a conceptual framework in understanding brand naming and translating in the Chinese market. The approach promotes that sociolinguistics a) recognizes linguistic competence, b) advances symbolic values imbedded in linguistic forms, and c) renders attached social valence to cultural scrutiny. Three brand‐naming cases in China are presented for discussion, which may benefit multinational corporations on brand decisions involving Chinese consumers.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Ta Na, Nobuo Funabiki, Khin Khin Zaw, Nobuya Ishihara, Shinpei Matsumoto and Wen-Chung Kao

To advance Java programming educations, the authors have developed a Java Programming Learning Assistant System (JPLAS) as a web application system. JPLAS provides…

Abstract

Purpose

To advance Java programming educations, the authors have developed a Java Programming Learning Assistant System (JPLAS) as a web application system. JPLAS provides fill-in-blank problems for novices to study the grammar and basic programming skills through code reading.

Design/methodology/approach

To select the blank elements with grammatically correct and unique answers from a given Java code, the authors have proposed the graph-based blank element selection algorithm. Then, the code for this problem should be highly readable to encourage novice students to study it. Because code readability can be improved by proper names for identifiers, the authors have also proposed the naming rule testing algorithm to identify codes with correct names.

Findings

In this paper, the authors present a fill-in-blank problem workbook by collecting suitable Java codes from textbooks and Web sites and applying these algorithms with several extensions. The workbook consists of 16 categories with a considerable number of problems that follow the conventional learning order of Java programming.

Originality/value

The proper set of ready-made fill-in-blank problems is effective in enhancing the usability of JPLAS both for teachers and students. For the preliminary evaluation, the authors assign a few problems to students. In coming semesters, the authors will use this workbook in the course to verify the adequacy of the proposal for novices.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Milan Češka, Vladimír Janoušek and Tomáš Vojnar

This paper presents several research issues associated with the PNtalk language that is based on a certain kind of object‐oriented Petri nets (OOPNs) and intended mainly…

Abstract

This paper presents several research issues associated with the PNtalk language that is based on a certain kind of object‐oriented Petri nets (OOPNs) and intended mainly for modelling, prototyping, and verifying concurrent and distributed applications. The paper reviews the main concepts of PNtalk and OOPNs followed by a proposal of a system allowing prototypes based on PNtalk to be run in a distributed way. Furthermore, the first step made towards state spaces‐based formal analysis and verification over PNtalk OOPNs are also briefly mentioned in the paper.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 31 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Wayne Davison

The upper three OSI layers support communication requirements of applications. To communicate meaningfully, applications must share a common understanding of various…

Abstract

The upper three OSI layers support communication requirements of applications. To communicate meaningfully, applications must share a common understanding of various aspects. This is achieved through the use of several OSI‐related concepts described in this article, including application association, application context, and abstract syntax. The Application layer is concerned with semantics and not encoding. The presentation protocol is concerned with the coupling of semantics with a particular encoding. The session protocol provides for organized and synchronized data exchange. Several application protocols are described in this article, and a sidebar about the File Transfer, Access, and Management protocol is included.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Ping Bao and Suoling Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to present a system for recognition of location names in ancient books written in languages, such as Chinese, in which proper names are not…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a system for recognition of location names in ancient books written in languages, such as Chinese, in which proper names are not signaled by an initial capital letter.

Design/methodology/approach

Rule-based and statistical methods were combined to develop a set of rules for identification of product-related location names in the local chronicles of Guangdong. A name recognition system, with functions of document management, information extraction and storage, rule management, location name recognition, and inquiry and statistics, was developed using Microsoft's .NET framework, SQL Server 2005, ADO.NET and XML. The system was evaluated with precision ratio, recall ratio and the comprehensive index, F.

Findings

The system was quite successful at recognizing product-related location names (F was 71.8 percent), demonstrating the potential for application of automatic named entity recognition techniques in digital collation of ancient books such as local chronicles.

Research limitations/implications

Results suffered from limitations in initial digitization of the text. Statistical methods, such as the hidden Markov model, should be combined with an extended set of recognition rules to improve recognition scores and system efficiency.

Practical implications

Electronic access to local chronicles by location name saves time for chorographers and provides researchers with new opportunities.

Social implications

Named entity recognition brings previously isolated ancient documents together in a knowledge base of scholarly and cultural value.

Originality/value

Automatic name recognition can be implemented in information extraction from ancient books in languages other than English. The system described here can also be adapted to modern texts and other named entities.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1908

“OF making many books there is no end,” said the Preacher, and since his day this fact has been reiterated successively by men all down the ages. Consequent upon the ever…

29

Abstract

“OF making many books there is no end,” said the Preacher, and since his day this fact has been reiterated successively by men all down the ages. Consequent upon the ever increasing number of books was the necessity of providing adequate storage for their preservation and use, and to meet this need libraries were founded. To facilitate reference to the books, catalogues were compiled and provided, but these were generally made by private individuals, who, though they would doubtless make a few rules for their guidance, had not the advantage of working upon any codified rules that had stood the test of experience.

Details

New Library World, vol. 10 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

Iain D. Craig

Artificial Intelligence, Cybernetics, ProductionDescribes the ELEKTRA reflective production rule interpreter, which differs from other interpreters by providing…

273

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence, Cybernetics, Production Describes the ELEKTRA reflective production rule interpreter, which differs from other interpreters by providing considerable support for meta‐level inference and reflection. Also describes the representations employed in the system, in which the control problem in production systems can be solved by increasing use of rules. Introduces the reflective properties of the system and gives examples. Shows that the interpreter on which the entire ELEKTRA system runs can be implemented as ELEKTRA rules.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Katerina Ksystra and Petros Stefaneas

Reactive rules are used for programming rule-based Web agents, which have the ability to detect events and respond to them automatically and can have complex structure and…

Abstract

Purpose

Reactive rules are used for programming rule-based Web agents, which have the ability to detect events and respond to them automatically and can have complex structure and unpredictable behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an appropriate formal framework for analyzing such rules.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this goal, the authors give two alternative semantics for the basic reactive rules’ families which allow us to specify reactive rule-based agents and verify their intended behavior. The first approach expresses the functionality of production and event condition action rules in terms of equations, whereas the second methodology is based in the formalism of rewriting logic. Both semantics can be expressed within the framework of CafeOBJ algebraic specification language, which then offers the verification support and have their advantages and downsides.

Findings

The authors report on experiences gained by applying those methodologies in a reactive rule-based system and compare the two methodologies.

Originality/value

Finally, the authors demonstrate a tool that translates a set of reactive rules into CafeOBJ rewrite rules, thus making the verification of reactive rules possible for inexperienced users.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Vitus S.W. Lam

Declarative process modelling is a constraint-centric approach that treats business rules as first-class citizens in business process models. Augmenting the declarative…

3867

Abstract

Purpose

Declarative process modelling is a constraint-centric approach that treats business rules as first-class citizens in business process models. Augmenting the declarative process modelling technique with capability to detect the constraint violations during business process execution is of crucial importance. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the modelling of business rules through a repository of pattern-oriented templates.

Design/methodology/approach

The semantics of the business rule templates is underpinned by linear temporal logic (LTL). Automated temporal reasoning is then conducted for determining whether process executions adhere to the business rules through the utilisation of the Logics Workbench (LWB). An application of the methodological framework is illustrated by a realistic case study on degree requirements verification.

Findings

To access the practicality of the approach, the case study of this paper is based on the verification of degree requirements, which is different from the domain area of the case study in the author’s prior work. The findings indicated that the temporal framework could be applied to the declarative process modelling in a consistent and efficient manner.

Originality/value

This paper is an extended version of the author’s earlier study. More details on the LTL and LWB are provided in the current study. The author introduces 17 new business rule templates and illustrates the utilisation of the new templates via a case study that belongs to a different domain area.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

Keywords

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