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This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the…
This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the U.S. (n = 459) and S. Korean (n = 625) managers. Results indicate that the factor structure of the power bases in the S. Korean sample was remarkably similar to those found in the U.S. sample; but whereas the U.S. managers reported relatively more position than personal power base, S. Korean managers reported relatively more personal than position power base. Similarities in the relationships of coercive, legitimate, and referent power bases to compliance, satisfaction, and dissimilarities in the relationships of expert and reward power bases to the criterion variables in the two samples are noted.
The first of two exploratory studies investigated the conflict management approaches of 310 South Korean leaders. Each recalled the most recent dispute they had…
The first of two exploratory studies investigated the conflict management approaches of 310 South Korean leaders. Each recalled the most recent dispute they had encountered either between two subordinates or between a subordinate and a person outside the workgroup (i.e., an outsider). Subsequently, they reported the techniques used to manage the dispute. As predicted, the leaders were more assertive in managing subordinate‐subordinate conflicts. Unexpectedly, they also pressed their own subordinates quite forcefully in the subordinate‐outsider disputes. The second study investigated subordinates' interventions in their leaders’ disputes. In these conflicts, subordinates adopted a low‐key shuttle diplomacy; meeting separately with the parties, listening to their opinions, transmitting these to the other side, and calling for each side's empathy and understanding.
Consumer expectation not only influences purchase decision but also post-purchase satisfaction and word-of-mouth (WOM). This study aims to develop theories of initial…
Consumer expectation not only influences purchase decision but also post-purchase satisfaction and word-of-mouth (WOM). This study aims to develop theories of initial expectation management by suggesting when it is desirable for new products to raise or lower consumer expectations. It systematically examines the interplay of product value and consumer heterogeneity in the dynamic process of new product diffusion under competition.
Drawing on traditional diffusion and choice models, this study develops an agent-based model to formalize and analyze how consumers’ initial expectations of a new product influence the interdependent processes of product sales, consumer satisfaction and WOM. The simulation analyses in controlled settings help understand the underlying mechanisms in a stepwise manner.
The results show that, although the optimal strategy for low-value products is to induce consumer expectations higher than product value, high-value products are better introduced with expectations formed close to it. The results also highlight an important drawback of “under-promising” strategies in reducing the base and volume of WOM. Further, the analysis illustrates how consumer heterogeneities in product valuation and initial expectation affect the effectiveness of expectation management. For high-value products, both heterogeneities reduce the effectiveness of the optimal strategy. For low-value products, however, value heterogeneity enhances the effectiveness, whereas expectation heterogeneity reduces it.
Firms introducing new products should be sensitive to how consumers value the product and form expectations about it. Different from firms that must rely on aggressive advertising to sell inferior products by building up high expectations, those with superior products can rely more on the power of consumer WOM, which is much less costly and thus gives them a competitive advantage. Firms should also pay attention to how diversified the consumers are in product valuation and expectation. The expectation management strategy is more effective when consumers form more similar expectations. Inferior firms may leverage this mechanism to neutralize their disadvantages.
The articulated mechanisms help push forward the research on new product diffusion and consumer expectation management. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to systematically analyze the impact of consumer heterogeneity on the effectiveness of expectation management.
The purpose of this paper was to provide Korean screen golf systems suppliers experiencing severe competition in an oversaturated market with effective brand marketing…
The purpose of this paper was to provide Korean screen golf systems suppliers experiencing severe competition in an oversaturated market with effective brand marketing strategies by examining the interrelationships among brand assets, brand trust, and brand loyalty.
This study used the convenient sampling method of non-probability and distributed questionnaires to 1,200 subjects over 20 years of age from ten screen golf playing facilities in Korea.
The following results were obtained: first, the subfactors of brand assets were identified to have significant influence upon brand trust in the following order: perceived quality, brand image, and brand awareness. Second, brand trust was identified to have a significant influence on brand loyalty. Lastly, the subfactors of brand assets were identified to have significant influence on brand loyalty in the following order: brand image, brand awareness, and perceived quality.
This paper provides useful information for developing an effective brand strategy in an oversaturated situation.