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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Cong Liu, Nak Hwan Choi and Baoku Li

This paper aims to examine the interesting but largely unexamined effects of pride-tagged money and surprise-tagged money on consumers’ spending and product-choosing behaviors.

1023

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interesting but largely unexamined effects of pride-tagged money and surprise-tagged money on consumers’ spending and product-choosing behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research utilizes experimental design and survey methods to collect data and the ANOVA and bootstrap analysis methods to verify the assumed hypotheses.

Findings

Study 1 shows that people with pride-tagged (vs surprise-tagged) money are more likely to spend the money for themselves (vs others) and the personal achievement-expression motive plays a mediating role between the pride-tagged money and self-spending behavior. Study 2 replicates the findings of Study 1 and suggests that people with pride-tagged money are less likely to spend the money for others (e.g. donating). Study 3 shows that people with pride-tagged (surprise-tagged) money are more likely to purchase a self-relevant (other-relevant) product than those with surprise-tagged (pride-tagged) money.

Practical implications

The current research has classified products into self-relevant products (e.g. fitness card, supermarket gift card and mobile game equipment) and other-relevant products (e.g. restaurant set meal, pizza, movie ticket and hot pot) on the basis of perceived self-relevance on the products. Therefore, marketers could frame certain conditions that elicit self-relevant versus other-relevant choices and manipulate self-relevant versus other-relevant primes to shift preferences in favor of certain options. For example, around graduation time, graduates often feel proud of their accomplishments. In this case, marketers could take advantage of that feeling with a message like “treat yourself”, which could prompt them to spend more money for themselves. In addition, the marketers selling other-relevant products (e.g. pizza and hot pot) might develop and promote advertisements that deliver information about “sharing with your friends”. For example, in 2016, Pizza Hut began to use its new slogan of “love to share” to convey the idea of “double happiness as a result of sharing”.

Originality/value

From a theoretical standpoint, first, this research contributes to the emotional accounting research by advancing the notion that money associated with different positive feelings could influence consumers’ spending behaviors in different ways. Second, the research distinguishes self-relevant products from other-relevant products. Third, it shows that people with pride-tagged money and those with surprise-tagged money have different preferences for products. Self-relevant products, such as fitness card, supermarket gift card and mobile game equipment, that represent a certain degree of independence are more used and/or consumed by consumers with pride-tagged money, whereas other-relevant products, such as restaurant set meal, pizza, movie ticket and hot pot, that involve the perceptions of interdependence are more bought by consumers with surprise-tagged money to share with others.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Nak Hwan Choi and Yen‐Soon Kim

Cheerful emotions are associated with achievement goals and quiescence emotions are associated with protection goals. The compatibility between consumer's goal orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

Cheerful emotions are associated with achievement goals and quiescence emotions are associated with protection goals. The compatibility between consumer's goal orientation and the types of emotions can be extended to linking the types of emotions with the types of the product attributes used in advertisement. Previous studies have kept silent about the roles of differences between types of feelings induced from different advertisements on evaluating target advertised. The purpose of this paper is to explore the different effects of emotions triggered by the advertising information on evaluating the target.

Design/methodology/approach

Restaurant attributes were classified into hedonic and performance and reliability attributes. In total, three types of scenarios and advertisements were developed to induce the specific affect and 165 undergraduate students were assigned to one of three groups, each group consisting of 55 participants. Different scenarios and advertisements were provided to different group members and participants filled out the questionnaire. ANOVA was used to verify differences of feeling types (cheerful and quiescent) induced from each scenario and advertisement. Multiple regression analysis was used to verify the effects of feeling types induced from each scenario and advertisement on restaurant evaluations.

Findings

The appeals created by using each attribute induce positive emotions differently between the types of attributes which have a strong influence on restaurant appraisal. That is, the appeal using hedonic and performance attributes helps consumers feel cheerful more than quiescence. In addition, the appeal by using reliability attributes helps consumers feel more quiescence than cheerful. Also the cheerful emotions have more positive influences on restaurant appraisal than quiescence emotions do when appealed by using hedonic and performance attributes. Furthermore, quiescence emotions have more positive influences on restaurant appraisal than cheerful emotions when appealed by using reliability attributes.

Practical implications

It is of great importance for restaurant marketers to induce positive affects useful for customers' evaluation in a competitive environment. This research provides the insights into the roles of specific emotions induced from three types of restaurant attributes on the evaluation. Marketers should examine what types of goals consumers have and make an effort to trigger emotions by carefully using product attribute to be advertised to be consistent with the goals.

Originality/value

The main theoretical contribution of this paper is to extend prior affect‐as‐information researches to the effects of specific feelings compatible with certain types of restaurant attributes on evaluation.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Nak Hwan Choi and Yen‐Soon Kim

Past researches have not explored the roles of staff's hotel identification on customer‐related behaviors and the relationship between hotel identification inducing…

1573

Abstract

Purpose

Past researches have not explored the roles of staff's hotel identification on customer‐related behaviors and the relationship between hotel identification inducing factors (trust in supervisor, job satisfaction, perceived external prestige) and hotel identification. The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of staff's hotel identification as a mediator of the relationship between hotel identification inducing factors and customer‐related behaviors. Through reviewing the existing literature concerned, the authors propose a research model involving staff's trust in the supervisor, job satisfaction, perceived external prestige, hotel identification, organization citizenship behavior, and customer satisfaction behavior and test it.

Design/methodology/approach

Hotel samples were from the south‐west area of Korea. Questionnaires were given to 250 staff of the hotels and 224 were returned with no problems. The sample was used to purify the measures and test their convergent and discriminant validity. The final measurement model includes 24 items across six constructs. The authors conducted exploratory factor analysis to show that there are convergent validities of measurement items related to each construct, and explored correlations between the constructs and calculated average variance extracted to verify that there are discriminant validities between constructs. LISREL 8.30 was used to verify the hypotheses.

Findings

The results provided evidence that hotel identification plays important mediating roles between them. Identification with the hotel will be strengthened when job satisfaction and trust in the supervisor becomes strong. Trust in the supervisor plays a more important role in forming hotel identification than job satisfaction does. The role of organization citizenship behavior on the customer satisfaction behavior is also explored. Hotel identification affects organization citizenship behavior which in turn positively affects customer satisfaction behavior. But the results do not provide support for a central role of perceived external prestige.

Practical implications

The study gives information to hotel managers who want to encourage customer‐related behaviors that they should induce staff's identification with the hotel by improving the level of trust in the supervisor and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

Little past literature has explored the role of hotel identification as the substance of staff action. This study explored the influence of hotel identification on staff behavior that results in contributing to theoretical development and hotel management.

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Nak Hwan Choi, Jae Min Jung, Tamir Oyunbileg and Pianpian Yang

This paper aims to investigate the moderating roles of emotional arousal levels (elevated vs mild) and emotional valence (positive vs negative) stemming from outcomes of…

1679

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the moderating roles of emotional arousal levels (elevated vs mild) and emotional valence (positive vs negative) stemming from outcomes of self-regulatory goal pursuit in understanding effectiveness of the product attribute type on product evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the literature on goals, emotions and behaviors, this research advances and tests hypotheses with two studies and an ANOVA.

Findings

This study shows that when consumers experience positive emotions stemming from the success of self-regulatory goals (approach vs avoidance), the impact of product attribute type on product evaluations is primarily driven by the emotional arousal levels and that the type of regulatory goals does not matter. In contrast, when consumers experience negative emotions stemming from the failure of goal pursuit, the impact of product attribute type is determined not only by the emotional arousal levels but also by the type of goals.

Practical implications

Marketing managers should use appropriate product attributes in advertisements that match with the consumers’ emotional arousal levels, emotional valence and regulatory goals by identifying customers’ specific emotional state and its source.

Originality/value

This study shows that emotional valence moderates the impact of emotional arousal levels on the effectiveness of product attribute types in advertisements, and that the regulatory goals as the source of such emotions matter only under the elevated negative emotions. The major contribution of this research is that to understand the impact of emotions stemming from regulatory goal pursuit on product evaluations, not only emotional valence but also emotional arousal levels and regulatory goals should be taken into consideration.

Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2005

Young-Myon Lee and Michael Byungnam Lee

While the origin of Korean Industrial Relations goes back 150 years when the country opened its seaports to foreign countries, it didn’t emerge as a field of study until…

Abstract

While the origin of Korean Industrial Relations goes back 150 years when the country opened its seaports to foreign countries, it didn’t emerge as a field of study until 1950s when academics began to write books and papers on the Korean labor movement, labor laws, and labor economics. In this paper, we sketch this history and describe important events and people that contributed to the development of industrial relations in Korea. Korean industrial relations in the early 20th century were significantly distorted by the 35-year-Japanese colonial rule (1910–1945). After regaining its independence, the U.S. backed, growth-oriented, military-based, authoritarian Korean government followed suit and consistently suppressed organized labor until 1987. Finally, the 1987 Great Labor Offensive allowed the labor movement to flourish in a democratized society. Three groups were especially influential in the field of industrial relations in the early 1960s: labor activists, religious leaders, and university faculty. Since then, numerous scholars have published books and papers on Korean industrial relations, whose perspectives, goals, and processes are still being debated and argued. The Korean Industrial Relations Association (KIRA) was formed on March 25, 1990 and many other academic and practitioner associations have also come into being since then. The future of industrial relations as a field of study in Korea does not seem bright, however. Issues regarding organized labor are losing attention because of a steadily shrinking unionization rate, changing societal attitude toward labor unions, and the enactment of new and improved laws and regulations regarding employment relationships more broadly. Thus, we suggest that emerging issues such as contingent workers, works councils and tripartite partnership, conflict management, and human rights will be addressed by the field of industrial relations in Korea only if this field breaks with its traditional focus on union and union–management relations.

Details

Advances in Industrial & Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-265-8

Abstract

Details

Transformation of Korean Politics and Administration: A 30 Year Retrospective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-116-0

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