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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

David A. Kirby and Nagwa Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000 undergraduates at the British University in Egypt, drawn from the University's three faculties.

Findings

The paper finds that, although three organizations, Ashoka Arab World, The Schwab Foundation and Yes Egypt, do much to support and promote social enterprise in Egypt, students are confused over what a social entrepreneur is or does and are largely unaware of existing Egyptian social entrepreneurs. The majority want a career in a multi‐national enterprise but a sizeable number are interested in establishing a social enterprise.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is small and limited to one institution but the findings corroborate theory and indicate a need for both greater awareness (information/knowledge), and support/encouragement.

Practical implications

There is a need to change the Egyptian education system to encourage students to think and behave more entrepreneurially, at the same time equipping them with the skills to start their own ventures on graduation.

Social implications

To promote a more socially aware, sustainable economy, Egyptian support organizations need to work with the country's universities to change the curriculum and the way students are taught.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first academic studies on entrepreneurship in Egypt. It will interest academics, educational policy makers and those concerned with the promotion of entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

David Kirby and Nagwa Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to determine the changes that are needed in order to create entrepreneurial graduate students and institutions in Egypt that are more relevant…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the changes that are needed in order to create entrepreneurial graduate students and institutions in Egypt that are more relevant to the needs of the country post revolution, by applying the theories of entrepreneurship education and intrapreneurship to Egyptian universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use existing research on entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial institutions, combined with the results of primary research on Egyptian students, to determine what the country's universities ought to do if they are to meet the challenge.

Findings

It is concluded that Egyptian universities will need to transform not only what they teach, but how they teach, whilst at the same time transforming their own institutions in order to create more entrepreneurial learning environments.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on the application of theory and a limited study in one institution. A before and after experiment is needed on a larger scale, over a longer time‐period and in a cross section of institutions.

Practical implications

The results should inform both policy formulation and the delivery of education in Egypt and the Region.

Originality/value

The conclusions have relevance for educational policy makers, university administrators and university academics, not just in business and economics but across all disciplines, and not just in Egypt and the Middle East but more broadly.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Kay Gallagher and James Pounder

Abstract

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Sohair I. Abou‐Elela, Fayza A. Nasr, Hala S. Doma, Hanan S. Ibrahim and Nagwa M. Badr

The main purpose of this study is to provide technical support for industrial firms in a new Egyptian industrial city in order to comply with the National Regulatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to provide technical support for industrial firms in a new Egyptian industrial city in order to comply with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into the public sewerage network.

Design/methodology/approach

An execution plan has been prepared to identify the existing environmental status of all the enterprises in the city. To accomplish the planned activities, relevant information was collected from the available records in the city. A unified questionnaire format has been designed for all enterprises including all activities and information required for this study. Accordingly, industries were classified according to their activities and sizes. The information was fed to the computer using a database to control data entry, analysis, and retrieval. Also, the work plan included industrial auditing, wastewater characterization, and application of pollution prevention measures and treatment of end‐of‐pipe.

Findings

Statistical analysis of the collected data showed that 119 enterprises were distributed among different industrial sectors. The size of factories according to number of employees is categorized as micro, small and medium. Characterization of industrial wastewater produced from 37 plants indicated that 50 percent thereof do not comply with the Egyptian environmental laws, for industrial wastewater discharge into the public sewage network. In this study, three factories were selected to solve their environmental problems. Treatability studies and/or pollution prevention approaches for the selected factories were carried out and the recommended solutions were implemented and proved to be cost‐effective.

Originality/value

This paper provides the guidelines for other factories in this Egyptian industrial city to be environmentally friendly via compliance with the local regulatory standards. Dissemination of the achieved results can be applied by other industrial cities in Egypt.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Pallavi Joshi and Kanika Varma

Soybean has great nutritional potential. Its high protein content makes it an alternative protein source to milk in situations where milk cannot be used due to allergic…

Abstract

Purpose

Soybean has great nutritional potential. Its high protein content makes it an alternative protein source to milk in situations where milk cannot be used due to allergic reactions or intolerance. However, the potential benefits of soybean might be limited by the presence of antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of dehulling and germination on the nutritive value of the soy flour and on the factors that could negatively affect the nutritional potential of the bean.

Design/methodology/approach

Soybean seeds were soaked for 24 h and allowed to germinate for one to three days. Soaked soybeans were manually dehulled and the flours obtained were evaluated for nutritional and antinutritional factors.

Findings

Dehulling and germination produce significant increase in crude protein and crude fiber and ash content (p = 0.05). Crude fat and starch content decreased, but the reduction was insignificant. Trypsin inhibitor levels were significantly lower after germination and dehulling of the seeds (p = 0.05).

Originality/value

Dehulling and germination are cost-effective processing techniques to improve the nutritional quality of the legume.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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