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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Smitha Gopinath, Nagesh Iyer, J. Rajasankar and Sandra D'Souza

The purpose of this paper is to present integrated methodologies based on multilevel modelling concepts for finite element analysis (FEA) of reinforced concrete (RC) shell…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present integrated methodologies based on multilevel modelling concepts for finite element analysis (FEA) of reinforced concrete (RC) shell structures, with specific reference to account for the nonlinear behaviour of cracked concrete and the other associated features.

Design/methodology/approach

Geometric representation of the shell is enabled through multiple concrete layers. Composite characteristic of concrete is accounted by assigning different material properties to the layers. Steel reinforcement is smeared into selected concrete layers according to its position in the RC shell. The integrated model concurrently accounts for nonlinear effects due to tensile cracking, bond slip and nonlinear stress‐strain relation of concrete in compression. Smeared crack model having crack rotation capability is used to include the influence of tensile cracking of concrete. Propagation and change in direction of crack along thickness of shell with increase in load and deformation are traced using the layered geometry model. Relative movement between reinforcing steel and adjacent concrete is modelled using a compatible bond‐slip model validated earlier by the authors. Nonlinear iterative solution technique with imposed displacement in incremental form is adopted so that structures with local instabilities or strain softening can also be analysed.

Findings

Proposed methodologies are validated by evaluating ultimate strength of two RC shell structures. Nonlinear response of McNeice slab is found to compare well with that of experiment available in literature. Then, a RC cooling tower is analysed for factored wind loads to study its behaviour near ultimate load. Numerical validation demonstrates efficacy and usefullness of the proposed methodologies for nonlinear FEA of RC shell structures.

Originality/value

The present paper integrates critical methodologies used for behaviour modelling of concrete and reinforcement with the physical interaction among them. The study is unique by considering interaction of tensile cracking and bond‐slip which are the main contributors to nonlinearity in the nonlinear response of RC shell structures. Further, industrial application of the proposed modelling strategy is demonstrated by analysing a RC cooling tower shell for its nonlinear response. It is observed that the proposed methodologies in the integrated manner are unique and provide stability in nonlinear analysis of RC shell structures.

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Baboo Y. R. Surnam

This paper aims to investigate the corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the Mauritian atmosphere over a three-year period. Atmospheric corrosion is a serious problem in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in the Mauritian atmosphere over a three-year period. Atmospheric corrosion is a serious problem in Mauritius.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon steel samples were exposed outdoors at various sites. Mass loss analysis was performed to determine the corrosion behaviour of the metal over the exposure period. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman tests were performed to investigate the formation of the corrosion products on the carbon steel surface.

Findings

It was found that the corrosion loss at two of the sites considered did not vary clearly according to the bilogarithmic law. Time of wetness was found to be a main factor affecting atmospheric corrosion in Mauritius. The corrosivity of the atmosphere was found to lie between categories C3 and C4, according to ISO 9223.

Originality/value

The results can be of essential help to the construction industry, especially as steel buildings are becoming very common in Mauritius. Moreover, as Mauritius is a tropical island, the results obtained can be useful in other tropical islands.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Paraskevas Argouslidis, Dionysis Skarmeas, Antonios Kühn and Alexis Mavrommatis

This paper aims to propose a framework for psychological reactance–triggered adverse effects of variety reductions in grocery product categories on shoppers’ patronage intentions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for psychological reactance–triggered adverse effects of variety reductions in grocery product categories on shoppers’ patronage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests this framework in two field studies with European shoppers.

Findings

Participants perceived mild (let alone aggressive or conspicuous) variety reductions as a threat to their prior freedom of choice (i.e. a precondition for the occurrence of domain-specific reactance). Through lower satisfaction with the reduced variety and anger towards the grocer, this threat, in turn, fostered adverse patronage intentions. Such effects depended on product category nature (utilitarian vs hedonic) and shoppers’ intrinsic need for variety, attitude towards private-label items and general proclivity towards experiencing reactance.

Research limitations/implications

By applying psychological reactance theory to a variety reduction context, this paper offers new implications for assortment reduction research. Certain limitations call for future reactance theory–framed inquiry.

Practical implications

The findings caution against traditional grocers’ drastic variety reduction policy and highlight conditions enabling assortment rationalisation without severely affecting freedom of choice.

Originality/value

Drawing on notions such as “the tyranny of choice”, critics have urged traditional grocers to drastically reduce variety. However, this paper shows that shoppers perceive variety reductions as threats to their prior freedom, which traditional grocers themselves educated them to expect and enjoy.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Liyu Yang, Rui Niu, Jinsong Xie, Bin Qian, Baishi Song, Qingan Rong and Joseph Bernstein

In today's electronic package development cycle, activities are managed by multiple participants in the supply chain, which might have different quality and reliability…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's electronic package development cycle, activities are managed by multiple participants in the supply chain, which might have different quality and reliability impacts to the end product. As a result, the reliability risk is much higher for companies who do not have insight into and/or control over the products received. The purpose of this paper is to show how design‐for‐reliability (DFR) approaches will come into play to manage the risk.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, DFR approaches for package development will be discussed from the perspective of the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). DFR practices through the package development cycle will be described based on key development modules. A case study for flip chip ball gris array package development using an advanced Cu/Low‐k silicon technology will be presented. Key measures to help control the quality and improve the reliability will be presented.

Findings

The proposed methodology significantly improves component and package reliability through the engagement in design, manufacturing, assessment and system evaluation.

Originality/value

The paper discusses the research results and the proposed DFR methodology will be helpful for fabless design houses, electronics manufacturing service (EMS) partners in the supply chain, and OEMs to manage the reliability of the products.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

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