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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Raja Swamy

This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004…

Abstract

This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 experienced and adapted to problems of water quality, scarcity, sanitation, and drainage. While numerous studies of conflicts over water tend to focus on issues of equitable access (see Anand, 2011), this chapter seeks to link the problem to the contested priorities driving land and resource use and access. I show how inland relocation negatively impacted households, making it harder to sustain livelihoods due to distance from the coast, while imposing new costs including that of commodified and scarce water, locational deficiencies, and the structural weaknesses of new housing. Placed in a historical context, the problem of water can be seen as an aspect of the long-term problem of ecologically unequal exchange pitting local artisanal fisher communities against an aggressively state-supported commercial fishery sector. The continuity I seek to hone in on is the pattern of imposing costs on fishers while enabling the alienation and privatization of coastal resources. Taking water not only as a vital substance presenting questions of access and quality but also as a problem of drainage and effluence enables a fuller consideration of how the unequal distribution of costs on poorer populations became legitimized in the name of recovery. At the same time, the chapter also highlights the manner in which fishers refused to remain docile subjects of power and used their agency and autonomy in adapting to and sometimes refusing the terms of relocation.

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Anthropological Enquiries into Policy, Debt, Business, and Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-659-4

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Raja Swamy

Anthropologists who study disasters share the widely acknowledged understanding that the effects of disasters tend to be more severe among economically and socially…

Abstract

Anthropologists who study disasters share the widely acknowledged understanding that the effects of disasters tend to be more severe among economically and socially marginalized communities than others. Moreover, while poverty intensifies the effects of disasters, it also places survivors at the mercy of policies they have little control over because they often tend to be socially and politically marginalized on account of their poverty. Social vulnerability in other words is a determining factor in shaping the vulnerability of populations to catastrophic events. While scholars tend to focus on the catastrophic event itself as the locus of analysis, it has also become amply clear that such studies need to be in conversation with those that explore the long-term trajectories and effects of social inequality. Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in southern India among artisanal fisher communities affected by the tsunami of 2004, this paper argues that the conceptual aims and claims of the vulnerability concept ought to be extended beyond the confines of the disaster (conceptualized as event), to the broader historical sweep of unequal social relations of production, exchange and consumption within which such communities find themselves. Positioned at a disadvantage in relation to powerful players such as the state, multilateral entities and private big capital, such communities nevertheless might also become important loci of possibility, as they bring to bear their own critiques of power, and fashion political strategies that often frustrate and undermine the conceptual frameworks and goals of contemporary capitalist-led development.

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Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Brenda Phillips, Dave Neal, Thomas Wikle, Aswin Subanthore and Shireen Hyrapiet

This study aims to conduct the first original research on mass fatality management in nearly 30 years.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to conduct the first original research on mass fatality management in nearly 30 years.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design captured local perspectives within a culturally‐appropriate context to examine roles and responsibilities of government officials within the State of Tamil Nadu and District of Naggapattinam (spellings reflect the most commonly‐used local choice), India. Research data were gathered in the context of the Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed nearly 300,000 lives across approximately 13 nations.

Findings

Local officials and residents faced unprecedented challenges during the hours immediately following the tsunami. These included removing debris that covered bodies, body identification, health and sanitation issues, and the necessity of creating mass graves. The findings identify prior experience with disasters, familiarity with the local area, the quality of pre‐existing networks among officials, a strong desire to rescue those yet living and the presence of linkages between government and non‐governmental organizations as critical factors affecting an expedited management process.

Practical implications

Practical implications include the value of general disaster training that can transcend specific circumstances, the pre‐establishment of mutual aid agreements, strong lines of horizontal and vertical cooperation and inter‐organizational coordination and an understanding of local culture and customs.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to scant social science understanding of mass fatality management processes and furthers a line of inquiry applicable to a wide variety of hazards such as pandemics, terrorism and natural events.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Arindam Biswas

Natural disasters not only cause dilapidated buildings and damaged infrastructure but also delay crucial aid for those affected in the event of a disaster and…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural disasters not only cause dilapidated buildings and damaged infrastructure but also delay crucial aid for those affected in the event of a disaster and post-disaster recovery. An institutionally well-managed post-disaster housing strategy provides opportunities for physical and mental healing of its occupant. The time requires occupiers to remain in the temporary housing varies with circumstances. This paper aims to review post-disaster housing scenarios in India in comparison to two Asian cases from Indonesia and Japan. The study focuses on understanding Indian post-disaster housing strategies through a comparative review.

Design/methodology/approach

The research selects coastal cities of Tamil Nadu state, where the post-disaster temporary shelter and rehabilitation was planned and implemented after the Tsunami in 2004. The Tsunami created havoc in Nagapattinam and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. Nagapattinam district reported 6,051 fatalities and many more homeless people. After the Tsunami, the government took measures to supply safe, secured and on-site shelter provisions. Surprisingly, many such shelters were never occupied. In many instances, people actually preferred to spend years in a temporary shelter rather occupying government housing. This paper evaluates such events and investigates India’s post-disaster shelter strategy against the derived best practices. This study is based on the sequential/logical reasoning and understanding of the facts. Discussions and findings from this study can be further generalised into a comprehensive policy discussion.

Findings

The paper finds that the manner of planning and design of post-disaster housing programmes influence medium- to long-term recovery of its occupant. A certain element of trade-off between implementation and quality of habitation results into compromises to achieving the desired outcome. When faced with socio-political, economic and financial constraints, the decision-makers are required to make trade-offs in deciding the manner and quantum of allocating resources. Coordination among these agencies is troublesome. It is true for all countries and there is no distinct answer to it. Public consultation and community participation in long-term rehabilitation are crucial to meet the aspiration of the local people.

Originality/value

The paper contributes in discussing a comparison of post-disaster housing rehabilitation between India and the two cases from Indonesia and Japan. As a review paper, the objective is to highlight the synthesis and overall understanding of post-disaster housing strategies from two cases and compare it with India.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Case study
Publication date: 7 July 2014

S. Nambissan, S. Ramakrishnan, S. Yegneswaran and G. Raghuram

Karaikal Port Private Limited (KPPL) was a special purpose vehicle created by MARG Group on February 18, 2006 to develop Karaikal port. According to the concession…

Abstract

Karaikal Port Private Limited (KPPL) was a special purpose vehicle created by MARG Group on February 18, 2006 to develop Karaikal port. According to the concession agreement signed for a period of 30 years, KPPL was given rights to Karaikal port on a Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis. It was to phase the building of the port based on short term, midterm and long term demand. By August 22, 2011, Phase I of construction had been completed, and Phase IIA was nearing completion. Though the project had not faced any major problems in its development, there were issues such as restrictions on the availability of land for any future expansion, limited scope of hinterland businesses, small scale environmental issues and others that needed to be addressed for the future development of the port.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Kesavan Devarayan, Padmavathi P. and Kopperundevi Sivakami Nagaraju

Development of thin film sensors with pH function for noninvasive real-time monitoring of spoilage of packed seafood such as fish, crab and shrimp are described in this…

Abstract

Purpose

Development of thin film sensors with pH function for noninvasive real-time monitoring of spoilage of packed seafood such as fish, crab and shrimp are described in this study. It is also the purpose of this study to enhance the leaching resistance of the sensors by using a suitable strategy and to quantitatively correlate the sensor’s halochromism with the total volatile amine.

Design/methodology/approach

To prepare halochromic sensors with better leaching resistance, biocompatible materials such as starch, agar, polyvinyl alcohol and cellulose acetate along with a halochromic dye were used to prepare the thin film sensors. These thin films were evaluated for monitoring the spoilage of packed seafood at room temperature, 4°C and −2°C up to 30 days. The halochromic sensors were characterized using UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy.

Findings

CIELab analyses of the halochromism of the thin film sensors revealed that the color changes exhibited by the sensors in response to the spoilage of seafood are visually distinguishable. Further, the halochromic response of the thin films was directly proportional to the amount of total volatile base nitrogen that evolved from the packed seafood. Excellent leaching resistance was observed for the developed thin film sensors. The halochromic property of the sensors is reversible and thus the sensors are recyclable. Besides, the thin film sensors exhibited significant biodegradability.

Originality/value

This study provides insights for use of different biocompatible polymers for obtaining enhanced leaching resistance in halochromic sensors. Further, the color changes exhibited by the sensors are in line with the total volatile amines evolved from the packed seafood. These results highlight the importance of the developed halochromic thin film sensors for real-time monitoring of the spoilage of packed seafood.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Kesavan Devarayan, Kopperundevi Sivakami Nagaraju and Padmavathi Pandiyan

The present study aims to describe the development of halochromic thin film sensors using mixed indicator dyes for monitoring the spoilage of packed seer fish.

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to describe the development of halochromic thin film sensors using mixed indicator dyes for monitoring the spoilage of packed seer fish.

Design/methodology/approach

Thin film was prepared using renewable polysaccharide incorporated with mixed indicator dyes. The thin film was characterized using ultraviolet visible and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The characteristics of the thin film were studied by analyzing the CIELAB and Red Green Blue values and biodegradability. The thin films were evaluated for real-time monitoring of the spoilage of packed seer fish.

Findings

The thin film sensors were found to exhibit excellent halochromism. The color changes were visible and distinguishable. The sensors responded efficiently for real-time monitoring of spoilage of fish by showing unique color changes.

Originality/value

This study provides promising mixed indicator that exhibits different colors in the alkaline pH. Also the present study reveals a potential combination of materials for preparation of halochromic sensors that can be used for monitoring the spoilage of packed seer fish in real time.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Abstract

Details

Anthropological Enquiries into Policy, Debt, Business, and Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-659-4

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Case study
Publication date: 10 July 2014

Chandrasekaran K, Sachin Bhardwaj, Shipra Jain, Rohit Singh Sahani, Akansha Baliga, Prashant Sarkar and G. Raghuram

The case looks at the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project from its inception in the year 1860 to 2012 when the Pachauri Committee was about to submit a report on the…

Abstract

The case looks at the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project from its inception in the year 1860 to 2012 when the Pachauri Committee was about to submit a report on the latest canal alignment (4A) as suggested by the Supreme Court. It takes the reader through a series of developments starting from the initial proposals and alignments to formation of Sethusamudram Corporation Limited and highlights the impact of National Environmental Engineering Research Institute Report, Tsunami Detailed Project Report, and Subramaniam Swamy Report on various issues including environmental, political, religious, security and legal. The case brings out multi-dimensional aspects involved in an Indian infrastructure project and gives both students and the faculty an opportunity to explore the complexities faced by the Indian decision makers in today's context.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

Nisha Sahai Achuthan

The purpose of this paper in respect of tsunami‐affected villages in Tamil Nadu undertaken in a field trip in June 2005, and updated through online research is to first…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper in respect of tsunami‐affected villages in Tamil Nadu undertaken in a field trip in June 2005, and updated through online research is to first provide an overview of discrete, ongoing initiatives by different stakeholders – NGOs; Government and UNDP; Government's announcement to have a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean in place by mid‐2007, paralleled by a partnership of different stakeholders to launch a pan‐India village‐info‐kiosk movement in July 2005.

Design/methodology/approach

The first step was to identify existing reports/programmes on disaster preparedess and mitigation, and then track the progress of the implementation of initiatives by different stakeholders. While highlighting the need for coordinated action, the author also proposed initiating a pilot project in two‐three pre‐selected village‐sites, which in turn could be upgraded to make them “Multi hazard‐ready”.

Findings

While the initiatives by different stakeholders were aimed at covering the targeted villages, as per their respective plans – there was as yet little visible attempt to privilege the tsunami‐affected villages, as was being done with their recovery efforts. Significantly, there was no mention of the proposed post tsunami Central Recovery Resource Center (CRRC) at Chennai “to meet the need for a coordinated action by all stakeholders” in the course of the discussions of early June, nor a reference to the potential for such a forum to deliberate on a coordinated Multi hazard, early warning action plan along the lines highlighted through vertical and horizontal linkages.

Practical implications

While the above activities were not part of a grand design – conceptualized, implemented and overseen by an over arching coordinating agency, nevertheless, together they add up to a broad based comprehensive DM resource base/infrastructure upon which hopefully an agency like the INCOIS in coordination with different stakeholders – possibly under the aegis of the Chennai CRRC – could build up its mandated tsunami – multi hazard – early warning system and its dissemination to the village‐level in TN.

Originality/value

The paper serves as a “one window resource guide” to provide at least the contours of a road map pointing to one of the few possible ways on how to go about a risk management plan in a coordinated and focused mode.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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