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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Nadeem Ahmad, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol and Sergij Vambol

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals also…

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Abstract

Purpose

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals also generate a large amount of effluent like other industries containing harmful and toxic pharmaceutical residual compounds due to uncontrolled use of drugs, besides others. The occurrence of antibiotic in the environment is of utmost concern due to development of resistant genes. These get mixed up with ground and surface water due to lack of proper treatment of hospital wastewater. The effect of pharmaceutical compounds on human society and ecosystem as a whole is quite obvious. There are no strict laws regarding discharge of hospital effluent in many countries. Contrary to this, the authors do not have appropriate treatment facilities and solution to solve day by day increasing complexity of this problem. Moreover, water discharged from different health facilities having variable concentration often gets mixed with municipal sewage, thus remains partially untreated even after passing from conventional treatment plants. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the occurrences and fate of such harmful compounds, need of proper effluent management system as well as conventionally adopted treatment technologies nowadays all around the globe. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need of the study, the motivation for the study, aim, objectives of the research and methodology to be adopted for such a study.

Design/methodology/approach

Hospital effluents consisting of pathogens, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, etc, including phenols, detergents, toxic elements like cyanide and heavy metals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), gadolinium (Gd), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), among others are commonly detected nowadays. These unwanted compounds along with emerging pollutants are generally not being regulated before getting discharged caused and spread of diseases. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents are assessed keeping in the view the threat posed to ecosystem. Several research studies have been done and few are ongoing to explore the different characteristics and compositions of these effluent streams in comparison so as to suggest the suitable conventional treatment techniques and ways to manage the problem. Several antibiotic groups such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfa pyridine, trimethoprim, metronidazole and their metabolites are reported in higher concentration in hospital effluent. The aquatic system also receives a high concentration of pharmaceutical residues more than 14,000 μg/L from treatment plants also and other surface water or even drinking water in Indian cities. Many rivers in southern parts of India receives treated water have detected high concentration drugs and its metabolites. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream. The complexity of management and treatment as well need to be addressed with following issues at priority: composition and characterization of effluent, compatible and efficient treatment technology that needs to be adopted and the environment risk posed by them. The problem of drugs and its residues was not seen to be reported in latter part of 20th century, but it might be reported locally in some part of globe. This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays various industries and monitoring the efficiencies of existing treatment systems. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need, the motivation and objectives of the study and methodology can be adopted for such a study.

Findings

The compiled review gives a complete view about the types of antibiotics used in different health care facilities, their residue formation, occurrences in different ecosystems, types of regulations or laws available in different counties related to disposal, different type of treatment technologies, innovative combined treatment schemes and future action needed to tackle such type of effluent after its generation. The thesis also highlights the use of certain innovative materials use for the treatment like nanoparticles. It also discusses about the residues impact on the human health as well as their bioaccumulative nature. If the authors relate the past to the current scenario of pharmaceutical compounds (PhACs) in the environment, the authors will certainly notice that many diseases are nowadays not curable by simple previously prescribed Ab. Many research projects have been done in European countries that have shown the risk of such residues like Pills, Sibell, Poseidon, No pills, Neptune, Knappe, Endetech, etc. In the previous section, it was mentioned that there are no stringent laws for hospital wastewater and in many countries, they are mixed with domestic wastewater. Many difficulties are there with this research due to complex analysis, detection of targeted Ab, affecting waterbodies rate of flow, nature of treatment varies with season to season. The way nature is being degraded and harmful effect are being imposed, it is important to take immediate and decisive steps in this area. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a nursery for antibiotic-resistant systems, hence monitoring with great attention is also needed. Many trials with different treatment process, in combination, were considered. Many countries are paying great attention to this topic by considering the severity of the risk involved in it.

Research limitations/implications

Previous studies by several scientists show that the pharmaceutical residues in the discharged effluent displayed direct toxic effects, and sometimes, detrimental effects in the mixture were also observed. The discharge of untreated effluent from hospitals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the natural ecosystem poses a significant threat to human beings. The pharmaceuticals, like antibiotics, in the aquatic environment, accelerate the development of the antibiotic-resistant genes in bacteria, which causes fatal health risks to animals and human beings. Others, like analgesics, are known to affect development in fishes. They also degrade the water quality and may lead to DNA damage, toxicity in lower organisms like daphnia and have the potential to bioaccumulate. A few commonly used nanoadsorbents for water and wastewater treatment along with their specific properties can also be used. The main advantages of them are high adsorption capacity and superior efficiency, their high reusability, synthesis at room temperatures, super magnetism, quantum confinement effect as well as eco-toxicity. This review will focus on the applicability of different nanoscale materials and their uses in treating wastewater polluted by organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the use of various nanoadsorbents and nano-based filtration membranes is also examined.

Practical implications

A number of different pharmaceutical residues derived from various activities like production facilities, domestic use and hospitals have been reported earlier to be present in groundwater, effluents and rivers, they include antibiotics, psycho-actives, analgesics, illicit drugs, antihistamine, etc. In past few years environmental scientists are more concerned toward the effluents generated from medical care facilities, community health centers and hospitals. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents have been assessed keeping in the view the common threats pose by them to the entire ecosystem. In this study, seven multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics, high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into a sewage treatment plant (STP). Based on test results, two out of seven treatment technologies, i.e. MBR and CW effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in tertiary level by these two treatments.

Social implications

This review has aimed to identify the emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutical residues, highly consumed chemicals that are present in the hospital effluent, along with their physicochemical and biological characteristics. In this, the main objective was to review the occurrences and fate of common drugs and antibiotics present in effluents from hospital wastewaters. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream are among the major issues (Akter et al., 2012; Ashfaq et al., 2016; García-Mateos et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014; Mubedi et al., 2013; Prabhasankar et al., 2016; Sun et al., 2016; Suriyanon et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016; Wen et al., 2004). This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Originality/value

This study many multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into an STP. Based on test results, two out of different treatment effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in the tertiary level by these two treatments were studies followed by ozonation and ultraviolet-ray treatment.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Nadeem Ahmad Khan, Saif Ullah Khan, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Izharul Haq Farooqi, Arshad Hussain, Sergij Vambol and Viola Vambol

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to cover some aspects about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to large and variety of antibiotics available in the market nowadays it is difficult to control its use, thereby risking the whole ecosystem and its components. The regulation pattern is variable depending upon the various factors in different countries. The permissible limit of these emerging pollutants found in sewage as compared to in hospital effluent streams having active pharmaceutical ingredients is very narrow and is a debatable issue.

Findings

The disparity in the available legislation for hospital waste management in different countries makes it difficult to compare pro’s and con’s of methods adopted. Strict laws need to be framed for hospital wastewater management and its treatment, as it contains harmful compounds in higher concentrations resulting in development of resistant genes. The guideline applicable nowadays makes it clear that, specific management guidelines with respect to HWW, but also indicate certain characteristics that can be represented to specify their nature and indicator.

Research limitations/implications

Determination of effluent characteristic for each specialized treatment need to be analyzed for meeting the framed regulatory standards. Up-gradation of existing treatment facilities, adopting new technologies and improving operation, maintained is a viable option. As there are no specific treatment schemes available hence combination and optimization of treatment methods may solve the problem to certain extent.

Practical implications

There is some flexibility also there so that law framework can be modified accordingly. For any health facilities direct discharges into natural water bodies it effluent need to follow national discharge standards. These are quite strict as compared to indirect standards and generally not meet by such facilities. This is quite logical because they are not being monitored or treated by municipal systems.

Social implications

The law indicates that hospital needed to collect and treat effluent according to the treatment standards. But on other hand the law was made making it consideration about the HWW collection in water bodies.

Originality/value

The best way of management as described, is to treat HWW onsite-dividing into primary, secondary and tertiary. The document also provides details about sludge disposal, possible reuse, including the application of new and innovative treatment technologies for HWW. It also provides guidance for minimum approach for HWW management because developing countries patients do not have proper sanitation facilities.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Asma AbdulRahim Chang, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik and Navaz Naghavi

By taking the theory of entrepreneurial legacy as the baseline, this study explores the various aspects of succession planning in indigenous family businesses especially the role…

Abstract

Purpose

By taking the theory of entrepreneurial legacy as the baseline, this study explores the various aspects of succession planning in indigenous family businesses especially the role of female family members in succession and conflicts in family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is qualitative in nature and adopts narrative inquiry to explore the aspects of succession planning. In doing so, the study utilizes an in-depth interviewing technique with nine participants who run their family-owned firms which are mostly in their second or third generation for analysis.

Findings

The findings are concurrent with the literature that indicates a lack of strategic succession planning although ordinary or natural succession does occur in some firms. The study also reports a lack of consideration for female members in succession, daughters in particular, for traditional family firms (FFs) in contrast to entrepreneurial FFs.

Research limitations/implications

The study has many implications for family-owned firms in Pakistan as they need to align their family business with the theory of entrepreneurial legacy and its three strategic activities in order to ensure the longevity of their business.

Originality/value

Exploring how succession planning takes place in family indigenous family businesses and what is the role of female family members in succession and conflicts in family businesses are original contributions of this study.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Nadeem M. Firoz, Ahmad S. Maghrabi and Ki Hee Kim

In every country, specific cultures exist. In comparison most businesses have a variety of different cultures because there are different people working within the company. People…

9311

Abstract

In every country, specific cultures exist. In comparison most businesses have a variety of different cultures because there are different people working within the company. People with the same religion, language, beliefs and values share a culture. This, in turn, is shared with all types of people in the same cultural system. Here the author examines the art of managing people who are from different cultures, taking into account their different set of values, traditions, and ways of achieving various goals. It exposes some of the problems inherent in the host (local) country where a home (parent company) manager refuses or is incapable of internalizing the local culture in which the expatriate operates. Business tactics are enforced and implemented differently depending on the culture the decision‐maker is from. Therefore, one should always think globally and act locally.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

A.Z. Zaher, Khalid K. Ali and Kh. S. Mekheimer

The study of the electro-osmotic forces (EOF) in the flow of the boundary layer has been a topic of interest in biomedical engineering and other engineering fields. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The study of the electro-osmotic forces (EOF) in the flow of the boundary layer has been a topic of interest in biomedical engineering and other engineering fields. The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative mathematical model for electro-osmotic boundary layer flow. This type of fluid flow requires sophisticated mathematical models and numerical simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of EOF on the boundary layer Williamson fluid model containing a gyrotactic microorganism through a non-Darcian flow (Forchheimer model) is investigated. The problem is formulated mathematically by a system of non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). By using suitable transformations, the PDEs system is transformed into a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations subjected to the appropriate boundary conditions. Those equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method.

Findings

The boundary layer velocity is lower in the case of non-Newtonian fluid when it is compared with that for a Newtonian fluid. The electro-osmotic parameter makes an increase in the velocity of the boundary layer. The boundary layer velocity is lower in the case of non-Darcian fluid when it is compared with Darcian fluid and as the Forchheimer parameter increases the behavior of the velocity becomes more closely. Entropy generation decays speedily far away from the wall and an opposite effect occurs on the Bejan number behavior.

Originality/value

The present outcomes are enriched to give valuable information for the research scientists in the field of biomedical engineering and other engineering fields. Also, the proposed outcomes are hopefully beneficial for the experimental investigation of the electroosmotic forces on flows with non-Newtonian models and containing a gyrotactic microorganism.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

M. Ikram Ul Haq, Abdul Khaliq Alvi, Muhammad Akram Somroo, Nadeem Akhtar and Ashfaque Ahmed

Current research addresses the issue of brand loyalty while identifying its potential predictors. The research also examines the direct impact of brand credibility on brand…

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Abstract

Purpose

Current research addresses the issue of brand loyalty while identifying its potential predictors. The research also examines the direct impact of brand credibility on brand loyalty and attitude toward brand and the direct impact of attitude toward brand and on brand loyalty respectively. Moreover, this research examines the mediating effect of attitude toward brand for the relationship of brand credibility and brand loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional research. Data is collected with the help of structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique is used for gathering the data from 220 Samsung users from Lahore, Pakistan.

Findings

Results indicate that brand credibility has a positive influence on attitude toward brand and brand loyalty respectively. Attitude toward brand partially intervenes the relation of brand credibility and brand loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations of the current research. It includes only the customers of Samsung mobile. Data is collected from the customers of Lahore, Pakistan, only. This research can also be conducted among the customers of OPPO, Vivo and Apple and compare the results of current research with the results of OPPO, Vivo and Apple, which will provide the useful insights. This kind of research will also be conducted among the customers of other kinds of products like FMCGs, luxury items and even on the organizations of industrial products for generalizability. In future, customers of other cities of Pakistan like Karachi, Multan and Faisalabad may also be included for generalization.

Practical implications

This research provides a practical framework for the marketing department of Samsung mobiles and explains how brand credibility shape the brand loyalty through the path of attitude toward Samsung mobiles. So, Samsung mobiles can maintain current policies regarding brand credibility and attitude toward brand for attaining the better level of brand loyalty. Longitudinal research studies on these variables will also be helpful for the marketing department of Samsung for checking the level of propose relationships periodically and comparing it with previous results which will provide the true picture about propose relationships. If the value of propose relationships increases or remains at same level, then Samsung can maintain the current policies about these variables and if the value of these variables decreases, the Samsung will improve the current policies about these variables.

Originality/value

This research contributed in theory of reasoned action by proposing the brand credibility, attitude toward brand and brand loyalty in single model. Before this, these relations were explained separately. This research adds to the body of literature by checking the mediating effect of attitude toward brand for the relationship of brand credibility and brand loyalty.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2054-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2019

Hammed Abiodun Ogunseye, Sulyman Olakunle Salawu, Yusuf Olatunji Tijani, Mustapha Riliwan and Precious Sibanda

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamical behavior of heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid flow through parallel horizontal sheet with heat-dependent…

74

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamical behavior of heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid flow through parallel horizontal sheet with heat-dependent thermal conductivity and magnetic field. The effects of thermophoresis and Brownian motion on the Eyring‒Powell nanofluid heat and concentration are also considered. The flow fluid is propelled by squeezing force and constant pressure gradient. The hydromagnetic fluid is induced by periodic time variations.

Design/methodology/approach

The dimensionless momentum, energy and species balance equations are solved by the spectral local linearization method that is employed to numerically integrate the coupled non-linear differential equations.

Findings

The response of the fluid flow, temperature and concentration to variational increase in the values of the parameters is graphically presented and discussed accordingly.

Originality/value

The validity of the method used was checked by comparing it with previous related article.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Sohail Ahmad Khan, Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Faisal Javed and Ahmed Alsaedi

This study aims to examine the flow characteristics of Ree–Eyring fluid between two rotating disks. The characteristics of heat transfer are discussed in presence of viscous…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the flow characteristics of Ree–Eyring fluid between two rotating disks. The characteristics of heat transfer are discussed in presence of viscous dissipation, heat source/sink and nonlinear radiative heat flux.

Design/methodology/approach

Nonlinear flow expressions lead to ordinary ones through adequate similarity transformations. The ordinary differential system has been tackled through optimal homotopic method. The impact of different flow variables on the velocity field, entropy generation rate and temperature fields is graphically discussed. The surface drag force and heat transfer rate are numerically examined via various pertinent parameters.

Findings

By minimization of values of stretching parameter and Brinkman number, the entropy generation rate can be controlled. The entropy generation rate enhances for higher values of magnetic parameter, while the Bejan number is decreased via magnetic parameter.

Originality/value

No such work is yet published in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Sohail Ahmad Khan, Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Faisal Javed and Muhammad Waqas

This paper aims to address the flow features of Ree–Eyring fluid between two rotating disks subject to the magnetic field. Heat transfer features are discussed through viscous…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the flow features of Ree–Eyring fluid between two rotating disks subject to the magnetic field. Heat transfer features are discussed through viscous dissipation and nonlinear thermal radiation. Impact of thermophoresis and Brownian movement are elaborated. Physical characteristics of entropy generation optimization in nanofluid with homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reaction are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The nonlinear system leads to ordinary one through the implementation of adequate transformation and then tackled analytically for a convergent series solution by homotopy analysis method.

Findings

The prime objective of the present research has been given to investigate entropy generation in Ree–Eyring fluid flow between two rotating disks subjected to the magnetic field. Vital features, namely, Brownian motion and thermophoresis have been addressed. Total entropy rate is computed using the second law of thermodynamics.

Originality/value

No such work yet exists in the literature.

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Ch Rajendra Prasad and Polaiah Bojja

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are used in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are used in the proposed protocols Model 1 and Model 2. Model 1 intends to improve the data transmission rate and Model 2 intends to reduce energy consumption in the WBANs. These models are simulated for fixed deployment and priority-based data transmission, and performance of the network is analyzed under four constraints on WBANs.

Design/methodology/approach

Advancements in wireless technology play a vital role in several applications such as electronic health care, entertainment and games. Though WBANs are widely used in digital health care, they have restricted battery capacity which affects network stability and data transmission. Therefore, several research studies focused on reducing energy consumption and maximizing the data transmission rate in WBANs.

Findings

Simulation results of the proposed protocol exhibit superior performance in terms of four network constraints such as residual energy, the stability of the network, path loss and data transmission rate in contrast with conventional routing protocols. The performance improvement of these parameters confirms that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and consumes less energy than traditional algorithms.

Originality/value

The Model 1 of the proposed work provides maximum data extraction, which ensures reliable data transmission in WBANs. The Model 2 allocates minimal hop count path between the sink and the sensor nodes, which minimizes energy consumption in the WBANs.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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