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This chapter seeks to contribute to a better understanding of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) use of practices for the purpose of organizational sustainability by…
This chapter seeks to contribute to a better understanding of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) use of practices for the purpose of organizational sustainability by highlighting the need for conducive performance measures and standards attached to NPO funding sources.
A review of literature for the UK Non-profit organization sector and NPO performance measures. The review structures literature as it relates to the non-profit sector and their relation to societal impact of human social service (HSS) non-profit organizations, non-profit performance measures, and processes of knowledge sharing in application of organizational evaluation.
This chapter provides a review of gaps in the literature referring suitable performance measurement and assessments suitable for the unique culture and approaches to performance measures of non-profit organizations. Future research implications suggest research in order to comprehend processes and procedures of performance measures inclusive of knowledge sharing and the processes of how non-profit learn, share, and evaluate internal and external to the NPO sector.
The value of this chapter is relevant for the public, government, and corporations to support efficient and effective ways in appropriating funds and defining successful NPO’s for external funders to invest.
This paper aims to explore if employee engagement (EE) influences the relationship quality of long-term partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPO) and for-profit…
This paper aims to explore if employee engagement (EE) influences the relationship quality of long-term partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPO) and for-profit organisations (FPO) and offer a theoretical framework for NPO and FPO long-term partnerships’ success based on the literature.
The study resorts to qualitative research, and through 45 in-depth structured interviews with NPO and FPO employees, this paper intends to investigate the theoretical framework using a hypothetico-deductive method.
The findings support the authors’ theoretical framework, where EE influences satisfaction, trust and commitment to the partnership. The results highlight that organisations creating high levels of satisfaction, trust and commitment may have a higher propensity for long-term partnerships.
This study offers a novel theoretical framework for developing long-term partnerships between NPO and FPO. However, each variable’s extent of influence still needs to be further explored, creating a fertile ground for future research in this area.
Este estudio explora si el compromiso de los empleados influye en la calidad de la relación a largo plazo entre organizaciones sin fines de lucro (NPO) y organizaciones con fines de lucro (FPO) e propone un sistema teorico para el éxito de las asociaciones a largo plazo de NPO y FPO baseado en la literatura.
El estudio recurre a la investigación cualitativa, y a través de 45 entrevistas estructuradas en profundidad con empleados de NPO y FPO, este artículo tiene la intención de examinar el sistema teorico empleando un método hipotético-deductivo.
Los resultados apoyan la afirmación de que el compromiso de los empleados influye en la satisfacción, la confianza y el compromiso con la asociación. Los resultados muestran que las organizaciones que crean altos niveles de satisfacción, confianza y compromiso pueden presentar una mayor propensión a las asociaciones a largo plazo.
Este artículo ofrece un nuevo sistema teorico para el desarrollo de asociaciones a largo plazo entre NPO y FPO. Sin embargo, el alcance de la influencia de cada variable aún debe ser explorado, lo que crea un terreno fértil para futuras investigaciones en esta área.
Este artigo explora se o envolvimento dos colaboradores influência a qualidade da relação de parcerias de longo prazo entre organizações sem fins lucrativos (NPO) e organizações com fins lucrativos (FPO) e propõe um quadro conceptual para o sucesso das parcerias de longo prazo entre NPO e FPO baseado na literatura.
Este estudo recorre à investigação qualitativa e, através de 45 entrevistas em profundidade com funcionários de NPO e FPO, este artigo pretende examinar o quadro teórico utilizando um método hipotetico-dedutivo.
As conclusões apoiam a afirmação de que o envolvimento dos colaboradores influencia a satisfação, a confiança e o compromisso com a parceria. Os resultados mostram que as organizações que criam elevados níveis de satisfação, confiança e compromisso podem apresentar maior propensão a parcerias de longo prazo.
Este artigo oferece um novo quadro teorico para o desenvolvimento de parcerias de longo prazo entre NPO e FPO. No entanto, a extensão de influência de cada variável necessita de análise adicional, o que cria um terreno fértil para futuras investigações nesta área.
- Non-profit organisations
- For-profit organisations
- Long-term partnerships
- Employee engagement
- Relationship quality
- In-depth interviews
- Qualitative research
- Voluntary and non-profit sector
- Third sector
- Organizaciones sin fines de lucro
- Organizaciones con fines de lucro
- Asociaciones a largo plazo
- Compromiso de los empleados
- Calidad de la relación
- Entrevistas en profundidad
- Investigación cualitativa
- Sector voluntario y sin fines de lucro
- Tercer sector
- Organizações sem fins lucrativos
- Organizações com fins lucrativos
- Parcerias a longo prazo
- Envolvimento dos Colaboradores
- Qualidade da Relação
- Entrevistas em profundidade
- Investigação qualitative
- Sector voluntário e sem fins lucrativos
- Terceiro sector
This study aims to examine why cause‐related marketing (CRM) can develop, and how can the social system and enterprise link with nonprofit organization (NPO) to form a…
This study aims to examine why cause‐related marketing (CRM) can develop, and how can the social system and enterprise link with nonprofit organization (NPO) to form a closed path to prompt the maximization for three parties' benefits, in order to provide a general framework to explore the mechanisms of power and action for CRM.
The logic deduction approach was used for an overview and conceptual paper based on research experience.
The paper stresses CRM should be a good marriage between a nonprofit and its sponsorship firm both organizations stand to benefit. Its mechanism of power is the result of the combined effect by the enterprise's push, NPO's pull and social system's supervision, and mechanism of action is under the social system's supervision, enterprise linked with NPO to form a closed path.
A major weakness is that the influences of CRM on the enterprise and the NPO are only explained qualitatively, there are short of some data to test the validity of theories above. Further, investigation into this construct in the context of CRM would be helpful in understanding what are the role and the impact of CRM on firm and NPO in this domain. The main implication is that, this study presents an example and direction of how the enterprise, NPO, and social system are able to maximize their economic and social benefits.
This study contributes to examine the inter mechanisms of CRM from the perspectives of enterprise and NPO. The findings of this study are useful to and provide managerial implications for administrators of enterprise, NPO and social system aiming to make optimal decisions under the dual driven of institutional rationality and economic rationality.
This paper aims to explore how volunteers choose one nonprofit organisation (NPO) rather than another. It identifies the drivers of choice, and the relationship between…
This paper aims to explore how volunteers choose one nonprofit organisation (NPO) rather than another. It identifies the drivers of choice, and the relationship between them, to enable NPOs to strengthen their volunteer recruitment.
A total of 51 service-delivery volunteers were interviewed, drawn from 5 leading NPOs. A laddering technique was used to understand the context in which the choice of organisation was made and the underlying personal needs and goals. The data was analysed using means-end chain (MEC) methodology to uncover the relationships between, and hierarchy of, the decision drivers.
Brand, cause, and role were found to be important in meeting personal needs and goals through volunteering. The paper makes three contributions. Firstly, it presents a clearer understanding of NPO choice through adopting an integrated theoretical perspective. Secondly, it identifies the decision-making process and key relationships between the attributes of the NPO, the consequences for the volunteer, and the connection to their personal needs. Finally, the study makes an important contribution to literature through presenting a new conceptual framework of volunteer decision-making in the nonprofit context to act as a catalyst for future research.
This research is both impactful through, and limited by, its context selection: regular service-delivery volunteers from five NPOs within two causes. The paper presents a rich research stream to extend this understanding to other nonprofit stakeholders, other causes including medical volunteer, and smaller NPOs.
In an increasingly competitive nonprofit environment with a growing need to support the vulnerable in society, NPO sustainability is dependent on their ability to recruit new volunteers. NPOs compete not only with other organisations with similar causes but also those offering similar volunteering roles, and other uses of time to meet personal needs such as sport, career, or community. Understanding how volunteers make their choice of NPO rather than other uses of their time is of vital importance to make the most effective use of scarce marketing resources. This paper contributes to that practitioner understanding.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to extend the understanding of generic motivations of volunteers to consider specific choice of NPO. Unlike previous literature, the authors bring together theory on brand, cause, and role with personal needs. The authors are also the first to apply MEC methodology to the nonprofit context to uncover the personal underlying, less salient reasons behind NPO choice and the relationship between them.
Cause-related marketing (CRM) involves firms working in partnership with non-profit organizations (NPOs). While CRM offers a range of potential benefits to NPOs, some…
Cause-related marketing (CRM) involves firms working in partnership with non-profit organizations (NPOs). While CRM offers a range of potential benefits to NPOs, some managers are reluctant to partake in these ventures. The purpose of this paper is to uncover their concerns and highlight what can be done to improve their experience of CRM.
This paper uses semi-structured interviews with 160 UK NPO managers and a stakeholder theory framework to document their experience of the CRM process and investigate what they can do to improve it.
It identifies three types of concerns relating to issues of: organizational identity, alliance risks, and the prioritization of NPO stakeholders. The analyses also uncover a number of strategies used by NPO managers to safeguard their organisations.
By focusing not only on the measurable outcomes of CRM but also on its processes, the authors provide a more thorough analysis of CRM and its impact on NPOs.
By emphasizing potential NPO stakeholder dissent, the authors' study provides a list of pitfalls that may help NPO managers select more suitable corporate partners, come better prepared to the negotiation table, improve the selection and training of negotiators, and generally manage the CRM process more efficiently.
Studies of CRM have been predominantly from the corporate perspective. Consequently, the understanding of CRM from an NPO viewpoint remains limited both theoretically and empirically. The authors' paper complements this literature by investigating NPO managers' concerns about the process of CRM.
Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most…
Literature suggests that branding effectiveness measures are present in for-profit sectors but lacks such comprehensive measures for the non-profit sector. Moreover, most of the branding effectiveness measures are either based on brand image approach or on brand identity approach. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to propose an integrated branding effectiveness measurement metrics for non-profit organizations (NPOs).
Judgmental and simple random sampling techniques are used for data collection. The final sample comprises 150 respondents including donors, volunteers, beneficiaries and media who were administered interview schedules. Based on the ratings given by the respondents regarding branding effectiveness parameters of the five NPOs of a major city in Northern India, branding effectiveness score of each NPO is computed. The branding measures adopted by NPOs rated high are selected in the proposed brand effectiveness metrics.
The proposed metrics encapsulates brand identity parameters such as management profile, vision, culture, as well as brand image parameters such as brand awareness, brand understanding, brand association of the stakeholders, etc. The metrics also link the two through brand performance parameters.
Multiple hierarchical structures of government infested with bureaucracy and lack of specialized staff with focused approach have reduced the effectiveness of their socio-development programs in emerging economies. This has led to an increase in number, diversity and impact of NPOs that compete for resource generation. Branding is a powerful tool for NPOs not only for resource generation but also for driving the social goals. The branding effectiveness metrics would help NPO managers reinforce the internal identity by increasing the cohesion and the capacity of the organization as well as create a strong brand image by garnering the support of multiple stakeholders through mutual trust thereby creating a greater social impact.
The uniqueness of the study stems from the fact that the proposed branding effectiveness measurement metrics in non-profit environment encapsulates brand image, brand identity and brand performance parameters.
This paper analyses the extent to which public sector (PS) and non-profit (NP) organisations' reports and reporting processes adopt an IR framework as model of dialogical…
This paper analyses the extent to which public sector (PS) and non-profit (NP) organisations' reports and reporting processes adopt an IR framework as model of dialogical accountings and accountability (DAA) for dialogue with stakeholders.
The paper provides an overview of accountings and accountability in PS and NP organisations. The concept of dialogical communication with stakeholders is studied. The theoretical framework of DAA is supported by empirical investigation through the case studies of two organisations, one PS and one NP organisation. To contextualize findings from the case study, Estonian private schools' published management reports were analysed to explore integrated reporting (IR) elements. The paper ends with discussion and conclusions.
NP and PS aimed to improve their reporting practices. Reporting in the PS organisation were based on traditional accounting and accountability models which work in stable and non-competitive environment. IR, as a format for DAA, could bring added value to the PSO, but the mechanisms to make it work are missing. The NP organisations were already spontaneously practising some IR elements. After learning about IR, the NP organisation committed to IR principles and benefited from its guidelines. Implementing IR together with the concepts of dialogical communication, the organisations could create and benefit from better cooperation with their stakeholders both internally and externally.
The case study research does not allow for generalisation of the results, which are limited to the case organisations' context and based on their management's subjective opinions. The limitation of qualitative content analysis as a research method in current study, is its possible subjectivity. The limitation is represented by the fact that only one year's data was for analysis.
This paper can be useful to any PS or NP institution willing to enhance its public accountability and developing dialogue with stakeholders for creation and innovation. This study serves to inform organisations that are searching for ways to improve awareness of IR for communication and co-creation purposes.
This study could help in defining the framework for a larger scale IR-related study in finding trends in PS and NP organisations. The study is a platform for exploring the aspects of developing dialogue with different stakeholders of IR implementation and application process.
The conceptual novelty of the research lies in connecting IRF and dialogical communication concept. The focus is to understand how IR expedites dialogical communication in light of IR framework. In current paper, we observe the presence of IR elements in public sector and non-profit sector organisations' reports.
Acknowledgement of the social impact created by organisations has become an increasingly frequent discussion among practitioners. The importance of such value creation…
Acknowledgement of the social impact created by organisations has become an increasingly frequent discussion among practitioners. The importance of such value creation cannot be understated, yet in an increasingly competitive funding environment, the need to articulate “true” value is paramount. The purpose of this paper is to examine how Australian and US managers of non-profit organisations (NPOs) and foundations view the measurement of the social impact of NPOs.
The paper includes 19 in-depth interviews of non-profit professionals in the USA and Australia. Respondents included non-profit managers, foundation managers and consultants in both countries.
The in-depth interviews found that in both countries respondents generally agreed that objective measures of impact are desirable, but recognised the difficulties in developing objective assessment frameworks enabling comparisons across the non-profit sector. These difficulties, as well as the implications for developing assessments of social value for NPOs, are discussed. This paper demonstrates that there is an opportunity to reposition reporting expectations. The NPO sector can pool together and build on each other’s strengths and market their outcomes as a collective entity. A sector-wide approach provides potential for much needed within-sector mentoring and will showcase the rich and varied outcomes generated by NPOs.
This research compares viewpoints in two Western countries, thus offering at least an exploratory examination of social impact assessment from an international perspective. Additionally, this research shows commonalities in terms of what is valued and what is most difficult for non-profits when determining social impact.
The purpose of this paper is to test the association between various stakeholder groups and whether nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have obtained accountability…
The purpose of this paper is to test the association between various stakeholder groups and whether nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have obtained accountability accreditation. In particular, the study intends to answer the following research questions: Does the governance of an NPO have any impact on the likelihood that the organization obtains certification? Does an NPO’s investment in executives affect certification efforts? Does employing a professional fundraiser play a significant role in whether an organization seeks accreditation? and Are certification efforts influenced by the relative sophistication of donors of the NPO?
Data were analyzed by examining information provided in the Internal Revenue Service revised Form 990, Part VI specifically from organizations holding the Standards for Excellence® (SFX) certification. This study uses a size- and sector-matched sample of 228 NPOs (half of which with the SFX certification and half without) to examine the association between accountability and governance in NPOs in both univariate and multivariate contexts.
The findings of this study indicate that organizations with strong internal governance (indicated by their answers to the governance-related questions in Form 990) are more likely to have obtained certification when compared to a group of nonprofits that did not receive the certification. In addition, nonprofits that invest more in their executives are more likely to receive SFX certification. Interestingly, external stakeholders (donors making restricted gifts, and professional fundraisers) are not associated with the likelihood of holding the SFX certification.
Even though the study has attempted to control for factors that may have contributed to the findings (e.g. a size- and sector-matched peer for each NPO that secures the SFX seal in the final sample), it is not feasible to perfectly tease out all alternative explanations for the findings. Endogeneity issues may still be present given that the sample and comparison groups possess significantly different governance characteristics (i.e. governance scores, board independence, investments on executives).
The positive association between organization governance and investment in executives and the NPO’s certification credentials implies that certification may be used by these certified organizations as a signaling mechanism for strong governance. This would be consistent with the positive stakeholders’ reactions to NPOs’ accountability certifications that have been documented by Feng et al. (2016). The findings should help NPO board and staff members, researchers, and regulators to further understand the association between stakeholder groups and whether NPOs have obtained accreditation.
A thorough search of the relevant literature suggests that this study is the first one to link the association between stakeholder influence (proxied by the NPO’s governance strength, investments in executives, employing a professional fundraiser and donor sophistication) and an NPO’s decision to seek accountability accreditation. The findings should provide insights to stakeholders and researchers interested in examining the value of third-party accountability certifications and signaling mechanisms in NPOs and inform regulators regarding significant stakeholder influence on NPOs’ accreditation decision-making process. The results of this study also add to the body of literature on certification programs for NPOs.
The evolution of the not‐for‐profit organisation sector in the Israeli economy is described, combining economic theory together with history and ideology to provide a multi‐dimensional explanation of this important phenomenon. Why some activities are performed by not‐for‐profit organisations instead of, or in addition to, for‐profit firms and government institutions is outlined, and explanations for the existence of NPOs in various fields of public service are offered.