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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Bernice Davies, Anona Armstrong and Maree Fitzpatrick

In 2013, the National Mutual Acceptance (NMA) of single ethical review was introduced into the Australian public health sector to address the timeliness of multisite…

Abstract

In 2013, the National Mutual Acceptance (NMA) of single ethical review was introduced into the Australian public health sector to address the timeliness of multisite clinical trials. A clinical trial is usually designed to test the effects of an experimental therapeutic product. While all research involving humans must comply with ethical guidelines, clinical trials testing products in Australia are also subject to stringent regulatory controls making the need to meet trial milestones critically import. Commercial clinical trials offer participating research sites substantial financial and clinical advantages. Concerns that bureaucratic processes have impeded commercial investment have influenced countries, including Australia, to introduce single ethical review, where one ethics review is accepted at multiple sites participating in the same research project. Although a central tenet of the NMA is the standardization of the behaviors and procedures of research review, concerns of inconsistency remain. This raises the question of whether the NMA does lead public healthcare agencies to adopt similar research governance practices.

A questionnaire survey was undertaken to explore the current experiences (n = 149) of the NMA in Victorian public health agencies, and 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore expectations of the future of the NMA. The findings indicated that, while there was conformity to many of the process requirements of the NMA, a persistent focus on the needs of each individual healthcare agency rather than on complying with the national system weakened pressure on agencies to adopt standardization.

The NMA has the capacity to be a powerful tool in delivering quality clinical trial outcomes, maximize research resources and create dependable performance metrics if consistent policies and governance are followed.

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Applied Ethics in the Fractured State
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-600-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Daragh O’Reilly, Kathy Doherty, Elizabeth Carnegie and Gretchen Larsen

The purpose of this paper is to explore how music consumption communities remember their past. Specifically, the paper reports on the role of heritage in constructing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how music consumption communities remember their past. Specifically, the paper reports on the role of heritage in constructing the cultural memory of a consumption community and on the implications for its identity and membership.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon insights from theories of cultural memory, heritage, and collective consumption, this interpretive inquiry makes use of interview, documentary, and artefactual analysis, as well as visual and observational data, to analyse an exhibition of the community’s popular music heritage entitled One Family – One Tribe: The Art & Artefacts of New Model Army.

Findings

The analysis shows how the community creates a sense of its own past and reflects this in memories, imagination, and the creative work of the band.

Research limitations/implications

This is a single case study, but one whose exploratory character provides fruitful insights into the relationship between cultural memory, imagination, heritage, and consumption communities.

Practical implications

The paper shows how consumption communities can do the work of social remembering and re-imagining of their own past, thus strengthening their identity through time.

Social implications

The study shows clearly how a consumption community can engage, through memory and imagination, with its own past, and indeed the past in general, and can draw upon material and other resources to heritagise its own particular sense of community and help to strengthen its identity and membership.

Originality/value

The paper offers a theoretical framework for the process by which music consumption communities construct their own past, and shows how theories of cultural memory and heritage can help to understand this important process. It also illustrates the importance of imagination, as well as memory, in this process.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2018

Mildred M. G. Olivier, Eydie Miller-Ellis and Clarisse C. Croteau-Chonka

Underrepresented in medicine individuals have historically been discouraged to consider surgical subspecialties and instead encouraged toward primary care fields thus…

Abstract

Underrepresented in medicine individuals have historically been discouraged to consider surgical subspecialties and instead encouraged toward primary care fields thus representing less than 2% of the workforce in these areas. In the last 15 years, the Rabb-Venable Excellence in Research program has worked with medical students, residents, and fellows in preparing them to become ophthalmologists, medical researchers, academicians, or private practice. While the Rabb-Venable program centers on expanding the number of ophthalmologists, pipeline programs exist to enhance the representation of URM individuals in other medical specialties to decrease health disparities.

This chapter discusses the Rabb-Venable program, funded by the National Institutes of Health and the sponsorship of the National Medical Association (NMA), has combined a research competition at the annual meeting of the NMA. The Rabb-Venable program is geared toward increasing the number of (URM) in the field of ophthalmology and increasing the number of URM participants in academic medicine. The program has a twofold mission of supporting the development of the clinical specialty of ophthalmology and creating physician researchers through leadership, academic excellence, professionalism, service, and mentorship. Exploration of the different types of eye diseases that disproportionally affect minority groups are identified. In addition the medical students who have been part of the program and are eligible to apply have had an 84% rate of matching in ophthalmology.

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Gloria Weng Kei Kam and Eilo Wing Yat Yu

The purpose of this paper is to understand the regime–youth relationship in Macao. It will use the framework by Weiss and Aspinall (2012) to explain the rise of Macao…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the regime–youth relationship in Macao. It will use the framework by Weiss and Aspinall (2012) to explain the rise of Macao youth activism and the de-harmonization of their relationship with the authorities.

Design/methodology/approach

According to Weiss and Aspinall, the emergence of youth movements in Asia after the Second World War was based on four factors: the development higher education systems, youth’s collective identities, youth’s trust in the ruling regime and transnational flows of activist ideas and inspirations. This paper analyzes the rise of Macao youth through the four dimensions by Weiss and Aspinall.

Findings

The rise of Macao youth movement is attributable to the development of tertiary education, youth’s collective identities, lowered trust in the regime and international inspiration. Better-educated Macao youth have been increasing their demands for political participation while their distrust in the MSAR government pushes their mobilization. The rise of youth movements around the world after the millennium inspires Macao youth activists’ political mobilization. Interestingly, Macao’s youth movement has been gradually integrated into the opposition forces instead of campaigning by youth organizations. In response to youth activism, the MSAR government, however, could not alleviate the youth’s hostility against the authorities, but its repressive approach intensified the regime-youth tension.

Originality/value

The paper includes interviews with leaders of young activists for their understanding of youth movement in Macao. It can serve the purpose for comparative study of youth movement among Asian societies.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Radiah Othman and Rashid Ameer

This paper proposes the concept of sustainability as a forward looking strategic intent of the organizations, which requires financing capabilities and investment. We…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes the concept of sustainability as a forward looking strategic intent of the organizations, which requires financing capabilities and investment. We structure the relationship between financial capabilities, product-led and process-led innovation approaches and corporate financial performance, in particular, we attempt to answer an important question: is sustainability-corporate performance relationship contingent upon the access and use of the financial resources?

Design/methodology/approach

We used a sample of Top 100 Sustainable global companies and tested several hypotheses regarding the likely financing policies of sustainable firms underlying their product-led and process-led sustainability approaches and financial performance.

Findings

Our results show that investment in R&D and capital expenditures provide a reasonable prediction of financing strategy chosen by the sample companies. Furthermore, our findings show that surplus (deficit) in financial capabilities influence the financing trajectory of the companies. Our results show that financial capabilities of companies, that is, financing choice (conservative vs. aggressive) matter for sustainable development, and sustainability-corporate performance relationship is contingent upon the use of financial resources.

Practical implications

These findings imply that organizations should rethink themselves and be encouraged to evaluate their own progress on the path of sustainability in terms of protection of the environment and the advancement of those communities in which they operate.

Originality/value

This paper develops a classification of global companies’ sustainable development approaches using their investment in R&D and capital expenditures. Furthermore, we also develop classification of companies using their financing capabilities, that is, surplus (deficit) to highlight their impact on the sustainable-corporate performance link.

Details

Ethics, Governance and Corporate Crime: Challenges and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-674-3

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Abstract

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Applied Ethics in the Fractured State
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-600-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2009

Qingqing Ren, Tao Zhao, Hong Pan and Jing Wang

A novel chitosan derivative, O-acrylamidomethyl-HTCC (NMA-HTCC) was synthesized in two steps. First, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) was…

Abstract

A novel chitosan derivative, O-acrylamidomethyl-HTCC (NMA-HTCC) was synthesized in two steps. First, N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) was prepared by introducing 2,3-epoxy propane trimethlyl ammonium chloride(GTA) on the amino groups of chitosan. HTCC was further modified by reacting with N-methylolacrylamide (NMA) on the primary alcohol groups (C-6) on the chitosan. The effect of modified chitosan on the dyeing properties of cotton fabric was studied by measuring the dye uptake and K/S values of the treated substrates with different treating processes under salt-free conditions. The antimicrobial activity of modified chitosan against Escherichia coli and the durability of antimicrobial activity was assessed using percentage reduction rate of the bacterium with different treating processes. The results indicate that modified chitosan treated cotton fabric shows increased dye uptake, K/S values and fastness, and its antimicrobial activity and durability are much better than chitosan treated cotton fabric.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2010

Zonggen Qin and Weiping Tu

The purpose of this paper is to modify the surface property of polyacrylate latex films using only small amounts of fluorinated acrylate and to optimise the results of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to modify the surface property of polyacrylate latex films using only small amounts of fluorinated acrylate and to optimise the results of such a modification.

Design/methodology/approach

The core‐shell particles with polyacrylate rich in core and containing fluorinated polymer rich in shell are prepared by a two‐stage semi‐continuous emulsion polymerisation under kinetically controlled conditions. The surface properties of the latex films produced from the core‐shell particles are investigated by optical goniometer measurement as well as contact angle method.

Findings

The latex films produced from the core‐shell particles exhibited surface energy of around 10 mN/m. The angle resolved X‐ray photoelectron spectrum measurements showed an increased average fluorine concentration in a surface layer thickness of a few nanometres, when compared to the fluorine concentration in the bulk.

Research limitations/implications

Methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate and N‐methylol acrylamide monomers are used as co‐monomer to form the shell with fluoroalkyl methacrylate. By preparing core‐shell emulsion with a fluoropolymer in the shell phase, the surface property of polyacrylate latex films is efficiently modified by using only small amounts of fluorinated acrylate monomer.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to improving the surface property of polyacrylate latex films.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing surface property of polyacrylate latex films is novel and can find numerous applications in surface coating.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Corinne Cortese and Jane Andrew

Multinational resource companies (MRCs) are under pressure to become responsible corporate citizens. In particular, stakeholders are demanding more information about the…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational resource companies (MRCs) are under pressure to become responsible corporate citizens. In particular, stakeholders are demanding more information about the deals these companies negotiate with the host governments of resource-rich nations, and there is general agreement about the need for industry commitment to transparency and the benefits that a mandatory disclosure regime would bring. This paper examines the production of one attempt to regulate disclosures related to payments between MRCs and the governments of nations with resource wealth: Section 1504 of the Dodd–Frank Act.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on Boltanski and Thévenot's (2006) Sociology of Worth, the authors examine the comment letters of participants in this process with a view to revealing how stakeholder groups produce justifications to promote their positions vis-à-vis transparency to regulators.

Findings

The authors show how justifications were mobilised by various constituents in an effort to shape the definition of transparency and the regulatory architecture that governs disclosure practices. In this case, the collective recognition of desirability of transparency enabled the SEC to suture together the views of constituents to create a shared understanding of the role of the common good as it relates to transparency.

Originality/value

This paper explores an alternative approach to the consideration of comment letters advanced during the process of disclosure-related rule-making. The authors show how a sophisticated regulator may be able to draw together elements stemming from different constituents in a way that appeals to a shared sense of the “common good” in order to produce Final Rules.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Applied Ethics in the Fractured State
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-600-6

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