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Article

Galen. T. Trail and Yu Kyoum Kim

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The…

Abstract

Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Christopher M. Harris, Gary C. McMahan and Patrick M. Wright

This study aims to directly examine the relationships between various aspects of human capital and relationship stability (overlapping tenure) and team performance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to directly examine the relationships between various aspects of human capital and relationship stability (overlapping tenure) and team performance. Additionally, this study aims to contribute to strategic human resource management and human capital research by placing an emphasis on human resources (i.e. people) and their influence on performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The direct and interaction effects of human capital and overlapping tenure on performance are examined with a sample of 230 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's basketball teams in the 2006‐2007 season. A third party measure of basketball players' human capital is aggregated to the team level to examine its relationship with team performance. Additionally, the human capital of the head coach of each team and its relationship with team performance is examined. Relationship stability is assessed by measuring overlapping tenure, which is defined as the amount of time individuals have worked together towards a common performance outcome. Team level overlapping tenure among players and the overlapping tenure between players and their head coach are measured and their relationships with team performance are tested. Finally, the interaction effect of players' human capital and players' overlapping tenure on team performance is examined. Hierarchical regression is used to test each hypothesis.

Findings

The results find a positive relationship between both players' and coaches' human capital and performance. Also, players' overlapping tenure is positively related to performance. Lastly, the interaction between players' human capital and players' overlapping tenure is not significantly related to performance.

Originality/value

There has been a growing interest in human resources (i.e. people) as a source of competitive advantage. This study employs a unique sample of NCAA men's basketball teams to theoretically develop and empirically test relationships among human capital, overlapping tenure, and performance. Different from previous studies, an objective, third party measure of human capital and measurements of overlapping tenure are utilized and their direct and interaction effects on team performance are examined. The results of this study point to the importance of acquiring and retaining high levels of human capital.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Tyler Custis, Meghan Hoben and Payton Larsen

The purpose of this paper is to explore why the stagnant version of amateurism that is being used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its member…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why the stagnant version of amateurism that is being used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its member institutions to limit student–athlete compensation is creating labor law and antitrust violations, and ultimately contributing to a black market in college athletics.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative portion of the examination uses a review of historic and recent cases regarding labor law and antitrust violations and applies them to the college athletic industry. Furthermore, the quantitative portion creates a scaled revenue sharing calculation utilizing financial reports from university athletic departments and corresponding professional revenue-sharing agreements to discern an approximate value of a student–athlete’s participation.

Findings

The authors find that the current structure of the NCAA and regulatory framework perpetuate injustice for those who lack a voice in the system. Furthermore, the research shows a wage disparity of millions of dollars creating a lack of free market and black-market tensions to reach free market equilibrium.

Social implications

This research creates reasoning to restructure the NCAA system to adjust for modern commercialization and profits of the industry.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the legal and regulatory abuses by the NCAA, and demonstrates how the compensation gap created by these legal violations is creating a strain on free market flow ultimately leading to a black-market effect in the industry.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part

Luke A. Fedlam

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete…

Abstract

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete himself. This rush to judgment, however, is not entirely accurate. Black student-athletes who have the talent and ability to play professional sports are hyper-focused on getting to the next level, and the system around them is built to accommodate that focus. A lack of educational, financial, and legal structures creates a dynamic that sets the athlete up for failure. This chapter will focus on the legal and financial realities that Black males face when transitioning into and out of professional sports. In order to shift the current paradigm, this chapter will also provide solutions for both the athlete and the coaches, friends, family members, and agents who surround the athlete, in order to empower the athlete to positively impact himself, his family, and his community.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Article

Ryan K Zapalac, James J Zhang and Dale G Pease

There are few studies examining the marketing characteristics of intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators. The purpose of this paper is to examine intercollegiate…

Abstract

There are few studies examining the marketing characteristics of intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators. The purpose of this paper is to examine intercollegiate women's volleyball spectators from the perspectives of sociodemographics, market demand and consumption. Spectators (N=265) from seven intercollegiate women's volleyball games at three National Collegiate Athlete Association Division-I universities participated in the study. The findings indicate that there is a need to emphasise the market demand factors when marketing intercollegiate women's volleyball games.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Hyejin Bang, Michael A. Odio and Thomas Reio

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine the influences of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, and perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine the influences of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC)) on individuals’ volunteer intention for future sporting events, and second, to investigate the moderating effects of brand reputation and moral obligation in the relationships between TPB constructs and volunteer intention.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 107 volunteers at the 2009 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament. Moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationships of the model.

Findings

Subjective norm and PBC were significantly associated with volunteer intention. Brand reputation was found to be a moderator in the relationships between attitude and volunteer intention and between subjective norm and volunteer intention, and moral obligation moderated the relationship between PBC and volunteer intention.

Practical implications

Sporting events/volunteer managers must understand individuals’ decision-making process with respect to volunteering at sporting events and important insights into new strategies to increase volunteer recruitment, retention, and reliability.

Social implications

Because sporting event managers face considerable obstacles in recruiting and retaining a volunteer workforce, an enhanced understanding of volunteering may highlight new ways to remove obstacles to being a volunteer to the benefit of individuals and society.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the importance of brand reputation and moral obligation as moderators of the effects of the TPB constructs on volunteer intention in the context of sporting events.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Nels Popp, Chad McEvoy and Nicholas Watanabe

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between growth in social media engagement, as defined by annual percentage increase in Facebook Likes and Twitter…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between growth in social media engagement, as defined by annual percentage increase in Facebook Likes and Twitter Followers, of US college athletics departments and outcome metrics of attendance and ticket revenue.

Design/methodology/approach

Regression models were developed to determine the amount of variance in dependent variables (attendance and ticket revenue) could be explained by several independent variables, including team success, team history, conference affiliation, Facebook Likes, and Twitter Followers. Four years of data were collected for each variable.

Findings

The regression models predicted between 53 and 88 percent of the variance among dependent variables. Social media measures, however, were not statistically significant predictors of attendance or ticket revenue.

Research limitations/implications

The number of Facebook Likes and Twitter Followers were used as a proxy measure of social media engagement. While growth in Likes and Followers are a popular and convenient gauge of social media engagement, they represent a single measure of a multi-faceted construct. Also, data were limited to public university athletics departments, which are required to disclose annual ticket revenue. Findings may not be generalizable to other sport organizations.

Practical implications

The findings suggest growing social media interactions may not necessarily achieve marketing objectives related to increasing attendance or ticket revenue.

Originality/value

While numerous studies have examined the impact of social media on sport organizations, no prior studies have attempted to draw empirical connections between social media marketing efforts and revenue measures within sport organizations. This study represents the first to begin to examine this relationship.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part

Samuel R. Hodge

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of…

Abstract

Empirical studies reveal Black male student-athletes have both positive and negative experiences on predominantly White college and university campuses. Mindful also of race-based stereotypic beliefs about Black male student-athletes in collegiate sports, these phenomena warrant further discourse and scrutiny. Critical race theory is a race-centered theoretical and analytical framework that has shaped discourse on race and racism in intercollegiate athletics in recent years. Discourse in this chapter is therefore grounded in the narrative of critical race theory and focuses primarily on the academic and athletic plight of Black male student-athletes matriculating at predominantly White colleges and universities with National Collegiate Athletic Association affiliation.

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Book part

Collin D. Williams

In the 1980s, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic and personal development of its…

Abstract

In the 1980s, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic and personal development of its participants (Gaston-Gayles, 2009). Despite garnering publicity, fostering school pride, providing entertainment, and generating billions of dollars in revenue for the Division I-affiliated institutions they attend (Sylwester, M., & Witosky, T. (2004). Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up. USAToday.com , February 18. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/2004-02-18-athletic-spending- cover_x.htm), student-athletes are prevented from receiving compensation beyond athletic scholarships by the NCAA’s amateurism principle. Consequently, the ethical question at the center of college sports is: how do participants benefit from the college experience relative to their non-sport peers? While the NCAA typically reports benefits, research that disaggregates the data by sport, division, race, and sex reveals long-standing and pervasive inequities (Harper, Williams, & Blackman, 2013). Accordingly, this chapter juxtaposes NCAA’s rhetoric, principles, and espoused goals with the lived realities of the most populous demographic group within high revenue-generating collegiate sports, Black male student-athletes.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Book part

Vicki A. Williams

This chapter focuses on the career paths of African American women in collegiate athletics. Through a review of literature and policy analysis, three overarching themes…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the career paths of African American women in collegiate athletics. Through a review of literature and policy analysis, three overarching themes emerged and is the focus of this chapter: (1) challenges and barriers African American women encounter in pursuing careers in collegiate athletics with a particular focus on extant inequities of African American women in administrative and head coaching positions; (2) professional sport development programs tailored to improve career opportunities for African American women and other minorities; and (3) strategies to alleviate challenges and barriers African American women endure in collegiate athletics.

Details

Women of Color in Higher Education: Changing Directions and New Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-182-4

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