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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Johannes Lohner and Norbert Konrad

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with…

Abstract

This article reviews the international literature of the last two decades on self‐injurious behaviour in prisons and jails and introduces the risk factors associated with this behaviour. Studies from a variety of countries investigated different samples (e.g. in jails or prisons; female or male inmates). We only chose those studies using a control group of inmates without self‐injurious behaviour. The findings on potential risk factors for self‐injurious behaviour are largely contradictory because of the differences in sample selection and dependent variables (deliberate self‐harm without suicidal intent vs. suicide attempts). We also discuss some methodological problems in predicting self‐injurious behaviour.

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International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2004

Emilia Pecheanu

This paper presents a new solution for conceptually modeling the training‐domain knowledge of intelligent computerassisted instructional (ICAI) systems. Various cognitive…

Abstract

This paper presents a new solution for conceptually modeling the training‐domain knowledge of intelligent computerassisted instructional (ICAI) systems. Various cognitive demands from learners impose various modalities of presenting and structuring the knowledge to be taught. This paper is presenting a theoretical framework allowing to develop coherent, flexible models for the training‐domain knowledge of an ICAI system. A case study and an authoring‐system are also presented, in order to describe the main features of the modeling methods. This new approach in ICAI systems’ domain‐knowledge structuring and representation can offer a solution to the problem of adapting the instructional system interaction to users with different learning styles and needs.

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Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Wei Liu, Yanhong Tian, Lei Yang, Chunqing Wang and Lining Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Design/methodology/approach

A N2 atmosphere at room temperature, 60°C, 100°C and 130°C, or an air atmosphere at room temperature were utilized in this study. The solder balls were composed of Sn‐2.0Ag‐0.75Cu‐3.0Bi, and 120 μm in diameter. The surface finish of one pad of the joints was 4.0 μm Au/0.1 μm NiFe/0.01 μm Ta, another pad was made of Cu plated with 3.0 μm Au. The laser reflow process time was controlled to within 10 ms. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to identify the oxidation condition of LR solder joints with or without protection from a N2 atmosphere at room temperature. The appearance and cross‐sections of the joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at different temperatures were evaluated using SEM analysis.

Findings

Oxidation of LR solder joints from an air atmosphere was extremely severe, and the surfaces of solder were rough as compared with joints protected by a N2 atmosphere. Au‐rich phases and needle‐like AuSn4 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfaces of the solder and the pads. As the temperature of the N2 atmosphere was increased above 100°C, almost all of the Au‐rich phases disappeared. More needle‐like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces, as compared with that in joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and 60°C. In addition, the orientation of the IMCs had clearly changed.

Originality/value

The results may provide a guide for controlling oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of micro‐solder joints during the LR process, and improving the properties of joints between solder and pads with Au surface finishes, by regulating the protective atmosphere.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Abstract

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Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

M.C. Loo and K. Su

Due to oxide formation at the die backside, excessive non‐wetting and voiding can occur especially for the larger die (100K sq. mil) by gold eutectic die attach. Such…

Abstract

Due to oxide formation at the die backside, excessive non‐wetting and voiding can occur especially for the larger die (100K sq. mil) by gold eutectic die attach. Such voiding can cause die lift‐off and cracking. Ag/glass seems to be a promising candidate. However, it has some shortcomings. First, solder seal hermeticity reject may occur due to nickel diffusing through gold metallisation and being oxidised on the surface of the multilayer package. Secondly, for those devices requiring backside contact, gold metallisation on the die backside becomes the barrier for the reaction between the silicon and the glass. The adhesion may be degraded. The factors which may overcome these shortcomings will be discussed.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2018

Tara J. Shawver and Todd A. Shawver

Unethical business decisions and accounting fraud have occurred as a result of lapses in ethical sensitivity and judgment. The Association for Certified Fraud Examiners…

Abstract

Unethical business decisions and accounting fraud have occurred as a result of lapses in ethical sensitivity and judgment. The Association for Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) estimates that a typical organization loses 5% of its total yearly revenues to fraud; globally this translates into losses of over three trillion dollars each year (ACFE, 2016). Regulations such as the Dodd-Frank Whistleblower Program and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act encourage reporting wrongdoing to mitigate fraud losses. Although there are many studies that explore the characteristics of whistleblowers, there are few studies that have examined the impact of an individual’s level of moral reasoning on whistleblowing intentions for financial statement fraud. This study offers several contributions over prior research by exploring the impact of two measures of moral reasoning (P-score and the N2-score) on decisions to whistleblow to either internal or external reporting outlets. This study finds that an individual’s level of moral reasoning impacts whistleblowing intentions to internal management, but an individual’s level of moral reasoning does not impact decisions to whistleblow externally. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.

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Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-973-9

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2014

Cynthia Blanthorne, Hughlene A. Burton and Dann Fisher

This chapter investigates the effect of moral reasoning of tax professionals on the aggressiveness of their reporting recommendations. The findings of the study indicate…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the effect of moral reasoning of tax professionals on the aggressiveness of their reporting recommendations. The findings of the study indicate moral reasoning influences the aggressiveness of tax reporting decisions separate from the influence of client pressure. As the level of moral reasoning increases, the aggressiveness of the reporting position is found to0 decrease. Contrary to prior research, client pressure is not related to tax reporting aggressiveness. Failure to observe this relationship may signal a shift in behavior resulting from the intense public and regulatory scrutiny at the time of data collection which was in the immediate aftermath of the Enron scandal.

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Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-838-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

Hussein M.A. Alawi

Self‐service food stores are a new emerging form of retail technology in Saudi Arabia. By focusing on relevant institutional, planning and operational dimensions, this…

Abstract

Self‐service food stores are a new emerging form of retail technology in Saudi Arabia. By focusing on relevant institutional, planning and operational dimensions, this exploratory study describes and analyses the process by which this form of food retailing was adopted. Data were collected from 96 stores located in three metropolitan areas of the Kingdom, and the results suggest that the sudden proliferation of these stores during the past decade was characterised by the lack of rational planning, short‐term decision making orientation, and limited concern for promotional activities. The analysis of the 62 study variables indicated that differences in store size exerted limited influence on store marketing activities and had a moderate effect on store planning and institutional dimensions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

R.J. Klein Wassink, M.C. Seegers and M.M.F. Verguld

Several effects of the atmosphere in the soldering oven on both the soldering process itself and the soldering results are discussed. Experiments have been undertaken to…

Abstract

Several effects of the atmosphere in the soldering oven on both the soldering process itself and the soldering results are discussed. Experiments have been undertaken to compare the results of soldering in air and in nitrogen containing 10,100 and 1000 ppm oxygen, in which, e.g., discolouration, wettability, solderability after reflow, solder bridging and solder‐ball formation were investigated. Unmounted FR‐4 testboards with both an RMA solder paste of known high quality and a low‐residue paste were used. Mounted test boards were used to analyse the self‐alignment of components and to compare the levels of soldering defects obtained in air and in nitrogen. The test results show that a nitrogen atmosphere containing 1000 ppm of oxygen or less is sufficiently pure to realise improved soldering conditions for most types of components. For the low‐residue paste tested, 1000 ppm is too high, but 100 ppm is sufficiently low. All effects on the soldering process will depend on the amount of oxygen in the gas. To produce an oven atmosphere of nitrogen with a very low amount of O2 (e.g., <100 ppm) is rather expensive, if this oven is to work under production conditions. Will the extra cost of investment and gas consumption be worthwhile in view of a better production yield and higher product quality? The authors explain why they do not believe this to be the case.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Tali Farbiash and Andrea Berger

Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the…

Abstract

Inhibitory control (IC) is a central executive function that shows significant development throughout the preschool years. IC is known as a factor that underlies the ability to self-regulate in daily situations. This ability is challenged when a child faces negative emotions; a challenge that is seen in children’s IC performance and brain activity. This chapter elaborates on the effects that negative emotional experiences have on children’s IC functioning. Moreover, previous studies regarding the way emotional experiences are reflected in brain activity are included. Additionally, this chapter will offer a comprehensive review of the factors affecting individual differences in IC, including the role of children’s temperamental effortful control and negative affectivity. Further, the role of parenting behaviors will be discussed, focusing on the way in which maternal self-regulation influences child inhibitory control, including related educational implications.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

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