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1 – 10 of 539
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

N. Hamzah, M.H. Samat, N.A. Johari, A.F.A. Faizal, O.H. Hassan, A.M.M. Ali, R. Zakaria, N.H. Hussin, M.Z.A. Yahya and M.F.M. Taib

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and transition metal (Tm)-doped ZnO using Tm…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and transition metal (Tm)-doped ZnO using Tm elements from silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) by a first-principles study based on density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the pseudo-potential plane wave in CASTEP computer code.

Design/methodology/approach

The calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation for Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof for solids with Hubbard U (GGA-PBEsol+U) were performed by applying Hubbard corrections Ud = 5 eV for Zn 3d state, Up = 9 eV for O 2p state, Ud = 6 eV for Ag 4d state and Ud = 9.5 eV for Cu 3d state. The crystal structure used in this calculation was hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a space group of P63mc and supercell 2 × 2 × 2.

Findings

The total energy was calculated to determine the best position for Ag and Cu dopants. The band structures and density of states show that Tm-doped ZnO has a lower bandgaps value than pure ZnO because of impurity energy levels from Ag 4d and Cu 3d states. In addition, Ag-doped ZnO exhibits a remarkable enhancement in visible light absorption over pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO because of its lower energy region and extended wavelength spectrum.

Originality/value

The results of this paper are important for the basic understanding of the 3d and 4d Tm doping effect ZnO and have a wide range of applications in designing high-efficiency energy harvesting solar cells.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Mahnaz Asgari Sooran, Hamed Tayebi and Sadoullah Ebrahimnejad

The purpose of this study is to investigate a joint economic lot-size model with the possibility of cofinancing between members of a three-echelon supply chain (SC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate a joint economic lot-size model with the possibility of cofinancing between members of a three-echelon supply chain (SC) including one supplier, one manufacture and one retailer. Given the differences in credit as well as differences in access to capital markets, SC members will be able to create a financial alliance to maximize the profits of each member. This study proposed a model to maximize the annuity stream of the SC by considering the financial interaction between SC members.

Design/methodology/approach

This joint economic lot-sizing problem was described and modeled mathematically. To evaluate the mathematical model, different scenarios were considered with (and without) the possibility of financial interaction.

Findings

It is suggested that, in addition to the goods and information flow among SC members, proper financial flow can also have an impact on the improvement of SC performance.

Originality/value

While previous studies consider cofinancing between members of a two-echelon SC, this paper considers a three-echelon SC including one supplier, one manufacturer and one retailer where financial cooperation between different levels of the SC in both upstream and reverse directions will be possible.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

S.H. Masood and Hussain A. Khan

This paper presents an investigation on the development of different pattern placement strategies in robotic palletisation of box packages in the packaging industry with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an investigation on the development of different pattern placement strategies in robotic palletisation of box packages in the packaging industry with practical implementations for one, two, four and five block patterns with the aim of improving the operational efficiency in robotic palletisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The work involves considering the gripper design and maximum number of picks and various process parameters that affect the robotic implementation of pallet patterns and develops a methodology to form different patterns for a given pallet size.

Findings

The proposed methodology represents an efficient approach for pallet pattern implementation and results in reduced number of placements required for a given number of boxes per layer and reduced time for palletisation.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a novel technique for pallet loading problem (PLP) considering the physical aspects and restrictions encountered when using the robot and the gripper size to generate the pattern on the pallet. Traditional solutions of PLP do not consider these aspects in pattern placements.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 October 2018

Nik Hadiyan Nik Azman, Salina Kassim and Adewalee Abideen Adeyemi

This study aims to offer a new area of discourse by investigating the factors determining the usage of the Islamic non-bank financing product ar-rahnu (Islamic…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to offer a new area of discourse by investigating the factors determining the usage of the Islamic non-bank financing product ar-rahnu (Islamic pawnbroking) among women micro-entrepreneurs in Malaysia within the framework of the informal credit market theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on primary data obtained by using self-administered questionnaires distributed in three states in Malaysia: Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu. The questionnaires were distributed to a total of 750 participants, with each state contributing 250 respondents. Total number of respondents valid for data analysis was however 600.

Findings

Based on descriptive and inferential statistics by using the IBM statistical package for the social sciences and structural equation modelling analysis of moment structures, the results show that the main factor influencing women micro-entrepreneurs to use ar-rahnu is the service charge.

Research limitations/implications

This study only covers three states in Malaysia and is limited to examining the use of ar-rahnu by women micro-entrepreneurs in those states.

Practical implications

As micro-entrepreneur s often face constraints to obtaining financial access in the formal credit market, ar-rahnu provides an alternative mode of obtaining business financing to female micro-entrepreneurs, so they can sustain their operations and even expand their businesses. The significance of such factors like service fee, as revealed in this study, indicates that managers should focus on this element when offering Islamic financial products, especially to women micro-entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The informal credit market theory is frequently used in conventional studies. This paper adds Sharīʿah compliance in the context of this theory as a new area to be considered when discussing Islamic financial products.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2020

Eugene E. Mniwasa

This paper aims to examine the money laundering vulnerability of private legal practitioners in Tanzania, the involvement of these practitioners in money laundering…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the money laundering vulnerability of private legal practitioners in Tanzania, the involvement of these practitioners in money laundering activities and their role in preventing, detecting and thwarting money laundering and its predicate crimes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies the “black-letter” law research approach to describe, examine and analyze the anti-money laundering law in Tanzania. It also uses the “law-in-context” research approach to interrogate the anti-money laundering law and to provide an understanding of factors impacting on the efficacy and readiness of private legal practitioners in Tanzania to tackle money laundering. The review of literature and analysis of statutory instruments and case law, reports of the anti-money laundering authorities and agencies and media reports-generated data are used in this paper. This information was complemented by data from interviews of purposively selected private legal practitioners.

Findings

Private legal practitioners in Tanzania are vulnerable to money laundering. There is an emerging evidence that indicates the involvement of some private legal practitioners in the commission of money laundering and/or its predicate crimes. The law designates the legal practitioners as reporting persons and imposes on the obligation to fight against money laundering. Law-related factors and practical challenges undermine the capacity of the legal practitioners to curb money laundering. Additionally, certain hostile perceptions contribute to the legal practitioners’ unwillingness, indifference or opposition against the fight against money laundering.

Research limitations/implications

The paper underscores the need for Tanzania to reform its policy and legal frameworks to create enabling environment for anti-money laundering gatekeepers, including private legal practitioners to partake efficiently in the fight against money laundering. It also underlines the importance of incorporating the principles that govern the private legal practise to enable the practitioners to partake effectively in tackling money laundering.

Originality/value

This paper generates useful information to private legal practitioners, policy makers and academicians on issues relating to money laundering and its control in Tanzania and presents recommendations on possible policy and legal reforms that can be adopted and applied to augment the role of the legal practitioners in Tanzania to combat money laundering.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Sulistyowati, Raditya Sukmana, Ririn Tri Ratnasari, Ascarya and Tika Widiastuti

This paper attempts to rejuvenate waqf in the health sector by identifying and elaborating on its issues and challenges. The government budget for this sector is…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to rejuvenate waqf in the health sector by identifying and elaborating on its issues and challenges. The government budget for this sector is significant; thus, the present paper aims to provide a nongovernment budget to lessen the government's burden

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study uses structured in-depth interviews with 12 respondents to generate valuable insights and thoughts in order to frame recommendations.

Findings

The findings highlight the key themes: human resources, finance, collaboration and coordination, legal issues, basic healthcare insufficiency, data and digitalization, accountability and sustainability and infrastructure. The following are the proposed solutions: capacity building program (CBP), hybrid waqf scheme, big data connectivity, specific legal framework, refocusing and reallocating of resources for the health sector during and after the pandemic

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on Indonesia and Malaysia as the authors believe that these two countries have a lot of practice in the field. Further studies may focus on other countries, such as Pakistan.

Practical implications

This paper proposes potential ways to embrace government policy consideration, optimize the elaboration among productive waqf with other kinds, improve governance of and coordination among waqf institutions and increase the awareness to improve significant development.

Social implications

By considering this paper's recommendations, waqf stakeholders in the healthcare system can improve the social benefits for poor and needy patients.

Originality/value

This study presents the latest strategic analysis of waqf, which is important for the government policy in developing waqf.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Buno (Okenyebuno) Emmanuel Nduka and Giwa Sechap

Designated non-financial businesses and professions (DNFBPs) are important actors both in the formal and informal sectors owing to the nature of services they offer. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Designated non-financial businesses and professions (DNFBPs) are important actors both in the formal and informal sectors owing to the nature of services they offer. The DNFBPs are key players in financial and economic development and thus are highly vulnerable to money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) risks. Globally, and indeed, within the West African region, typologies studies have indicated several instances of misuse of DNFBPs for the laundering of proceeds of crime and to a lesser extent, TF. Factors that make DNFBPs vulnerable to ML and TF in the region, include limited understanding of ML/TF risk and anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) obligations, and poor implementation of AML/CFT measures by the sector. As reporting institutions, DNFBPs are required to implement appropriate measures to mitigate the ML/TF risk facing them. Mutual evaluation reports (MERs) of countries in the region noted weak implementation of AML/CFT measures by DNFBPs compares to financial institutions. These coupled with the general poor monitoring and supervision of DNFBPs for compliance, make them a weak link in member states’ AML/CFT regime. This study examined how Economic Community of West African States member states can plug the loopholes in the DNFBPs to strengthen their AML/CFT regime and thus improve their performance during mutual evaluation. This study reviewed data from the publications of Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and other credible sources.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is more of desk-review based on secondary data, including information obtained from GIABA, and FATF publications, and websites as well as information obtained from reliable sources on the internet. The authors reviewed the MERs of GIABA member states that have been assessed under the second round, especially that of Ghana, Senegal, Cape Verde, Mali and Burkina Faso, with particular focus on sections of the reports relating to preventive measures and supervision. In general, this paper adopts a policy approach with a view to explaining the importance and benefits of implementing AML/CFT preventive measures by reporting entities, especially the DNFBPs.

Findings

This study found that there is a general lack of information on the exact size of DNFBPs across member states, the risk of ML/TF associated with DNFBPs is generally identified as high across member states (albeit at different levels), the extent and level of monitoring/supervision of DNFBPs for AML/CFT compliance trails what is obtainable in financial institutions; the institutional and operational frameworks for regulating, supervising and monitoring DNFBPs are either weak or poorly defined in many member states; and the focus of AML/CFT technical assistance has been more on financial institutions than DNFBPs. Although the number of MERs reviewed for this work may be few, the findings and conclusions in the concluded MERs reflect regional peculiarities, including high informality of the economies, preponderance use of cash in transactions, diversity of DNFBPs and the general weak application of AML/CFT preventive measures by these entities, and the weak AML/CFT supervision or monitoring of DNFBPs which cut across all GIABA member states. Although efforts to address the weaknesses in the DNFBPs, including training and supervision, have commenced, in most member states, these are still at rudimentary levels.

Research limitations/implications

However, this study is limited by the fact that it was desk-based review without direct inputs of industry players (DNFBPs and their supervisors).

Practical implications

In general, this paper adopts a policy approach with a view to explaining the importance and benefits of implementing AML/CFT preventive measures by reporting entities, especially the DNFBPs. It aims to bring to the fore the weaknesses of the DNFBPs in the implementation of AML/CFT preventive measures and therefore will be useful to national authorities who are striving toward strengthening their national AML/CT regimes and to DNFBPs who wish to protect the integrity and stability of their system.

Originality/value

It is imperative to mention that the weak compliance by DNFBPs, and indeed other challenges inhibiting effective implementation of preventive measures, is not peculiar to West Africa. A review of MERs of 17 African countries (eight countries in the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti Money Laundering Group region, five in GIABA region and three in the Middle East and North Africa region assessed under the current round as on October 2020, show a similar pattern of weak ratings under Immediate Outcome 4.

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Alborz Gheitani, Saheb Imani, Nader Seyyedamiri and Pantea Foroudi

In line with the general purpose mentioned, this paper aims to determine the impact of the Islamic work ethic (IWE) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among…

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Abstract

Purpose

In line with the general purpose mentioned, this paper aims to determine the impact of the Islamic work ethic (IWE) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among the employees of Bank Maskan by examining the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of data obtained from 220 questionnaires related to research variables with AMOS software shows a positive and significant relationship between IWE and job satisfaction and organizational commitment with the mediating role of intrinsic motivation.

Findings

The findings revealed a direct effect of IWE on job satisfaction, but there was no direct significant relationship between this variable and organizational commitment. Also, intrinsic motivation plays a partial and completely mediatory role in the relationship between IWE and job satisfaction and between IWE and organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of participation in strategic planning on managers’ creation of budgetary slack: The mediating role of autonomous motivation and affective organizational commitment.

Originality/value

As the nature of bank employees’ work is such that it confronts them with numerous ethical choices, the adherence to ethical standards, particularly IWE, can greatly affect their enthusiasm and, as a result, their satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2022

Malik Abu Afifa, Isam Saleh, Aseel Al-shoura and Hien Vo Van

The direct nexus between board characteristics, earnings management (EM) practices and dividend payout is examined in this study, followed by an examination of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The direct nexus between board characteristics, earnings management (EM) practices and dividend payout is examined in this study, followed by an examination of the indirect mediation impact of EM practices in the nexus between board characteristics and dividend payout. It aims to provide new empirical evidence from the Jordanian market, which is an emerging market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study population consists of all service firms that were listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) between 2012 and 2019. Due to the lack of availability of their complete data during the period, four service firms were omitted from the population; hence, a sample of 43 service firms was acquired over the time frame (2012–2019), yielding a total of 344 firm-year observations. Moreover, panel data analysis was employed in this study, and data for the study were acquired from yearly reports as well as the ASE's database.

Findings

Based on the GMM estimator findings, board size and independence have a negative and significant influence on the EM, but CEO/chairman duality has a positive and significant impact. Simultaneously, the impacts of female representation on the board of directors and the number of board meetings were both positive but insignificant. The findings also found that four board characteristics, including board size, female representation on the board of directors, CEO/chairman duality and the number of board meetings, had a significant negative or positive effect on dividend payout, while board independence did not. Additional findings show that EM practices have a direct negative insignificant effect on dividend payout, whereas EM practices partially mediate the relationship between board characteristics and dividend payout.

Research limitations/implications

The current study's limitation is that it only searched in Jordanian service firms listed on ASE from 2012 to 2019 to fulfill the study's objectives; thus, we urge that future work explores the study models for other sectors, whether in Jordan or other growing markets such as the Middle East and North Africa.

Practical implications

The findings of this study may be utilized by analysts, investors and other strategic decision-makers to enhance Jordan's financial market's efficiency and efficacy. These findings will improve policymakers' willingness to impose appropriate constraints, perhaps boosting Jordan's financial market performance and efficacy. These findings may also help investors make more enlightened judgments by utilizing board characteristics and EM factors that predict firm dividend policy.

Originality/value

Contradictions in the results of earlier investigations inspired the current study, with the findings filling a gap in the existing literature. This study differs from previous studies by constructing a novel research model and analyzing the mediating influence of EM in the nexus between board characteristics and dividend payout.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Zainal Abidin Ngah, Norashikin Ismail and Nadiah Abd Hamid

The purpose of this paper is to tackle one of the issues in tax evasion, that is from the perspective of fraudulent financial reporting amongst small and medium-sized…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to tackle one of the issues in tax evasion, that is from the perspective of fraudulent financial reporting amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. This study is intended to examine the relationships between certain company attributes, namely, company ownership structure, the size of company and the frequency of tax audits and how they relate to tax evasion practices amongst SMEs in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examined 397 companies which have been audited by the Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia (IRBM) during the years 2016 and 2017. A research model was developed and the authors use ordinary least square regression analysis to examine the effect of three prominent independent variables, which are company ownership structure, the size of company and the frequency of tax audits on SMEs’ tax evasion practices in Malaysia.

Findings

The authors find that family ownership firms and company size have statistically significant positive relationship with tax evasion practices detected during tax audits. The results also show that the frequency of tax audits conducted positively affect the increase of tax evasion activities amongst SMEs in Malaysia.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study could be the first in Malaysia that uses the actual audited data examining the fraudulent financial reporting cases amongst SMEs, and this could provide important insights to the IRBM to enable this tax authority to improve its policy-making decisions in relation to selecting the right companies for audits in the future and subsequently may assist its collection department in generating additional income for the nation.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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