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Describes an innovative error compensation method to improve the static positioning accuracy of industrial robots or other servo‐driven manipulation devices. As well as…
Describes an innovative error compensation method to improve the static positioning accuracy of industrial robots or other servo‐driven manipulation devices. As well as the theoretical formulation, shows experimental results for quantitative estimation and verification of the method. Outlines integration concepts for this error compensation technique within commercial robot controllers.
Presents an adaptive slicing procedure for improving the geometric accuracy of layered manufacturing techniques which, unlike previous procedures, uses layers with sloping…
Presents an adaptive slicing procedure for improving the geometric accuracy of layered manufacturing techniques which, unlike previous procedures, uses layers with sloping boundary surfaces that closely match the shape of the required surface. This greatly reduces the stair case effect which is characteristic of layered components with square edges. Considers two measures of error, and outlines a method of predicting these measures for sloping layer surfaces. To cater for different manufacturing requirements, presents a method to produce parts with either an inside or outside tolerance, or a combination of both. Finally, considers some problems associated with surface joins, vertices, and inflection points and proposes some solutions.
TruSurf is a new system for building solid objects from layers with sloping surfaces that closely match the designed surface shape. The advantages of using sloping…
TruSurf is a new system for building solid objects from layers with sloping surfaces that closely match the designed surface shape. The advantages of using sloping surfaces over stepped edges are improved surface finish, and decreased build time through the use of thicker layers. TruSurf uses B‐spline surfaces to describe the part, and calculate the sloped path of the layer cutting medium. Describes operation of the system in detail and presents results from the production of some test parts. Discusses some ways for improving accuracy, including using principal directions of minimum surface curvature, and using a curved cutting medium to produce layers.
China's increasing importance as a major global supplier has coincided in recent years with a number of disturbing cases of quality fade (sudden unexpected deteriorations…
China's increasing importance as a major global supplier has coincided in recent years with a number of disturbing cases of quality fade (sudden unexpected deteriorations in agreed quality levels) adversely impacting consumer safety, welfare and brand equity. The most effective responses to the problem of quality fade when sourcing from China are firm‐based. However, the efficacy of such responses assumes the existence of efficient markets and market‐supporting institutions. In the face of widespread market failure overseas, buyers need to carefully structure the global sourcing relationship to minimise the risk of quality fade. This paper seeks to address this issue.
The paper adopts a comparative discussion approach to explore the three key global sourcing governance structures: contracts, internal organisation, and trust, and assesses their effectiveness in attenuating quality issues under both the general contracting problems of uncertainty and opportunism and the challenges unique to the Chinese business environment.
The comparative discussion suggests no clear superiority of any one structure and a need to carefully monitor quality performance on an ongoing basis. This suggests that the appropriate structure is contextual and depends on specific needs for information and compliance.
Highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the three major governance structures emphasises trade‐offs that firms sourcing from China may need to make. Increased costs but assured quality may be an acceptable trade‐off when firms are sourcing high‐risk products (foodstuffs, pharmaceutical and vehicle tyres) or serving vulnerable market segments such as children.
Emergency medical service (EMS) workers are at risk for burnout related to the opioid overdose crisis because they are frequently present during overdose events. The…
Emergency medical service (EMS) workers are at risk for burnout related to the opioid overdose crisis because they are frequently present during overdose events. The study’s aims were twofold: 1) to determine whether variables related to the opioid crisis were associated with burnout and 2) to explore the relationship between mental health, sleep, substance use, social support, and attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis with burnout.
In a cross-sectional web-based study, surveys were distributed by supervisors to EMS workers in Pennsylvania (winter 2018). Participants (n = 214) completed measures on burnout, social support, mental health, substance use, and sleep quality and reported their frequency of naloxone administration and their attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were run to determine correlates of burnout.
The sample was 65.4% male, 91.5% white, and 43% were between 36–55 years old. In the regression model (n = 177), depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep, attitudes about working during the opioid crisis, cannabis use, social support, age, hours worked each week, and frequency of naloxone administration were significantly correlated with burnout.
This study contributes to the emergent literature on burnout and EMS professionals during the opioid overdose crisis by finding that attitudes about working during the opioid overdose crisis are correlated with burnout. While the relationship should be explored in future research, the authors believe that interventions to prevent EMS burnout could incorporate training to improve attitudes about supporting individuals during overdose events.
This research examines effects on emotional burnout among “maternity support workers” (MSWs) that support women in labor (labor and delivery (L&D) nurses and doulas). The…
This research examines effects on emotional burnout among “maternity support workers” (MSWs) that support women in labor (labor and delivery (L&D) nurses and doulas). The emotional intensity of maternity support work is likely to contribute to emotional distress, compassion fatigue, and burnout.
This study uses data from the Maternity Support Survey (MSS) to analyze emotional burnout among 807 L&D nurses and 1,226 doulas in the United States and Canada. Multivariate OLS regression models examine the effects of work–family conflict, overwork, emotional intelligence, witnessing unethical mistreatment of women in labor, and practice characteristics on emotional burnout among these MSWs. We measure emotional burnout using the Professional Quality of Life (PROQOL) Emotional Burnout subscale.
Work–family conflict, feelings of overwork, witnessing a higher frequency of unethical mistreatment, and working in a hospital with a larger percentage of cesarean deliveries are associated with higher levels of burnout among MSWs. Higher emotional intelligence is associated with lower levels of burnout, and the availability of hospital wellness programs is associated with less burnout among L&D nurses.
While the MSS obtained a large number of responses, its recruitment methods produced a nonrandom sample and made it impossible to calculate a response rate. As a result, responses may not be generalizable to all L&D nurses and doulas in the United States and Canada.
This research reveals that MSWs attitudes about medical procedures such as cesarean sections and induction are tied to their experiences of emotional burnout. It also demonstrates a link between witnessing mistreatment of laboring women and burnout, so that traumatic incidents have negative emotional consequences for MSWs. The findings have implications for secondary trauma and compassion fatigue, and for the quality of maternity care.
Justice rules are standards that serve as criteria for formulating fairness judgments. Though justice rules play a role in the organizational justice literature, they have…
Justice rules are standards that serve as criteria for formulating fairness judgments. Though justice rules play a role in the organizational justice literature, they have seldom been the subject of analysis in their own right. To address this limitation, we first consider three meta-theoretical dualities that are highlighted by justice rules – the distinction between justice versus fairness, indirect versus direct measurement, and normative versus descriptive paradigms. Second, we review existing justice rules and organize them into four types of justice: distributive (e.g., equity, equality), procedural (e.g., voice, consistent treatment), interpersonal (e.g., politeness, respectfulness), and informational (e.g., candor, timeliness). We also emphasize emergent rules that have not received sufficient research attention. Third, we consider various computation models purporting to explain how justice rules are assessed and aggregated to form fairness judgments. Fourth and last, we conclude by reviewing research that enriches our understanding of justice rules by showing how they are cognitively processed. We observe that there are a number of influences on fairness judgments, and situations exist in which individuals do not systematically consider justice rules.
This study investigates the conceptual and psychometric properties of trust in organizations. Critical review of recent literature led to the conclusion that there is no…
This study investigates the conceptual and psychometric properties of trust in organizations. Critical review of recent literature led to the conclusion that there is no single agreed upon definition of trust and that controversy exists as to its construct validity. We present empirical results based on a complex procedure for scale development, which includes a design made up of four separate stages of research. The construct of trust in employment relationships was ultimately refined to entail three dimensions: harmony, reliability, and concern (HRC). The final results of this study led to the development of a standardized 16‐item instrument that can be used to measure trust in the context of employment relationships. Evidence of the scale’s reliability, factor structure, and validity is also presented.
Longitudinal investigations are often suggested but rarely used in operations and supply chain management (OSCM), mainly due to the difficulty of obtaining data. There is…
Longitudinal investigations are often suggested but rarely used in operations and supply chain management (OSCM), mainly due to the difficulty of obtaining data. There is a silver lining in the form of existing large-scale and planned repeated cross-sectional (RCS) data sets, an approach commonly used in sociology and political sciences. This study aims to review all relevant RCS surveys with a focus on OSCM, as well as data and methods to motivate longitudinal research and to study trends at the plant, industry and geographic levels.
A comparison of RCS, panel and hybrid surveys is presented. Existing RCS data sets in the OSCM discipline and their features are discussed. In total, 30 years of Global Manufacturing Research Group data are used to explore the applicability of analytical methods at the plant and aggregate level and in the form of multilevel modeling.
RCS analysis is a viable alternative to overcome the confines associated with panel data. The structure of the existing data sets restricts quantitative analysis due to survey and sampling issues. Opportunities surrounding RCS analysis are illustrated, and survey design recommendations are provided.
The longitudinal aspect of RCS surveys can answer new and untested research questions through repeated random sampling in focused topic areas. Planned RCS surveys can benefit from the provided recommendations.
RCS research designs are generally overlooked in OSCM. This study provides an analysis of RCS data sets and future survey recommendations.
For quite a while the issues of knowledge management, innovation and performance measurement have been on the agenda of researchers and practitioners alike throughout the…
For quite a while the issues of knowledge management, innovation and performance measurement have been on the agenda of researchers and practitioners alike throughout the world. Not too long ago it was recognised that there are direct cause and effect relations between knowledge reuse and invention. The present paper therefore discusses the constituent elements of innovation from a knowledge perspective which have been identified in the context of a European Union co‐sponsored research project. The six facts of the “innovation cube” are: reuse of existing knowledge; invention of new knowledge; exploitation (i.e. turning knowledge into value); stakeholders' contributions (to the innovation life cycle); the enabling ecology or operating context in which the innovation occurs; and the performance facet, i.e. the bottom line. A toolkit based on performance measurement thinking and implementation process for better management of the balance between reuse and invention in development environments is proposed and results from their deployment in three real‐life case studies are discussed.