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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Mohammed Fahimuddin Mulla, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, N. Nik-Ghazali, Mohammed Ridha Muhamad, Ahamed Saleel C. and Poo Balan Ganesan

This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer in porous channels.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the heat transfer in porous channels.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method is used to simulate the heat transfer in porous channels.

Findings

The number and width of channels play a key role in determining the heat transfer of the porous channel. The heat transfer is higher around the channel legs. Smaller base height is better to get higher heat transfer capability.

Originality/value

This study represents the original work to investigate heat transfer in a porous domain having multiple channels.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Sarfaraz Kamangar, N. Ameer Ahamad, N. Nik-Ghazali, Ali E. Anqi, Ali Algahtani, C. Ahamed Saleel, Syed Javed, Vineet Tirth and T.M. Yunus Khan

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is reported as one of the most common sources of death all over the world. The presence of stenosis (plaque) in the coronary arteries results in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is reported as one of the most common sources of death all over the world. The presence of stenosis (plaque) in the coronary arteries results in the restriction of blood supply, leading to myocardial infarction. The current study investigates the influence of multi stenosis on hemodynamic properties in a patient-specific left coronary artery.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional model of the patient-specific left coronary artery was reconstructed based on computed tomography (CT) scan images using MIMICS-20 software. The diseased model of the left coronary artery was investigated, having the narrowing of 90% and 70% of area stenosis (AS) at the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX), respectively.

Findings

The results indicate that the upstream region of stenosis experiences very high pressure for 90% AS during the systolic period of the cardiac cycle. The pressure drops maximum as the flow travels into the stenotic zone, and the high flow velocities were observed across the 90% AS. The higher wall shear stresses occur at the stenosis region, and it increases with the increase in the flow rate. It is found that the maximum wall shear stress across 90% AS is at the highest risk for rupture. A recirculation region immediately after the stenosis results in the further development of stenosis.

Originality/value

The current study provides evidence that there is a strong effect of multi-stenosis on the blood flow in the left coronary artery.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2023

Swapnil Narayan Rajmane and Shaligram Tiwari

This study aims to perform three-dimensional numerical computations for blood flow through a double stenosed carotid artery. Pulsatile flow with Womersley number (Wo) of 4.65 and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to perform three-dimensional numerical computations for blood flow through a double stenosed carotid artery. Pulsatile flow with Womersley number (Wo) of 4.65 and Reynolds number (Re) of 425, based on the diameter of normal artery and average velocity of inlet pulse, was considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite volume method based ANSYS Fluent 20.1 was used for solving the governing equations of three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible and non-Newtonian blood flow. A high-quality grid with sufficient refinement was generated using ICEM CFD 20.1. The time-averaged flow field was captured to investigate the effect of severity and eccentricity on the lumen flow characteristics.

Findings

The results show that an increase in interspacing between blockages brings shear layer instability within the region between two blockages. The velocity profile and wall shear stress distribution are found to be majorly influenced by eccentricity. On the other hand, their peak magnitude is found to be primarily influenced by severity. Results have also demonstrated that the presence of eccentricity in stenosis would assist in flow development.

Originality/value

Variation in severity and interspacing was considered with a provision of eccentricity equal to 10% of diameter. Eccentricity refers to the offset between the centreline of stenosis and the centreline of normal artery. For the two blockages, severity values of 40% and 60% based on diameter reduction were permuted, giving rise to four combinations. For each combination, three values of interspacing in the multiples of normal artery diameter (D), viz. 4D, 6D and 8D were considered.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Azeem Khan, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, N. Nik-Ghaali, Salman Ahmed N.J. and Abdullah A.A.A. Al-Rashed

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the advantages of a simplified algorithm to solve the problem of heat and mass transfer in porous medium by reducing the number of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the advantages of a simplified algorithm to solve the problem of heat and mass transfer in porous medium by reducing the number of partial differential equations from four to three.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of the present paper is to develop a simplified algorithm to reduce the number of equations involved in conjugate heat transfer in porous medium.

Findings

Developed algorithm/method has many advantages over conventional method of solution for conjugate heat transfer in porous medium.

Research limitations/implications

The current work is applicable to conjugate heat transfer problem.

Practical implications

The developed algorithm is useful in reducing the number of equations to be solved, thus reducing the computational resources required.

Originality/value

Development of simplified algorithm and comparison with conventional method.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Irfan Anjum Badruddin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer in an arbitrary cavity filled with porous medium. The geometry of the cavity is such that an isothermal heating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer in an arbitrary cavity filled with porous medium. The geometry of the cavity is such that an isothermal heating source is placed centrally at the bottom of the cavity. The height and width of the heating source is varied to analyses its effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of outer boundary conditions such as two outside vertical walls being maintained at cold temperature To, two vertical and top horizontal surface being heated to. To and the third case with top surface kept at To but other surfaces being adiabatic.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element method is used to solve the governing equations.

Findings

It is observed that the cavity exhibits unique heat transfer behavior as compared to regular cavity. The cases of boundary conditions are found to affect the heat transfer rate in the porous cavity.

Originality/value

This is original work representing the heat transfer in irregular porous cavity with various boundary conditions. This work is neither being published nor under review in any other journal.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Ameer Ahamad Nandalur, Sarfaraz Kamangar and Irfan Anjum Badruddin

The purpose of this study was to analyze the heat transfer in a square porous cavity that has a solid block placed at its center. The prime focus of this study is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the heat transfer in a square porous cavity that has a solid block placed at its center. The prime focus of this study is to investigate the effect of size of the square solid block and other physical parameters on the heat transfer rate from the hot surface into the porous medium. The left vertical surface of cavity is maintained at a hot temperature and the right vertical surface at a cool temperature, Tc. The finite element method is used to simplify the governing equations and is solved iteratively. It is noted that the size of the solid block plays a vital role in dictating the heat transfer from the hot surface to porous medium.

Design/methodology/approach

The current work is based on finite element formulation of a square porous cavity that has a solid square block placed at its center. Governing equations were solved iteratively.

Findings

The size of the solid block has a pronounced effect on the heat transfer behavior inside the porous cavity.

Originality/value

This study highlights the heat transfer due to a conducting square solid block at mid of porous cavity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Zahid Hussain Hulio and Wei Jiang

The non-stationary operational wind loads vary in time and site and has remarkable effect on wind turbine drive train. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The non-stationary operational wind loads vary in time and site and has remarkable effect on wind turbine drive train. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of wind class 3 and 7 on the life of wind turbine drive train. The two-wind class 3 and 7 are described by average wind speed and weight factor and effects of two variables on wind energy generation and wind turbine drive train studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The load distribution method is used to calculate stress range cycles for wind class 3 and 7. To determine the rise of force on wind turbine drive train, the load cycle method is proposed. The fatigue damage model is studied with respect to influence of different wind speeds and wind shear factor and then results analysed accordingly. Also sensitivity analysis has been carried out to assess the percentage of drop of energy generation and rise of tangential force for wind class 3 and 7. Linear fit method is used to determine the inclination of wind variation and wind shear of wind class 3 and 7. In this regard, two practical wind sites fall under the wind class 3 and 7 and 1.5 MW wind turbine have been taken in to account.

Findings

The results showed that the average rise of force on wind turbine drive train is 37.5% which can influence the drop in energy 34.7% for wind class 3. Similarly, the results of wind class 7 are showing that the average rise in force and drop in energy found to be 49.05% and 51.16%, respectively. The wind class 7 have higher tendency of wind fluctuations and weight factor that can cause a damage to wind turbine drive train components. The results showed that when wind speed increases to rated power 11.5 m/s the damages occurred and remain steady. Similarly, when weight factor increased from 0.18 to onwards the damage occurred. The increased wind loads increased the tangential loads on the wind turbine decreased life of the gearbox.

Originality/value

The results of study suggest that wind turbine should be design according to site specific wind environment for maximum energy generation and lowers the wind loads on the drive train component.

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Zahid Hussain Hulio and Wei Jiang

The rapid rising of renewable energy sources particularly wind energy cannot be ignored. The numerical increase in wind energy farms throughout the world is the best example. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid rising of renewable energy sources particularly wind energy cannot be ignored. The numerical increase in wind energy farms throughout the world is the best example. The purpose of this paper is to assess the basic question of whether wind characteristics affect the performance and cost of energy. The importance of this question cannot be ruled out while comparing renewable energy to a conventional form of energy more specifically especially for the developing country where the cost of energy is very high.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design of this paper is consists of an assessment of local wind characteristics of the wind farm site using Weibull k and c parameters. The performance model is used to assess the performance of the wind turbine (WT) corresponding to local wind characteristics. The wind correlation with WT in terms of changing wind speed has been assessed to quantify the effects of wind speed on the WT behavior and failure of WT components. Similarly, the power curve of WT is assessed and compared with the International Electrotechnical Commission standards 61400-12-2. The WT power coefficient and tip speed ratio corresponding to wind speed is also investigated. The energy volume and cost of energy lost model is used to determine the cost and volume loss of energy/kWh of the wind farm.

Findings

The findings of practical wind farms showed that the wind conditions of the site are showing a strong tendency that can be determined from the results of Weibull k and c parameters. The k and c parameters are observed to be 3.44 and 9.16 m/s, respectively, for a period of a year. The standard deviation is observed to be 2.56 for a period of a year. WT shows the efficient behavior can be obtained from the power coefficient and tip speed of WT at different wind speeds. Also, wind farm observation showed that to be some increasing wind speed cause of based WT component failures. The results of energy volume and cost/kWh assessment showed that the major portion of energy volume and cost of energy is lost owing to network, voltage dip and frequency surge, electrical and mechanical components failures.

Originality/value

Generally, it can be concluded that the WTs are now able to cope with variable wind speeds. However, the results of this paper are showing that WT performance and availability decreased due to increased wind speeds. It can also be a reason to decreased volume and increase the cost of energy/kWh.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 26 April 2024

Sultan Mohammed Althahban, Mostafa Nowier, Islam El-Sagheer, Amr Abd-Elhady, Hossam Sallam and Ramy Reda

This paper comprehensively addresses the influence of chopped strand mat glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) patch configurations such as geometry, dimensions, position and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper comprehensively addresses the influence of chopped strand mat glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) patch configurations such as geometry, dimensions, position and the number of layers of patches, whether a single or double patch is used and how well debonding the area under the patch improves the strength of the cracked aluminum plates with different crack lengths.

Design/methodology/approach

Single-edge cracked aluminum specimens of 150 mm in length and 50 mm in width were tested using the tensile test. The cracked aluminum specimens were then repaired using GFRP patches with various configurations. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element method (FEM) was adopted to simulate the repaired cracked aluminum plates using composite patches to obtain the stress intensity factor (SIF). The numerical modeling and validation of ABAQUS software and the contour integral method for SIF calculations provide a valuable tool for further investigation and design optimization.

Findings

The width of the GFRP patches affected the efficiency of the rehabilitated cracked aluminum plate. Increasing patch width WP from 5 mm to 15 mm increases the peak load by 9.7 and 17.5%, respectively, if compared with the specimen without the patch. The efficiency of the GFRP patch in reducing the SIF increased as the number of layers increased, i.e. the maximum load was enhanced by 5%.

Originality/value

This study assessed repairing metallic structures using the chopped strand mat GFRP. Furthermore, it demonstrated the superiority of rectangular patches over semicircular ones, along with the benefit of using double patches for out-of-plane bending prevention and it emphasizes the detrimental effect of defects in the bonding area between the patch and the cracked component. This underlines the importance of proper surface preparation and bonding techniques for successful repair.

Graphical abstract

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Hariram Venkatesan, Joshua Lionel Fernandes and Seralathan Sivamani

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper aims to present investigation focuses on the utilization of nano additives in emulsified blends of Pongamia biodiesel and its impact on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine.

Design/methodology/approach

Pongamia biodiesel was produced through two-stage transesterification process. Taguchi method with L9 Design of experiment was adopted to study the stability of fuel blends and 75 per cent diesel, 20 per cent biodiesel, 5 per cent water and 6 per cent of surfactant was found to be stable. Further, aluminum oxide nanoparticle was blended into the emulsified fuel in mass fraction of 100 ppm (D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100) through ultrasonicating technique.

Findings

Oleic acid was found to be in prominent proportion in the Pongamia biodiesel. It was observed that D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100 had the ability to produce lower in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release compared to D100, B100 and D75-BD20 fuel blends. However, a higher rate of pressure rise was noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Lower brake specific fuel consumption and relatively higher brake thermal efficiency were noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Moreover, lower NOx and smoke emission were also observed for nano-emulsified fuel blends.

Originality/value

Metal-based nano-additive significantly improved the physio-chemical properties of the fuel. Based on the literature, it is understood that emulsified biodiesel blend with nano enrichment using Pongamia biodiesel as base fuel was not carried out. Identifying a stable blend of diesel-biodiesel-water-nano additive using Taguchi’s design of experiments approach was an added value in formulating the test fuels. Furthermore, the formulated test fuel was compared with mineral diesel, biodiesel, and diesel-biodiesel blend to understand its suitability to use as a fuel in compression ignition (CI) engine.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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