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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

J. Cairns, N. Jennett and P.J. Sloane

Since the appearance of Simon Rottenberg's seminal paper on the baseball players' labour market in the Journal of Political Economy (1956), the literature on the economics…

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3124

Abstract

Since the appearance of Simon Rottenberg's seminal paper on the baseball players' labour market in the Journal of Political Economy (1956), the literature on the economics of professional team sports has increased rapidly, fuelled by major changes in the restrictive rules which had pervaded these sports, themselves a consequence of battles in the courts and the collective bargaining arena. These changes have not been limited to North America, to which most of the literature relates, but also apply to Western Europe and Australia in particular. This monograph surveys this literature covering those various parts of the world in order to draw out both theoretical and empirical aspects. However, to argue that the existence of what is now an extensive literature “justifies” such a survey on professional team sports clearly begs a number of questions. Justification can be found in at least two major aspects.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

R.J. Sutherland and M. Haworth

One of the principal findings of the most recent enquiry into professional football was that: “Running a successful league club is now a major commercial activity”. In…

Abstract

One of the principal findings of the most recent enquiry into professional football was that: “Running a successful league club is now a major commercial activity”. In general terms, professional football clubs too were confronted with financial and management problems.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Fabio Wagner, Holger Preuss and Thomas Könecke

For managers of sports leagues, it is crucial to produce an attractive competition. For that to happen, it is vital to consider that leagues frequently have more…

Abstract

Purpose

For managers of sports leagues, it is crucial to produce an attractive competition. For that to happen, it is vital to consider that leagues frequently have more sub-competitions than “just” the championship. In European top football leagues, for instance, four sub-competitions are common (championship, qualification for Champions- or Europa League, avoiding relegation). This paper introduces a new method for measuring competitive intensity (CI) in round-robin sports leagues considering all relevant sub-competitions and applies it to Germany's Bundesliga.

Design/methodology/approach

The newly developed model calculates a CI-Index for each sub-competition and the league as a whole. The application to the Bundesliga analyzes its viability and the development of the league's CI over the past 22 seasons.

Findings

The newly introduced CI-Indices prove to be a viable tool for evaluating a league's competitive intensity. The application to the Bundesliga shows that the seasonal CI dropped after 2009/10, which can mainly be attributed to a decline in the championship's CI.

Practical implications

The results show that it is important to facilitate a high CI in each of Bundesliga's four sub-competitions. Efforts have to be made to ensure that especially the Europa League remains as attractive as possible for the participating teams and their fans because this sub-competition constantly makes the greatest contribution to the seasonal CI.

Originality/value

The new method measures competitive intensity by quantifying the different sub-competitions and their contribution to the seasonal CI. This allows the organizers of sports leagues to assess the intensity of the individual sub-competitions as well as the league as a whole.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Sven Theysohn

Global reach, together with rapidly increasing broadband coverage, makes the internet a potentially interesting distribution channel for video highlights and full-match…

Abstract

Global reach, together with rapidly increasing broadband coverage, makes the internet a potentially interesting distribution channel for video highlights and full-match viewings. This study investigateswillingness to pay as well as consumer preferences for type of report to derive marketing implications for soccer clubs. Survey results from more than 12,000 respondents supporting seven soccer clubs in the German first and second divisions underline the potential of this new distribution channel in finding a high average willingness to pay.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Yoonji Ryu, Kihan Kim, Jong Won Paik and Yunjae Cheong

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors influencing the audience demand for televised post-season games of the Korean professional baseball league.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors influencing the audience demand for televised post-season games of the Korean professional baseball league.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from a total of 129 games – the entire post-season games from 2008 to 2016. Two dependent variables representing audience demand for televised baseball matches, obtained from the third-party television audit company AGB Nielsen, were regressed on a series of match-related and unrelated antecedent factors associated with each match. Pooled OLS regression with wild bootstrap standard errors with 100,000 replications was applied in the analysis.

Findings

Regarding match-related factors, higher television ratings and the greater numbers of television viewers were associated with matches with greater significance, outcome uncertainty and score sum. In terms of the match-unrelated factors, the broadcast platform appeared to be the most powerful predictor of both television ratings and the numbers of viewers. Other than the broadcast platform, night matches, matches with full stadium occupancy and team values showed positive impacts on both the television ratings and the numbers of viewers.

Practical implications

The sales of media rights and sponsorships are the major sources of revenues for professional sports leagues, and the size of these two streams of revenues is in proportion to the size of the audience demand for television and other media. This study provides valuable insights to the sports marketers of professional sports clubs and leagues by establishing proper understanding of the determinants of the audience demand for televised sports.

Originality/value

The characteristics specific to each professional league and country play unique roles in determining the antecedent factors of audience demand for televised sports; this study is one of the few attempts to examine Koran professional baseball league.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Bill Gerrard

This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty…

Abstract

This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty and increased market power as general explanations. The industryspecific reasons are examined, particularly the importance of securing access to broadcasting rights. The potential implications for teams, leagues and fans are discussed. It is suggested that media ownership of teams may undermine the sporting and financial viability of leagues thus necessitating intervention by sports administrators and government regulators.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Panagiotis Dimitropoulos

The present study aims to examine the impact of corporate governance quality on the capital structure of European soccer clubs and specifically on the level of debt that…

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2529

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to examine the impact of corporate governance quality on the capital structure of European soccer clubs and specifically on the level of debt that soccer clubs decide to issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample from 67 European soccer clubs over the period of 2005-2009 was analyzed, and panel data techniques were performed to assess the impact of specific corporate governance provisions on the capital structure of football clubs (FCs).

Findings

Evidence indicate that efficient corporate governance mechanisms such as the increased board size and independence and the existence of more dispersed ownership (managerial and institutional) result in a reduction in the level of leverage and debt, thus reducing the risk of financial instability.

Practical implications

This evidence suggests that corporate governance could be used as a monitoring mechanism for reducing the fictitious level of debt that characterizes the majority of European soccer clubs. This study could prove useful to Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) regulators because it provides an additional insight for the importance of establishing sound governance principles in European soccer so as to enhance the effectiveness of the recent “financial fair play” regulation which was launched in 2010, as well as to improve the financial status of the clubs and sustain their future viability.

Originality/value

This is the first study internationally that examines capital structure within FCs, thus extending the existent empirical evidence in the literature and adding to a growing body of research on the issues of corporate governance and financing decisions.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Timothy D. DeSchriver, Daniel A. Rascher and Stephen L. Shapiro

Two of the primary growth strategies for Major League Soccer (MLS) have been team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums. Therefore, the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Two of the primary growth strategies for Major League Soccer (MLS) have been team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine the relationship between these factors and game-specific MLS spectator attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

Two multiple regression models, one using multi-level mixed effects linear regression and another using interval regression, were developed to explain the variation in attendance utilizing the two factors of interest along with other control factors that have been identified as attendance determinants in previous literature. Game-specific data were collected for five MLS seasons, 2007-2011.

Findings

The two regression models explained approximately 40 percent of the variation in spectator attendance and the results showed that expansion teams and soccer-specific stadiums were significantly related to attendance. However, the effect of soccer-specific stadiums was minimized due to the extreme success of the Seattle Sounders in drawing about twice as many fans as the next highest drawing franchise, yet playing in an American football stadium.

Research limitations/implications

While many of the standard factors such as the presence of holidays and novelty players, competition from other professional teams, and day of week, competition from other professional teams; team quality failed to show significance. Expansion teams drew better than incumbent teams and the impact from soccer-specific stadia is weak given the success of the Seattle franchise (and possibly negative when excluding Seattle). Censoring of the dependent variable had a discernible impact on many of the attendance factors.

Practical implications

These findings may be useful to managers of MLS and their teams along with other professional teams and/or leagues that are investigating the use of either team expansion or the construction of new facilities to increase spectator attendance.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the relationship between expansion and new stadium construction in MLS over multiple years. The results indicate that MLS’s decision to use team expansion and the construction of soccer-specific stadiums has been beneficial with respect to spectator attendance.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Morten Kringstad, Harry Arne Solberg and Tor Georg Jakobsen

Attendance at matches in the smaller European football leagues is challenged by the increased number of live broadcast matches, particularly covering the biggest leagues…

Abstract

Purpose

Attendance at matches in the smaller European football leagues is challenged by the increased number of live broadcast matches, particularly covering the biggest leagues. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of live broadcasting, match scheduling and other factors on stadium attendance in the top division of Norwegian football.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a fixed effects regression model on attendance at match levels covering the period 2005 to 2011.

Findings

The main results show two different effects. While live broadcast domestic matches on “free TV” is positively correlated to stadium attendance, the increased number of “imported” matches from the big-five leagues is a substitute. Moreover, matches played on weekdays have a lower level of attendance than weekend matches.

Practical implications

The increased number of imported live broadcast football matches from the biggest European leagues influences and widens the financial gap between the biggest and the smaller football leagues. One possible solution for reducing the substitution effect from these matches is a more efficient match schedule in the Norwegian top division in football.

Originality/value

Norway has a small population with a high interest for football. This paper measures effects on attendance in the Norwegian top division in football matches with regards to the increased number of live broadcast matches both from the domestic league and from the big five football leagues.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Manuel Espitia‐Escuer and Lucía Isabel García‐Cebrián

The purpose of this research is twofold: to evaluate the performance of Spanish First‐Division soccer teams, comparing the sports results that they actually obtain with…

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3236

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is twofold: to evaluate the performance of Spanish First‐Division soccer teams, comparing the sports results that they actually obtain with those that they should have obtained on the basis of their potential, and to propose a future course of action.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to assess the potential of each team in the Spanish professional soccer league between the years 1998 and 2005 an output‐oriented version of Data Envelopment Analysis is used. In this way it is possible to calculate the number of points a team could have achieved with an efficient use of its actual resources and, consequently, its potential position in the league classification.

Findings

The main conclusion is that a team's final league position depends more on its efficient use of resources than on its potential.

Practical implications

From the practical perspective, the results seem to stress that measures directed at improving soccer teams' results should focus on improving their efficient use of available resources. Consequently, this work provides a preliminary result, obtained using economics tools, that suggests where soccer team managers might direct their efforts to improve their sports results.

Originality/value

The present work is based on the same concept of potential in sports teams as Zak et al. (1979) and Hofler and Payne (1997), but with a number of differences compared with the earlier studies. First, the potential of the teams and their actual results are compared not by assessing their efficiency in the use of resources, but by observing their final league table positions. Second, the technique which is used to estimate the frontier is in this case Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), or the deterministic non‐parametric frontier method, which has not often been used in order to measure efficiency in soccer. Finally, the object of study is the Spanish First Division soccer teams in the seasons 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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