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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Sarfaraz Kamangar, N. Ameer Ahamad, N. Nik-Ghazali, Ali E. Anqi, Ali Algahtani, C. Ahamed Saleel, Syed Javed, Vineet Tirth and T.M. Yunus Khan

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is reported as one of the most common sources of death all over the world. The presence of stenosis (plaque) in the coronary arteries results in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is reported as one of the most common sources of death all over the world. The presence of stenosis (plaque) in the coronary arteries results in the restriction of blood supply, leading to myocardial infarction. The current study investigates the influence of multi stenosis on hemodynamic properties in a patient-specific left coronary artery.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional model of the patient-specific left coronary artery was reconstructed based on computed tomography (CT) scan images using MIMICS-20 software. The diseased model of the left coronary artery was investigated, having the narrowing of 90% and 70% of area stenosis (AS) at the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX), respectively.

Findings

The results indicate that the upstream region of stenosis experiences very high pressure for 90% AS during the systolic period of the cardiac cycle. The pressure drops maximum as the flow travels into the stenotic zone, and the high flow velocities were observed across the 90% AS. The higher wall shear stresses occur at the stenosis region, and it increases with the increase in the flow rate. It is found that the maximum wall shear stress across 90% AS is at the highest risk for rupture. A recirculation region immediately after the stenosis results in the further development of stenosis.

Originality/value

The current study provides evidence that there is a strong effect of multi-stenosis on the blood flow in the left coronary artery.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Ameer Ahamad Nandalur, Sarfaraz Kamangar and Irfan Anjum Badruddin

The purpose of this study was to analyze the heat transfer in a square porous cavity that has a solid block placed at its center. The prime focus of this study is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the heat transfer in a square porous cavity that has a solid block placed at its center. The prime focus of this study is to investigate the effect of size of the square solid block and other physical parameters on the heat transfer rate from the hot surface into the porous medium. The left vertical surface of cavity is maintained at a hot temperature and the right vertical surface at a cool temperature, Tc. The finite element method is used to simplify the governing equations and is solved iteratively. It is noted that the size of the solid block plays a vital role in dictating the heat transfer from the hot surface to porous medium.

Design/methodology/approach

The current work is based on finite element formulation of a square porous cavity that has a solid square block placed at its center. Governing equations were solved iteratively.

Findings

The size of the solid block has a pronounced effect on the heat transfer behavior inside the porous cavity.

Originality/value

This study highlights the heat transfer due to a conducting square solid block at mid of porous cavity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2023

Swapnil Narayan Rajmane and Shaligram Tiwari

This study aims to perform three-dimensional numerical computations for blood flow through a double stenosed carotid artery. Pulsatile flow with Womersley number (Wo) of 4.65 and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to perform three-dimensional numerical computations for blood flow through a double stenosed carotid artery. Pulsatile flow with Womersley number (Wo) of 4.65 and Reynolds number (Re) of 425, based on the diameter of normal artery and average velocity of inlet pulse, was considered.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite volume method based ANSYS Fluent 20.1 was used for solving the governing equations of three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible and non-Newtonian blood flow. A high-quality grid with sufficient refinement was generated using ICEM CFD 20.1. The time-averaged flow field was captured to investigate the effect of severity and eccentricity on the lumen flow characteristics.

Findings

The results show that an increase in interspacing between blockages brings shear layer instability within the region between two blockages. The velocity profile and wall shear stress distribution are found to be majorly influenced by eccentricity. On the other hand, their peak magnitude is found to be primarily influenced by severity. Results have also demonstrated that the presence of eccentricity in stenosis would assist in flow development.

Originality/value

Variation in severity and interspacing was considered with a provision of eccentricity equal to 10% of diameter. Eccentricity refers to the offset between the centreline of stenosis and the centreline of normal artery. For the two blockages, severity values of 40% and 60% based on diameter reduction were permuted, giving rise to four combinations. For each combination, three values of interspacing in the multiples of normal artery diameter (D), viz. 4D, 6D and 8D were considered.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Dhananjay Yadav

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of rotation and varying gravitational strength on the onset of thermal convection in a porous medium layer numerically. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of rotation and varying gravitational strength on the onset of thermal convection in a porous medium layer numerically. The porous layer is acted to uniform rotation and inconsistent downward gravitational field which changing with depth from the layer. The authors presented three categories of gravitational strength deviancy, namely, linear, parabolic and exponential.

Design/methodology/approach

The higher-terms Galerkin weighted residual procedure is applied to get the eigenvalue of the problem.

Findings

The results illustrate that both rotation parameter and gravity variation parameter suspend the arrival of convection. The measurement of the convection cells decreases on enhancing the rotation parameter and gravity variation parameter.

Originality/value

It is also found that the scheme is more stable for category exponential, whereas it is more unstable for category parabolic.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2020

Shamsuddin Ahamad, Hamdan Amerali Al-jaifi and Md Imtiaz Mostafiz

The development of family-based microenterprises has attracted the attention of regulators, microfinance institutions and other stakeholders in either developing or least…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of family-based microenterprises has attracted the attention of regulators, microfinance institutions and other stakeholders in either developing or least developed countries. In the finance literature, several studies have examined the determinants of the family-based microenterprises development; however, there are several venues that need to be examined. The study aims to explain the economic profit of microenterprises from resource-based theory and human capital perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on critical review and theoretical grounding, this study proposes a conceptual framework, which bridges intangible resources with economic growth of microenterprises.

Findings

After reviewing previous studies and based on the underpinning theoretical framework, the study finds that human capital is one of the variables that has received a little attention and yet to be examined as a moderating role. Based on the human capital theorist, individual's competencies help enterprises to perform better in business, as enterprises that possess competencies and capabilities are more likely to have higher levels of growth and profitability.

Practical implications

This finding provides useful implications for the stakeholders and policymakers and contributes in the future literature.

Originality/value

Based on critical review and theoretical grounding, this study proposes a conceptual framework, which bridges intangible resources with economic growth of microenterprises.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2023

Qasim Zaheer, Mir Majaid Manzoor and Muhammad Jawad Ahamad

The purpose of this article is to analyze the optimization process in depth, elaborating on the components of the entire process and the techniques used. Researchers have been…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to analyze the optimization process in depth, elaborating on the components of the entire process and the techniques used. Researchers have been drawn to the expanding trend of optimization since the turn of the century. The rate of research can be used to measure the progress and increase of this optimization procedure. This study is phenomenal to understand the optimization process and different algorithms in addition to their application by keeping in mind the current computational power that has increased the implementation for several engineering applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Two-dimensional analysis has been carried out for the optimization process and its approaches to addressing optimization problems, i.e. computational power has increased the implementation. The first section focuses on a thorough examination of the optimization process, its objectives and the development of processes. Second, techniques of the optimization process have been evaluated, as well as some new ones that have emerged to overcome the above-mentioned problems.

Findings

This paper provided detailed knowledge of optimization, several approaches and their applications in civil engineering, i.e. structural, geotechnical, hydraulic, transportation and many more. This research provided tremendous emerging techniques, where the lack of exploratory studies is to be approached soon.

Originality/value

Optimization processes have been studied for a very long time, in engineering, but the current computational power has increased the implementation for several engineering applications. Besides that, different techniques and their prediction modes often require high computational strength, such parameters can be mitigated with the use of different techniques to reduce computational cost and increase accuracy.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Y. Sangeetha, S. Meenakshi and C. Sairam Sundaram

– The purpose of this paper is to develop an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl.

121

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl.

Design/methodology/approach

A pharmaceutical drug acetyl G was investigated for its corrosion inhibition efficiency using weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Findings

The inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. Results from polarisation studies revealed mixed type of inhibition. Impedance studies, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy confirm the adsorption of inhibitor on the mild steel surface.

Research limitations/implications

The drug acetyl G has sulphur and nitrogen atoms which effectively block the corrosion of mild steel and is non-toxic and has good inhibition efficiency.

Practical implications

This method provides an excellent, non-toxic and cost-effective material as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium.

Originality/value

Application of this drug as a corrosion inhibitor has not been reported yet in the literature. Replacing the organic inhibitors, this green inhibitor shows excellent inhibition efficiency. This is adsorbed excellently on the mild steel surface due to the presence of long chain and hetero atoms. Thus, the drug retards the corrosion reaction.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Sherif Mostafa, Nicholas Chileshe and Tariq Abdelhamid

The purpose of this study is to systematically analyse and synthesise the existing research published on offsite manufacturing/construction. The study aims to highlight and…

4327

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to systematically analyse and synthesise the existing research published on offsite manufacturing/construction. The study aims to highlight and associate the core elements for adopting the offsite concept in different construction contexts. This ultimately facilitates the enhancement of the offsite uptake.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study was carried out through a systematic literature review (SLR). The SLR was conducted to identify and understand the existing themes in the offsite research landscape, evaluate contributions and compile knowledge, thereby identifying potential directions of future research. The grand electronic databases were explored to gather literature on the offsite concept, lean and agile principles and simulation. A total of 62 related articles published between 1992 and 2015 have been included in this study. The relevant literature was systematically analysed and synthesised to present the emerging offsite themes.

Findings

The descriptive and thematic analyses presented in this paper have identified related offsite research studies that have contributed to setting a firm foundation of the offsite concept in different construction contexts. Each of the 62 articles was examined for achieving the aim and objectives of this study, the method of data collection and coverage of offsite themes. The results of the analyses revealed that the articles mostly provide information on the offsite concept and its definitions (53 per cent) and offsite barriers and/or drivers (27 per cent). However, limited attention has been paid to the integration of lean and agile principles (13 per cent) and simulation (7 per cent) within the offsite concept, which are therefore more open to research within the offsite concept.

Research limitations/implications

The literature review highlights the main themes and components of the offsite construction concept. This forms a solid basis and motivation for researchers and practitioners to build on to enhance the uptake of the offsite concept in different contexts. This study also presents a research roadmap within the offsite concept, along with a recommendation for further research to be conducted using the research framework proposed in this study. The framework could lead to validation of using simulation to integrate lean and agile principles within the offsite concept.

Originality/value

This paper presents a systematic review of the literature related to offsite construction in different contexts. The emerging components, that is, offsite definitions, drivers and/or barriers, lean and agile principles and simulation have been highlighted and discussed thematically. A research framework that enables pursuit of the integration of lean and agile principles offsite through the lens of simulation has been proposed. The framework is expected to open up new opportunities on the effectiveness of offsite development in different contexts.

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2023

Muhammed Sajid, K.A. Zakkariya and Myriam Ertz

The zero-waste lifestyle (ZWL) is considered a reasonable step towards controlling waste generation and minimizing the consequences of human activities on the environment. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The zero-waste lifestyle (ZWL) is considered a reasonable step towards controlling waste generation and minimizing the consequences of human activities on the environment. The main aim of this study is to examine the behavioral antecedents of ZWL.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on the theoretical underpinnings of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the norm activation model (NAM) to develop a conceptual framework to understand the antecedents to ZWL. A cross-sectional survey among 349 randomly-selected consumers provided data analyzed with the partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) methodology.

Findings

The results demonstrate that personal norms, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control positively influenced the intention to adopt ZWL. Additionally, the study showed that the awareness of consequences influenced personal norms, attitudes and subjective norms. However, the study identified an intention–behavior gap in adopting ZWL.

Originality/value

This study serves as a pioneering exploration of the behavioral factors that impact the adoption of ZWL. Additionally, the paper endeavors to elucidate the underlying reasons behind the intention–behavior gap within this particular context. Consequently, the study offers substantial theoretical and practical implications aimed at promoting and fostering greater adoption of ZWL practices.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Maryam Khashij, Mohammad Hossein Salmani, Arash Dalvand, Hossien Fallahzadeh, Fatemeh Haghirosadat and Mehdi Mokhtari

This paper aims to investigation of processes for Pb2+ elimination from water/wastewater as a significant public health issue in many parts of world. The removal of Pb2+ ions by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigation of processes for Pb2+ elimination from water/wastewater as a significant public health issue in many parts of world. The removal of Pb2+ ions by various nanocomposites has been explained from water/wastewaters. ZnO-based nanocomposites, as eco-friendly nanoparticles with unique physicochemical properties, have received increased attention to remove Pb2+ ions from water/wastewaters.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review, different ZnO-based nanocomposites were reviewed for their application in the removal of Pb2+ ions from the aqueous solution, typically for wastewater treatment using methodology, such as adsorption. This review focused on the ZnO-based nanocomposites for removing Pb2+ ions from water and wastewaters systems.

Findings

The ZnO-based nanocomposite was prepared by different methods, such as electrospinning, hydrothermal/alkali hydrothermal, direct precipitation and polymerization. Depending on the preparation method, various types of ZnO-based nanocomposites like ZnO-metal (Cu/ZnO, ZnO/ZnS, ZnO/Fe), ZnO-nonmetal (PVA/ZnO, Talc/ZnO) and ZnO-metal/nonmetal (ZnO/Na-Y zeolite) were obtained with different morphologies. The effects of operational parameters and adsorption mechanisms were discussed in the review.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may be greatly useful in the application of the ZnO-based nanocomposite in the fields of organic and inorganic pollutants adsorption.

Practical implications

The present study is novel, because it investigated the morphological and structural properties of the synthesized ZnO-based nanocomposite using different methods and studied the capability of green-synthesized ZnO-based nanocomposite to remove Pb2+ ions as water contaminants.

Social implications

The current review can be used for the development of environmental pollution control measures.

Originality/value

This paper reviews the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite technology.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 52 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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