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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Bernard L. Simonin

This paper aims to encourage greater clarity and stimulate further interest in thorough empirical research in the area of learning levels. The broader motivation here is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to encourage greater clarity and stimulate further interest in thorough empirical research in the area of learning levels. The broader motivation here is to urge researchers to not only theorize but also undertake elaborate and much needed empirical work.

Design/methodology/approach

Part I of the study rests on a reflection and review of the literature concerned with “N-loop learning”, that is, the different hierarchical levels and stages of organizational learning.

Findings

The study provides some views and classification schemes on how to reconcile and think about different levels of learning. Some learning archetypes are identified that guide further reflection and elaboration on learning stages and hierarchies.

Originality/value

N-loop learning” is introduced to encapsulate and systematize a vast array of views, models and levels of organizational learning. From zero learning and single-loop learning to quadruple-loop learning, a series of learning archetypes are presented. The case for a proper and clear nomenclature of learning levels is singled out. Finally, a strong case for empirical testing in this area is advocated.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Bernard L. Simonin

Through a survey of firm’s experiences with strategic alliances and a structural equation modeling approach, the aim of this study is to stimulate further interest in…

Abstract

Purpose

Through a survey of firm’s experiences with strategic alliances and a structural equation modeling approach, the aim of this study is to stimulate further interest in modeling and empirical research in the area of N-loop learning. Although the concepts of single-loop and double-loop learning, in particular, are well established in the literature, limited research has been directed toward their empirical validation and finer understanding.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a large sample of technology firms, a MIMIC model is proposed and tested with respect to the development of collaborative know-how via the adoption and conduct of different structural choices on how to deploy strategic alliances (single-loop vs double-loop approach). Results are cross-validated.

Findings

Based on the results of two structural equation models, the findings support the fit of the proposed conceptual model and the notion that, overall, the greater the extent of double-loop over single-loop learning, the higher the level of collaborative know-how derived.

Originality/value

The call for the empirical investigation of N-loop learning is met by providing an example of survey-based research. The possible benefits of “double-loop” over “single-loop” learning are modeled and tested empirically.

Content available

Abstract

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Robert L. Flood and Norma R.A. Romm

The purpose of the paper is to introduce a systemic approach to organizational learning “triple loop learning” (TLL) that addresses processes of power. Three equally…

1584

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to introduce a systemic approach to organizational learning “triple loop learning” (TLL) that addresses processes of power. Three equally important foci in our TLL are processes of design, processes of debate and processes of power. The focus on power aims to shift “power over” (power as domination) to “power to” enact empowering designs, “power to” co-develop responsible decision-making and “power to” transform our relations with each other and with life on Earth.

Design/methodology/approach

The organizational learning literature is reviewed in the context of power dynamics and its shortcomings are highlighted. The authors introduce their understanding of TLL, and how it engages with power dynamics in organizations.

Findings

Peter Senge’s conceptualization of systems thinking is unable to recognize processes of power in organizations and offers limited support to transformative learning. Conceptualizations of TLL aim to enhance learning in organizations but none satisfactorily address the processes of power. The learning organization literature as a whole does not satisfactorily address processes of power or reflect our way of envisaging “looping between loops of learning” in TLL to better design, better debate and better develop relationality in the social fabric of organizations.

Originality/value

The authors introduce an original approach to TLL that directly addresses the processes of power in organizations. It offers researchers, learning facilitators and practitioners of the learning organization a way to engage with the processes of power without neglecting other important organizational and environmental issues.

Content available

Abstract

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Nataša Rupčić

The purpose of this paper is to highlight challenges and opportunities that surround the process of learning with an emphasis on higher-order learning and learning as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight challenges and opportunities that surround the process of learning with an emphasis on higher-order learning and learning as behavior. Higher-order learning has been conceptualized as learning behavior that can be learned.

Design/methodology/approach

The holistic framework regarding higher-order learning has been proposed on the basis of systems perspective and critical thinking of previous contributions.

Findings

A review and analysis of learning, especially higher-order learning, resulted in its conceptualization and guidelines on how to implement it. Higher-order learning is a learning behavior that can be learned and implemented in many situations in complex social and organizational practices.

Research limitations/implications

Conclusions and remarks provided in this paper need further empirical testing and validation.

Practical implications

Implications for practitioners have been identified in terms of recommendations for implementing higher-order learning as a learning behavior that can be learned.

Social implications

Dedicated implementation of higher-order learning and learning as behavior can bring true change to the current social and economic paradigm and lasting solutions to the so-called “stubborn problems” of pollution, abuse, destruction and poverty, and can cause systemic transformation of our declining society.

Originality/value

Higher-order learning has been conceptualized and challenges surrounding it have been identified along with suggestions on how to overcome them.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2019

Florian Fahrenbach and Florian Kragulj

Considering personality as changeable through a bottom-up process of altering states, habits and traits, constitutes a shift in the predominant paradigm within personality…

1760

Abstract

Purpose

Considering personality as changeable through a bottom-up process of altering states, habits and traits, constitutes a shift in the predominant paradigm within personality psychology. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider Bateson’s theory of learning and organizational triple-loop learning in light of this recent empirical evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a multi-disciplinary conceptual approach. Based on an integrative analysis of literature from recent work in personality psychology, four dimensions (process, content, time and context) are identified that allow linking personality change and triple-loop learning.

Findings

Identifying a bottom-up process of changing states, habits and traits as being central to change personality, allows for reconsidering Bateson’s theory of learning as a theory of personality development (Learning II) and personality change (Learning III). Functionally equivalent, organizational triple-loop learning is conceptualized as a change in an organization’s identity over time that may be facilitated through a change in responding to events and a change in the organization’s routines.

Practical implications

Interventions that change how organizations respond to events and that change the routines within an organization may be suitable to facilitate triple-loop learning in terms of changing organizational identity over time.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the discussion on Bateson’s theory of learning and organizational triple-loop learning. As interest in personality change grows in organization studies, this paper aims to transfer these findings to organizational learning.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

William D. Schneper, David A. Wernick and Mary Ann Von Glinow

Abstract

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2022

Sayed Muhammad Fawad Sharif, Yang Naiding and Sayed Kifayat Shah

Collaborative projects require overlapping skills and capabilities to facilitate knowledge transfer. However, not all kinds of learning are virtuous and some may lead to…

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborative projects require overlapping skills and capabilities to facilitate knowledge transfer. However, not all kinds of learning are virtuous and some may lead to leakage of commercially valuable knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to explain and restrain leakage of organizational competitive knowledge in collaborative projects.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 398 survey questionnaires are collected from project-based firms in Pakistan. We gathered data from horizontal and vertical collaborations. Analysis is conducted with transaction cost economics lens through Process Macro 3.0.

Findings

Findings suggest that partner’s learning intent (PLI) and distrust positively affect knowledge leakage, whereas human resource management (HRM) practices have negative effect on knowledge leakage. Furthermore, HRM practices negatively moderate the relationship between PLI and knowledge leakage and distrust positively mediates it.

Research limitations/implications

This study integrates HRM with knowledge management to restrain knowledge leakage and contributes to knowledge management and strategic management. This study examines knowledge leakage in the presence of passive opportunism.

Originality/value

This study explains how passive opportunism translates into opportunistic behavior. Besides, effectiveness of HRM practices are least surveyed to restrain passive and active opportunisms.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Sayed Muhammad Fawad Sharif, Yang Naiding, Yan Xu and Atiq ur Rehman

Organizational networking has been acclaimed as a useful tool for knowledge transfer. However, the demerit associated with knowledge transfer is the leakage of…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational networking has been acclaimed as a useful tool for knowledge transfer. However, the demerit associated with knowledge transfer is the leakage of commercially valuable information/knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to empirically establish a useful framework for helping collaborative projects reduce potential knowledge leakages.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies a hybrid methodology to collect data. Postulates are tested through SPSS 23 and Process Macro 3.0 model 7.

Findings

The study finds that knowledge leakage is negatively influenced by contract completeness. Contract completeness has a positive effect on trust and a negative effect on distrust. Partner’s learning intent moderates the relationship of contract completeness with trust and distrust. Trust and distrust negatively mediate the relationship between contract completeness and knowledge leakage.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the theories of information processing and knowledge management by empirically stating how contract completeness, an organizational structure, supports knowledge management under the influence of partner’s opportunism. The study sees positivism in distrust and explains how practitioners maintain an observatory eye on partner’s opportunism by virtue of distrust ultimately adding value to the distrust literature.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework is novel because this is the first attempt to investigate the moderation effect of partner’s opportunism on the relationship of contract completeness and relational factors; and the mediation effects of trust and distrust between contract completeness and knowledge leakage.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

1 – 10 of 14