The purpose of this paper is to identify the main determinants of the probability of a household being poor, middle class, or rich.
A new and integrated approach to the measurement of inequality in income distribution, poverty, and richness was recently proposed. Based on that approach and considering data for the Portuguese economy, the authors estimate a multinomial model in order to identify the main determinants of the probability of a household being poor, middle class, or rich using a set of characteristics of the households and the household's individual of reference as explanatory variables.
The evidence obtained indicates that: the determinants of poverty and richness are similar in qualitative terms; and household type, main source of income, education, and labor market state are the most important factors explaining these phenomena.
Following a methodology recently proposed by Crespo et al. toward an integrated measurement of inequality, poverty, and richness, the present study contributes to this line of research by using a micro‐econometric model applied to the Portuguese economy in order to identify the determinants of poverty and richness.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) to preserve the privacy of biometric data in an authentication…
The purpose of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) to preserve the privacy of biometric data in an authentication system. Biometrics offers higher accuracy for personal recognition than traditional methods because of its properties. Biometric data are permanently linked with an individual and cannot be revoked or cancelled, especially when biometric data are compromised, leading to privacy issues.
By reviewing current approaches, FHE is considered as a promising solution for the privacy issue because of its ability to perform computations in the encrypted domain. The authors studied the effectiveness of FHE in biometric authentication systems. In doing so, the authors undertake the study by implementing a protocol for biometric authentication system using iris.
The security analysis of the implementation scheme demonstrates the effectiveness of FHE to protect the privacy of biometric data, as unlimited operations can be performed in the encrypted domain, and the FHE secret key is not shared with any other party during the authentication protocol.
The use of malicious model in the design of the authentication protocol to improve the privacy, packing methods and use of low-level programming language to enhance performance of the system needs to be further investigated.
The main contributions of this paper are the implementation of a privacy-preserving iris biometric authentication protocol adapted to lattice-based FHE and a sound security analysis of authentication and privacy.