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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Tipnuch Phungsoonthorn and Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol

The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the antecedents and outcomes associated with a sense of place (SOP) on the part of Myanmar migrant workers working in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the antecedents and outcomes associated with a sense of place (SOP) on the part of Myanmar migrant workers working in Thailand toward their place of work. The transformational leadership of top management and diversity climate were selected as the antecedent variables, whereas turnover intention was selected as the outcome variable. Belongingness theory and social identity theory were used as the theoretical foundation to support the roles of these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from Myanmar migrant workers working at two factories in Thailand (n=736). Partial least squares regression was used for the data analysis.

Findings

The results support a negative linkage between SOP and turnover intention. The positive contribution of transformational leadership of top management and diversity climate to SOP was also supported. Moreover, diversity climate was found to partially mediate the positive contribution of transformational leadership of top management to SOP. Finally, the analysis found that the linkage between diversity climate and SOP was positively moderated by the length of stay of the Myanmar migrant workers in the organization.

Originality/value

This study provides new evidence showing that SOP also matters for foreign migrant workers in terms of developing emotional attachment to the workplace outside their home country and that these workers were less likely to leave the workplace although they were a culturally minority group in the organization. This research also provides new evidence concerning the role of the transformational leadership of top management and workplace climate, which were antecedents of an SOP toward the organization.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Deivi Gaitan, Valerie Daw Tin Shwe, Predrag Bajcevic and Anita Gagnon

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among Myanmar male migrant workers (> 15 years) living in Mae Sot, Thailand, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) among Myanmar male migrant workers (> 15 years) living in Mae Sot, Thailand, and their patterns of drinking.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was administered to 512 participants to measure AUDs and drinking patterns. ANOVA and χ2 analyses were performed to assess demographic differences between abstainers, harmful and hazardous drinkers (HHDs) (those showing signs of AUDs) and non-harmful drinkers.

Findings

Results showed that 12.3 percent of male Myanmar migrants were HHDs, a rate only slightly higher than in Thai men (9.1 percent), but much higher than in men still living in Myanmar (2.7 percent) (WHO, 2014). Also, 19 percent of alcohol-consuming Myanmar male migrant workers reported patterns of heavy episodic drinking, which is markedly higher than in alcohol-consuming Thai (4.7 percent) and Myanmar men (1.5 percent) (WHO, 2014).

Originality/value

Given the health risks associated with AUDs and heavy episodic drinking, the findings of this study suggest a need for appropriate alcohol-related health education and intervention for Myanmar male migrant workers.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Theingi Theingi, Hla Theingi and Sharon Purchase

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how institutional mechanisms operate within both formal and informal channels of cross-border remittance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how institutional mechanisms operate within both formal and informal channels of cross-border remittance.

Design/methodology/approach

Face-to-face interviews were conducted with Myanmar migrants mostly working in Thailand. Thematic coding was used to analyze field notes and identify themes in channel member perceptions and institutional environmental process.

Findings

Informal money transfer channels have achieved higher levels of legitimacy when compared to formal channels. Channel legitimacy is a more important attribute than efficiency. Lack of financial infrastructure, such as bank branches and ATM machines particularly in rural or outlying areas of Myanmar, the requirements for formal documentation and language and communication are the major institutional constraints that encourage the development and use of multiple channels in Myanmar. Formal money transfer channels develop with stronger regulative institutional processes, whereas informal money transfer channels develop with stronger cultural-cognitive and normative institutional processes.

Research limitations/implications

Using convenience sample of remitters mainly from one area of Thailand and other channel members from Yangon, the financial capital of Myanmar, may limit the applicability of the findings, which calls for future research.

Practical implications

Banks and money transfer offices need to improve legitimacy perception within migrant communities by building stronger networks with local banks and international banks. They could provide Myanmar speaking front-line service personnel and include brochures in the Myanmar language to improve the communication process. The findings and recommendations from this study are also applicable to informal channels and formal financial institutions in other ASEAN countries that are preparing to make investments in Myanmar. Moreover, Myanmar banks should also consider opening branches to cater for Myanmar workers in ASEAN, especially in Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

Originality value

This paper applies institutional theory within channels, investigates the context of a financial channel rather than a product channel, addresses the importance of institutional environmental mechanisms and constraints in influencing channel behavior and is embedded in the situational context of Myanmar, a newly opened South-East Asian economy where little prior research has been conducted.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Rhys Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to examine Myanmar’s “hundi” system, an informal value transfer system used widely by local Myanmar citizens and offshore migrant workers to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Myanmar’s “hundi” system, an informal value transfer system used widely by local Myanmar citizens and offshore migrant workers to remit money domestically and internationally. Due to historically stringent banking and foreign exchange controls and a lack of domestic and internationally linked financial services, the system grew to become the dominant medium for remittances in Myanmar. It also remains unregulated despite authorities acknowledging its use in criminal and terrorist activity. However, with an expanding and modernising financial sector, there is now increasing competition and challenges facing Myanmar’s hundi system.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on available literature and open source reporting, as well as interviews with former Myanmar Police Force officials.

Findings

This study provides a unique insight into Myanmar’s hundi system, its history and the challenges it faces. The once dominant system remains a known anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) risk and is having to compete with an expanding and modernising formal banking sector and the introduction of fintech and mobile money services. In the short term, these are unlikely to eliminate the hundi system completely, but may instead push hundi operators towards adopting these networks and technologies in their own operations.

Originality/value

Myanmar remains a very under-researched area and there has been a limited focus on its informal hundi remittance system and related AML/CFT issues. This paper will be a useful source for academics, development professionals, policymakers, law enforcement agencies and private sector actors seeking to understand Myanmar’s informal remittance system.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Kathleen Ford and Aphichat Chamratrithirong

Migrants may be vulnerable towards HIV infection for many reasons including separation from spouses, lack of family restraint, peer norms, alcohol use, low perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

Migrants may be vulnerable towards HIV infection for many reasons including separation from spouses, lack of family restraint, peer norms, alcohol use, low perceived vulnerability toward HIV infection, limited access to health care and health education, and low levels of education. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of duration of stay and subsequent moves in Thailand on AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors of migrant workers from Myanmar and Cambodia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are drawn from a survey of 3,374 migrants conducted by the Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University in 2008. Multiple linear and logistic regression were used to assess factors related to AIDS knowledge and risk taking behavior.

Findings

The average length of stay in Thailand for these migrants was about five years. Duration of residence in Thailand was related to an increase in AIDS knowledge as well as an increase in condom use with regular partners. Duration of residence was also associated with an increase in visits to unpaid non regular partners and a decrease in visits to paid non regular partners. The number of moves across provinces within Thailand was not related to AIDS knowledge but was related to a decrease in paid and unpaid non regular partners.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by the cross sectional nature of the survey. Longitudinal surveys of the migrants' experience should be conducted.

Practical implications

Duration of residence in Thailand had both positive and negative effects on migrants' vulnerability to HIV infection. A focus on minimizing HIV risk behaviors may be needed throughout their stay.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to focus on duration of residence and movement with Thailand on HIV prevention for migrant laborers. The findings are of value to health promotion programs for migrants.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Titaree Phanwichatkul, Elaine Burns, Pranee Liamputtong and Virginia Schmied

The purpose of this paper is to describe Burmese migrant women’s perceptions of health and well-being during pregnancy, their health promoting practices and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe Burmese migrant women’s perceptions of health and well-being during pregnancy, their health promoting practices and their experiences with the Thai antenatal services.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an ethnographic design. Observations were conducted in two antenatal clinics in southern Thailand. Ten Burmese migrant women and three Burmese interpreters participated in interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

The Burmese women wanted to take care of themselves and their baby to the best of their ability. This included following traditional practices and attending the antenatal clinic if able. Negotiating the demands of earning an income, and protecting their unborn baby, sometimes led to unhealthy practices such as consuming energy drinks and herbal tonics to improve performance. Accessing antenatal care was a positive health seeking behaviour noted in this community, however, it was not available to all.

Research limitations/implications

This is a small ethnographic study conducted in one Province in Thailand and all Burmese participants were legal migrants. Further research is required to understand the needs of pregnant women not able to access maternity services because of their status as an illegal migrant.

Practical implications

Community-based health promotion initiatives need to focus on the nutrition of pregnant women who are migrants living in southern Thailand. New models of care may increase migrant women’s use of antenatal services.

Originality/value

Most studies of the health of migrant women are conducted in high-income countries. This study demonstrates the difficulties experienced by women migrating from a low to middle-income country.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2020

Proloy Barua and Kanida Charoensri Narattharaksa

Statelessness is the worst possible form of violation of fundamental human rights which can lead to improper health systems management and serious adverse health outcomes…

Abstract

Purpose

Statelessness is the worst possible form of violation of fundamental human rights which can lead to improper health systems management and serious adverse health outcomes in children. To address this, the Thai Cabinet introduced the Health Insurance for People with Citizenship Problem (HIPCP) in 2010. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between insurance affiliations and the health status of stateless children insured with the HIPCP. The presence of pneumonia was selected as a proxy for health status. The comparison groups were Thai children insured with the Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS) which was launched in 2002 and the uninsured children of low-skilled migrants in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A retrospective study was conducted at four selected district hospitals: Mae Ramat Hospital, Phop Phra Hospital, Tha Song Yang Hospital and Umphang Hospital in Tak Province, located in northwestern Thailand. The study used the medical records of children aged 0-15 years who were admitted to the aforementioned hospitals between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. Multivariate logistic regression model was applied with a binary response variable (ever diagnosed with pneumonia: yes/no). Exposure was three types of insurance status (uninsured, HIPCP and UCS) while covariates were age, sex, domicile and year of hospitalization of children.

Findings

Of 7,098 hospitalized children between 2013 and 2017, 1,313 were identified with pneumonia. After controlling for key covariates, multivariate results depicted that the odds of pneumonia was 4 per cent higher in stateless children insured with the HIPCP as compared with uninsured children but non-significant (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.040, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] = [0.526, 2.160], p =0.916). Similarly, the odds of pneumonia was 10 per cent higher in Thai children insured with the UCS as compared with uninsured children but non-significant (AOR = 1.100, 95 per cent CI = [0.594, 2.180], p =0.767). The children who were hospitalized in 2017 were 26 per cent more likely to have pneumonia as compared with those who were hospitalized in 2013 with statistical significance (AOR = 1.260, 95 per cent CI = [1.000, 1.580], p =0.050). Results remained robust after performing sensitivity analyses.

Social implications

This study suggests that health insurance is not associated with the health status of vulnerable children especially in the presence of multiple health interventions for uninsured and/or undocumented children living along the Thai–Myanmar border area. Further experimental studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship between insurance and health outcomes and to overcome the limitations of this observational study.

Originality/value

This study has discovered that age and domicile of children are independently associated with pneumonia. In comparison with the youngest age group (0-1 year), the older age groups presented a significantly lower odds for pneumonia. The children living in Phop Phra, Tha Song Yang and Umphang districts revealed a reduced risk for pneumonia as compared with children living in Mae Ramat district.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Steve Kwok-Leung Chan

This paper aims to study dams on transboundary rivers. In this study, the case of the Nu–Salween–Thanlwin River is reviewed. This study is an attempt toward developing a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study dams on transboundary rivers. In this study, the case of the Nu–Salween–Thanlwin River is reviewed. This study is an attempt toward developing a conceptual model to explain the unequal hydropower exchange of hydropower dams on transboundary rivers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews big dam project plans on the Salween–Thanlwin River near the Myanmar–Thailand border from the perspective of critical hydropolitics. The evidence is drawn from an extensive review of academic literature, reports, newspapers and websites on this topic. Cascao and Zeitoun’s (2010) four pillars of power, namely, geographical, material, bargaining and ideational power, are reviewed in the case of the Salween–Thanlwin River and its riparian states.

Findings

On the basis of a realist discourse, power relationships between dams and their socio-environmental effects are discussed from the perspective of critical hydropolitics. Multiple levels of power asymmetry regarding geographical, material, bargaining and ideational power are observed. The powerful states are high electricity consumers and importers. They invest in hydroelectric dams of adjacent developing states and buy back most of the electricity generated to fuel their industrialization and urbanization. Weak states generally do not have high bargaining power. They depend on the investment of high material power states for domestic and economic development and gain from the export of electricity. However, the externalities of hydropower dams are transferred to these weak states. This contributes to an unequal hydropower exchange model.

Practical implications

The model provides an analytical framework for hydropower dam projects through which comprehensive and multidimensional views are extracted. Academia, policymakers, private developers, international development agencies and nongovernment organizations will have a better understanding of hydropower dam projects and the interactions among riparian states.

Originality/value

This conceptual model stems from Cascao and Zeitoun’s (2010) four pillars of power – geographical, material, bargaining and ideational power. The author limits the framework to hydroelectric dams in transboundary rivers. The powerful states are high electricity consumers and importers that dominate the dam development projects and exchange process.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Amporn Jirattikorn, Arunrat Tangmunkongvorakul, Patou Masika Musumari, Arratee Ayuttacorn, Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Cathy Banwell and Matthew Kelly

For decades, northern Thailand has been a hub for migration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly for migrants from Myanmar. HIV prevalence among Myanmar/Burmese…

Abstract

Purpose

For decades, northern Thailand has been a hub for migration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly for migrants from Myanmar. HIV prevalence among Myanmar/Burmese migrants is higher than in the general Thai population. This study aims to focus on Shan migrants living with HIV in Chiang Mai, the metropolitan centre of northern Thailand and to examine two related aspects: migrants’ sexual risk behaviour and their HIV knowledge and beliefs. The study aims to understand circumstances in which mobility increases HIV risk behaviour and prevalence.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative study, the authors conducted in-depth interviews in 2017 with 43 HIV-infected Shan migrants (21 males and 22 females), and 29 health-care providers who work in district hospitals in Chiang Mai.

Findings

The authors found that social and economic vulnerability associated with migration, and AIDS-related mortality, increased migrants’ likelihood of having multiple serial partners. Confusion about HIV symptoms, stigmatization of HIV positive women and low risk perceptions, particularly among men, increased their risk behaviours.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to study the way of life, sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge and beliefs of Shan Migrants from Myanmar Living with HIV in Thailand.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Win Win Shwe, Aree Jampaklay, Aphichat Chamratrithirong and Suchada Thaweesit

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of the husband’s migration on wives’ decision-making autonomy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effects of the husband’s migration on wives’ decision-making autonomy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study setting is Magway Region of central Myanmar where poverty has driven adult males to migrate overseas. The study hypothesizes that the absence of husbands due to international migration leads to changes in the roles and decision-making power of left-behind wives. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 22 villages of Pakkoku district, Magway Region, using the multi-stage random sampling method. The study sample included 205 migrant’s wives and 196 non-migrant’s wives.

Findings

The international migration of husbands has a strong and positive impact on left-behind wives’ autonomy independent of individual characteristics and household social and economic status. In addition, the findings show that the number of children and household wealth are positively associated with women’s autonomy, whereas household size shows a negative association.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible that there will be unmeasured selection factors such as unsuccessful migration as it might influence both husbands’ migration status and women’s autonomy. Cross-sectional data also invite a question about the causal relationship. For example, it might be possible that women with high autonomy may be more likely to encourage their husband to work abroad. So, the relationship might be the other way around. A further longitudinal study is also needed to describe detail explanation about the causal influence of left-behind women’s autonomy.

Originality/value

Successful international migration has a impact not only on women’s autonomy but also on household economic status in central rural Myanmar.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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