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With the advent of fierce international competition in today's industrial business environment, it has become imperative for companies to reevaluate the cost/price/value…
With the advent of fierce international competition in today's industrial business environment, it has become imperative for companies to reevaluate the cost/price/value relationship of their products. In particular, highly competitive products require much closer attention to and control of the cost/price/value relationship to ensure continuing profitability. This paper examines one such product in an actual industrial setting (pseudonyms have been used to maintain data confidentiality) using a rather comprehensive conceptual framework based on Market Structure Analysis concepts. The proposed framework basically represents the industrial buying decision process which is both multiattribute and multiagent in nature. As pointed out by Sheth (1973) and Choffray and Lilien (1980), these industrial decision processes tend to become extremely complex due to heterogeneity among decision makers.
The prolonged army rule in the country has affected the policymaking procedure of the state. Specifically, defence and foreign policies of the country are normally decided…
The prolonged army rule in the country has affected the policymaking procedure of the state. Specifically, defence and foreign policies of the country are normally decided by the armed forces of Pakistan as per their own priorities, which is against the norms of democratic culture and supremacy of the civilian rule.
The control of important decision-making process in the hands of the armed forces has generated an arms race in the subcontinent. The major portion of the national budget is being spent on the defence forces and other sectors such as education and health and social welfare are not getting their due share from the revenue of the country. The continued sense of insecurity and animosity with neighbour countries, especially India, has resulted in speeding the acquisition of sophisticated arms in the country.
This research discusses the effects of the military's role in the decision-making of the country and its impacts on the relations between India and Pakistan. The confidence building measures and peacemaking process in South Asia is dependent on the attitude of the military of both the countries.
This study was designed with the aim of assessing the energy and nutrient intakes of male university students before and during Ramadan and comparing it with the…
This study was designed with the aim of assessing the energy and nutrient intakes of male university students before and during Ramadan and comparing it with the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia.
A total of 30 male students aged between 19‐24 years from International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Kuantan Campus were recruited before Ramadan. The height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were recorded on day one of Ramadan and also recorded on day 21 of Ramadan to assess the changes. From the weight and height, the body mass index was calculated and from the waist and hip circumference, the waist‐to‐hip ratios were calculated. The respondents were requested to keep three days food record in household measurements; once prior to fasting and once during the third week of Ramadan. The records were then analyzed using Malaysian Food Composition Table and Food Atlas to get the averages of energy and macronutrients intakes of the subjects.
After 21 days of Ramadan, the results revealed that there was reduction in the body weight and there was significant (P<0.05) improvement in the waist‐to‐hip ratio of the subjects. The effect was more prominent in the normal‐weight compared to overweight respondents. The mean energy and protein intakes were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the RNI for Malaysians of similar age group. However, mean energy and protein intakes increased during Ramadan compared to the first day of Ramadan. This study indicates that Ramadan fasting does not affect energy and macronutrients intake but only the routine of intake is affected.
This research was limited to a specific group of normal and overweight students who were residing on campus of the IIUM. Their intakes might not be consistent with those at home or living outside the university campus. Another thing is that the students might have over‐reported their energy and macro‐nutrients intakes compared to what they have consumed in reality. So, the self‐reported intakes could not be ascertained. The stated factors might have confounding effects on the finding of this research.
Most research argues that the body weight loss during Ramadan fasting is due to reduced energy consumption; however, this is not true in all cases. This study infers that there is no reduction in the total energy consumption, rather there is a change in the pattern of energy intake. This brief study would help researchers planning to conduct research on Ramadan fasting and will caution fasting readers about the intakes.
This study indicates that during Ramadan fasting does not affect energy and macro‐nutrients intake but only the schedule of intake is affected.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate Pakistani bank front-line employees’ intentions to behave ethically by using the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate Pakistani bank front-line employees’ intentions to behave ethically by using the extended theory of planned behaviour (ETPB) into which religiosity (i.e. religious activity, devotion to rituals and belief in doctrine) is integrated as a moderating variable.
The authors collected 234 self-administered questionnaires and analysed them using SmartPLS 2.0, a second generation structural equation modelling technique.
This paper demonstrates that the ETPB can explain intentions to behave ethically. Moral norms (i.e. the rules of morality that people believe they ought to follow) and perceived behavioural control (i.e. people’s perceptions of their ability to perform a given behaviour) are the best predictors of ethical behavioural intentions. The effects of injunctive norms (i.e. perceptions of which behaviours are typically approved or disapproved in an organisation) and of perceived behavioural control on behavioural intent are moderated by religiosity.
Leading by example, providing ethics training, empowering employees and encouraging the expression of religiosity are proposed as ways to foster an ethical culture in the workplace.
Even though numerous empirical studies have utilised variants of the theory of planned behaviour to explain consumer behaviour, its applicability to ethical behaviour in the workplace has scarcely been explored. Moreover, its tests in non-western contexts are scant. This study demonstrates the applicability of the ETPB in a broader circumstantial and cultural context and enriches it with religiosity, a pertinent characteristic of billions of people around the world. Finally, this is one of the very few ethics studies focusing on banking, an industry fraught with allegations of moral breaches.
This paper empirically examines the relationship between foreign direct investment, financial development and other macroeconomic variables like trade openness, domestic…
This paper empirically examines the relationship between foreign direct investment, financial development and other macroeconomic variables like trade openness, domestic investment and labour force and that of GDP per capita in select South Asian countries, i.e. India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan for the period 1990–2018.
The study uses various econometrics tools such as Pedroni, Kao and Johansen–Fisher panel cointegration test, Panel FMOLS and DOLS and Granger causality in order to analyse the long-run and short-run dynamics among the variables under consideration.
The results of the panel data estimation techniques employed imply that there is a short-run causality running from GDP per capita to FDI and financial development, and results from FMOLS and DOLS indicate that FDI and financial development have positive impacts on GDP per capita in the countries under consideration.
In this paper, we use a dynamic macroeconomic modelling framework to examine the effect of FDI and financial development on per capita income in three major south Asian economies, which are categorized as three Non-Least Developed Contracting States under the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA), 2006, established with an aim to facilitate free trade among them. Considering the diversity of the level of growth experienced by these economies, the study uses appropriate panel regression techniques. Therefore, in addition to proper formulation of policies directed towards scaling up of export and import levels, the respective authorities should also take care that the political stability and institutional quality are maintained.