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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2021

Akile Oday, Ali Ozturen, Mustafa Ilkan and A. Mohammed Abubakar

Little empirical attention has been paid to the effects of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), electronic referral (eReferral), familiarity and cultural distance on…

Abstract

Purpose

Little empirical attention has been paid to the effects of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), electronic referral (eReferral), familiarity and cultural distance on behavioral outcomes, especially within the context of educational tourism. Based on the social network theory, this paper aims to explore the effects of eReferral, eWOM, familiarity and cultural distance on enrollment intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data (n = 931) were obtained from educational tourists using a judgmental sampling technique. Linear modeling and artificial intelligence (i.e. artificial neural network [ANN]) techniques were used for training and testing the proposed associations.

Findings

The results suggest that eReferral, eWOM, familiarity and cultural distance predict intention to enroll both symmetrically (linear modeling) and asymmetrically (ANN). The asymmetric modeling possesses greater predictive validity and relevance.

Originality/value

This study contributes theoretically and methodologically to the management literature by validating the proposed relationships and deploying contemporary methods such as the ANN. Implications for practice and theory are discussed.

是否在线推荐, 在线口碑, 熟悉度, 还有文化距离决定参加意图吗?人工智能科技的应用

摘要

研究目的

很少有研究检测过在线口碑(eWOM), 在线推荐(eReferral), 熟悉度, 和文化距离对行为结果的影响, 特别是在教育旅游的领域里。本论文基于社交网络理论探索eReferral, eWOM, 熟悉度, 和文化距离对参加意图的作用。

研究设计/方法/途径

研究样本数据为931位教育旅游的游客, 通过判断抽样技术。本论文通过线性建模和人工智能(即人工神经网络)技术来培训和检测提出的关系。

研究结果

研究结果表明, eRefferal, eWOM, 熟悉度, 和文化距离对参与意图起到决定作用, 其中包括对称(线性建模)和非对称地(人工神经网络)方式。非对称建模将增加有效性和相关性的决定度。

研究原创性/价值

本论文通过证实提出的关系和采用现代方法, 比如人工神经网络, 对管理文献做出理论和实践的贡献。本论文还讨论了对实践和理论的启示。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Ali Yuce, A. Mohammed Abubakar and Mustafa Ilkan

Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are a supplemental educational tool that offers great benefits to students and teachers. The systems are designed to focus on an…

Abstract

Purpose

Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) are a supplemental educational tool that offers great benefits to students and teachers. The systems are designed to focus on an individual’s characteristics, needs and preferences in an effort to improve student outcomes. Despite the potential benefits of such systems, little work has been done to investigate the impact of ITS on users. To provide a more nuanced understanding of the effectiveness of ITS, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of several ITS parameters (i.e. knowledge, system, service quality and task–technology fit (TTF)) in motivating, satisfying and helping students to improve their learning performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from students who used ITS, and a structural equation modeling was deployed to analyze the data.

Findings

Data analysis revealed that the quality of knowledge, system and service directly impacted satisfaction and improved TTF for ITS. It was found that TTF and student satisfaction with ITS did not generate higher learning performance. However, student satisfaction with ITS did improve learning motivation and resulted in superior learning performance. Data suggest this is due to students receiving constant and constructive feedback while simultaneously collaborating with their peers and teachers.

Originality/value

This study verifies that there was a need to assess the benefits of ITS. Based on the study’s findings, theoretical and practical implications are proposed.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 March 2018

Henry Oluchukwu Ikediego, Mustafa Ilkan, A. Mohammed Abubakar and Festus Victor Bekun

There is growing interest in innovative online problem-solving models such as crowdsourcing to serve individuals, firms and the society as a whole. Crowdsourcing is the…

5331

Abstract

Purpose

There is growing interest in innovative online problem-solving models such as crowdsourcing to serve individuals, firms and the society as a whole. Crowdsourcing is the combination of efforts from various sets of individuals who are either volunteering or working part-time for socioeconomic production, basically in the cyber world. This hybrid work model is already in use by businesses and entrepreneurs; some of the platforms include Amazon mechanical Turk, 99designs, Hit RECORD and Design Crowd.

Design/methodology/approach

Much has been parleyed and published, and this is primarily because of the efficient socioeconomic potentials crowdsourcing offers.

Findings

This paper addressed the following three questions to help have a better understanding of crowdsourcing: who can perform crowdsourcing? why it is relevant to crowdsource in this present proliferated internet age and if there are going to be some changes in the future and the last but not the least what can be done to promote it in the society?

Originality/value

This paper discusses the three W’s and concludes with challenges facing the crowdsourcing work model.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Abubakar Mohammed Abubakar, Mustafa Ilkan and Pinar Sahin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of electronic referral (eReferral) marketing and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on brand image and purchase…

3601

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of electronic referral (eReferral) marketing and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on brand image and purchase intention, coupled with the moderating effect of gender in the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the interplay between the proposed variables, using a random sample of 308 respondents in Cyprus.

Findings

The empirical results suggest the following: eReferral does influence brand image, and the impact is significant with women only; eWOM influences brand image, and the impact is more significant with women than men; eWOM influences purchase intention, and the impact is the same for both genders; brand image influences purchase intention, and the impact is more significant with women than men.

Research limitations/implications

Marketing managers can benefit from these competitive advantage tools. Brand image, awareness and sales volume can be increased by utilizing eWOM or eReferral, depending on the product and/or service functionality as well as gender.

Originality/value

While there is a substantial research stream on eWOM, to the best of the authors’ knowledge no research has differentiated eReferral from eWOM. This paper provides useful insights regarding the two concepts.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Paul Gibbs and Mustafa Ilkan

This paper takes advantage of the closeness of two separated communities on the island of Cyprus to study how controversial products and forms of offensive advertising…

3935

Abstract

Purpose

This paper takes advantage of the closeness of two separated communities on the island of Cyprus to study how controversial products and forms of offensive advertising executions can be related to levels of religiousness, time usage and temporality. The resulting observations are then to be offered as insights into the notion of ethics of the two religious groups and how these might influence marketing to multicultural communities

Design/methodology/approach

The findings are based on a small‐scale survey of 530 students (211 Christians, 302 Muslims and 18 undeclared) who responded to a questionnaire distributed at two privately owned English‐speaking institutions, one in the north and one in the south part of Cyprus.

Findings

The study indicates a high degree of commonality between Islamic and Christian student Cypriots living in adjoining regimes, even given their ideological and political differences.

Research limitations/implications

The relatively small numbers studied and the focus on students could limit the generalisation of these results.

Practical implications

The results raise some issues for marketing segmentation and image use. For instance, positive and forward‐looking images would stimulate most of the group regardless of their level of faith.

Originality/value

This paper identifies commonalities and also ontological differences that ought to inform global marketing campaigns.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2007

Paul Gibbs, Mustafa Ilkan and Stavros Pouloukas

This paper takes advantage of the closeness of two secular, separated communities on the island of Cyprus to study how controversial products and forms of offensive…

3314

Abstract

Purpose

This paper takes advantage of the closeness of two secular, separated communities on the island of Cyprus to study how controversial products and forms of offensive advertising can be related to levels of religiousness, time usage and temporality. The resulting observations are then offered as insights into the notion of ethics in the two religious groups and how these might influence marketing to multicultural communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings are based on a small‐scale survey of 530 students (211 Christians, 302 Muslims and 18 undeclared) who responded to a questionnaire distributed at two privately owned, English speaking institutions, one in the north and one in the south part of Cyprus.

Findings

This study indicates a high degree of commonality between Muslim and Christian students living in the adjoining communities in Cyprus. In general, overall reactions were tolerant of most products and forms of advertising, but where there were differences occurred there were specific reactions to the forms of the advertising. Significant differences were found across the communities when devoutness was tested especially regarding products that were of a sexual nature.

Research limitations/implications

The relatively small numbers studied in the special case of Cyprus and the focus on students could limit the generalisation of these results.

Practical implications

The results raise some issues for marketing segmentation and image use. For instance, positive and forward‐looking images would stimulate most of the group regardless of their level of faith.

Originality/value

This paper identifies commonalties and also ontological differences that could have implications for global marketing campaigns.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 September 2007

Finola Kerrigan and Anja Schaefer

2241

Abstract

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Md Shamim Hossain, Sofri Bin Yahya and Shaian Kiumarsi

The purpose of this study is to examine the link between research and practice within the context of Islamic marketing (IM), an issue which is controversial in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the link between research and practice within the context of Islamic marketing (IM), an issue which is controversial in the literature. It offers reasonable answers that bridge the gap between research and practice, as well as the way to mitigate it.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a critical approach to analytically review the literature on IM, and relates it to research and practice.

Findings

The study finds that the advancement of knowledge on IM necessitates research and practice. There is a gap between research and practice which evolved from decades of objectivity between researchers and practitioners in the field of IM. It is necessary to search for some practicable solutions that can narrow the gap between theory and practice.

Research limitations/implications

The basic limitation of this study is that IM has not yet emerged as a distinct discipline. Hence, there is limited study on IM issues in the context of research and practice.

Originality/value

This study makes essential contributions to the chastisement by research and practice, a theoretically new field of IM subject.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Santus Kumar Deb, Shohel Md. Nafi and Marco Valeri

This paper aims to measure the intention to use digital marketing strategies to enhance the performance of tourism business as well as the extent of digital renovation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure the intention to use digital marketing strategies to enhance the performance of tourism business as well as the extent of digital renovation applications in tourism for sustainable business in a new normal era.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an insight from the existing relevant literature on the tourism business from time immemorial. The conceptual framework of this study is designed based on previous studies of digital marketing practices for tourism businesses. Furthermore, data were collected from 270 respondents, of which the valid response rate is 72.97%. Partial least square (PLS)-structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to validate the conceptual framework and hypotheses testing.

Findings

Among the nine hypotheses path, seven were supported. This study result shows that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social media marketing and tourism business performance are critical factors for adopting digital marketing in tourism. Thus, tourism service providers' intention has a positive impact to meet the expectation of tourists and adoption of digital marketing.

Research limitations/implications

The study's results will assist tourism researchers and service providers in understanding an authentic relationship between digital practices of tourism business and tourist satisfaction. In addition, the legacy of tourism business through digital marketing empowers the owner and community.

Originality/value

The study is the first to explore the relationship between tourism business performance and digital marketing during the new normal era for the empowerment of local community and expanded business in tourism sector.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Ping Wang, Hongxiu Li and Yong Liu

The purpose of this paper is to show how different combinations of the subdimensions of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information quality (consisting of its accuracy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how different combinations of the subdimensions of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information quality (consisting of its accuracy, completeness, relevance, timeliness, and sidedness) may affect consumers' eWOM use behavior from a configurational approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a synthesis of past literature, five precursors of eWOM use were considered. A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was employed to understand the configurations that lead to travel-related eWOM use. The study was conducted with 311 consumers from an online travel service company.

Findings

Findings identified six solutions that explain eWOM use. EWOM accuracy, completeness, and sidedness are found to be core conditions reinforcing consumers' use of eWOM in combination with different peripheral conditions, including the subdimensions of eWOM information quality and the traits of the consumers (such as social media use time and gender).

Practical implications

Factors related to eWOM information quality and traits of the consumers, when considered in combination, predict eWOM use behavior in particular sets of conditions.

Originality/value

This work enriches the eWOM literature by providing an in-depth understanding of eWOM use from a configuration perspective. Configuration analysis serves as a better tool for explaining the complex relationships among variables than a regression analysis approach does. Additionally, in response to the need to move beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithmic approaches, this study shifts the emphasis from a symmetric paradigm to an asymmetric perspective for data analysis focused on eWOM use.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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