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Article

Nermeen El Kashef, Yasser Fouad Hassan, Khaled Mahar and Mustafa H. Fahmy

Nature is the single and most complex system that has been always studied, and no one can compete Mother Nature, but we can learn from her, by many new methodologies…

Abstract

Purpose

Nature is the single and most complex system that has been always studied, and no one can compete Mother Nature, but we can learn from her, by many new methodologies through biology. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, being inspired by the mechanism through which our Mother Nature handling human taste, a proposed model for clustering and classification hand gesture is introduced based on human taste controlling strategy.

Findings

The model can extract information from measurement data and handling it as the structure of tongue and the nervous systems of human taste recognition.

Originality/value

The efficiency of proposed model is demonstrated experimentally on classifying the sign language data set; in the high recognition accuracy obtained for numbers of ASL was 95.52 percent.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Mohamed Othman Elkhosht

The purpose of this paper is to draw a map of the general features of epistemological and critical concerns in contemporary Islamic philosophy. This study will not be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw a map of the general features of epistemological and critical concerns in contemporary Islamic philosophy. This study will not be confined to the domain of academic philosophy or to those who are professionals in the field of philosophy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopted the critical rational approach in dealing with contemporary Islamic philosophy in the Arab world. The scope will include scholars from different fields of epistemology who tried to present a “vision” of the attitude that should be adopted in facing the challenges of the age and the problems of the nation on the epistemological level or the political, economic and social levels.

Findings

There is a need for a philosophy of action and progress rather than a philosophy that is based on abstract ideas and theories and of words/rhetoric. The ethics required to accomplish this ought to identify the attributes of the citizen who can reach self-actualization through legitimate means based on a progress agenda with theoretical and philosophical foundations.

Research limitations/implications

Because a critical rational approach can be dealt with from different perspectives, this paper will adopt the classification of the principal intellectual trends: the reformist, secular and liberal.

Practical implications

This paper covers a long time span to determine whether the philosophical projects have been effective.

Originality/value

This paper, which criticizes the philosophic projects that are theoretically unsound and that do not address real social problems (like poverty), argues the need for a philosophy of progress and action. This will lead to devising an agenda that addresses the challenges the society is facing and to finding alternative and creative solutions resulting in development.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-279X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 41 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article

Nasitotul Janah, Fahmi Medias and Eko Kurniasih Pratiwi

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the factors that influence the use of Islamic banking (IB) services by religious leaders in Indonesia using the theory of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the factors that influence the use of Islamic banking (IB) services by religious leaders in Indonesia using the theory of reasoned action. Customers of sharia banks consist of Muslims and other religions. Based on this fact, this paper analyzes the influence of attitude (ATT), community influence (CI), religious obligation (RO) and subjective norms (SN) to predict the intentions of religious leaders in using IB services in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were randomly obtained from 119 religious’ leaders with the structural equation modeling technique used for analysis.

Findings

The empirical analysis data suggest that attitude (ATT) and religious obligations (RO) show a significant impact on the intentions of religious leaders to use IB services, while community influence and subjective norms have a negative impact on the intentions of Indonesian religious leaders in using IB services.

Practical implications

This study aims to assist Islamic bank managers in Indonesia to formulate appropriate Islamic marketing strategies and policies to increase customer trust through comprehensive socialization to religious communities. The strategy is a necessity, especially because the government is targeting a 10% growth by 2020. Furthermore, bank managers need to develop in-depth insights into their operations to attract religious leaders’ intentions. The fact shows that the stronger the understanding of individual religion, the greater their intention in using IB services.

Originality/value

Because of the increasing interest in adopting IB in Indonesia, this study claims three essential contributions. Firstly, it aims to examine the intention of religious leaders, namely, Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism, in assisting IB managers to design a strategy better than conventional banks. Secondly, the study findings are expected to benefit the development of literature in accordance with the economic conditions of certain religions. Thirdly, this study provides an insight into the inclusive attitude of religious leaders and their intention to adopt the economic structure of other religions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Marwa M. El-Ashmouni and Ashraf M. Salama

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical account on the contemporary architecture of Cairo with emphasis on the past three decades, from the early 1990s to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical account on the contemporary architecture of Cairo with emphasis on the past three decades, from the early 1990s to the present. The paper critically analyses narratives of the plurality of “isms”, within architectural vocabulary and discourse, that resulted from the contextual particularities that shaped it.

Design/methodology/approach

Three lines of inquiry are envisioned as overarching aspects of architecture: the chronological, the interventional and the representational. These discussions are underpinned by the discourse of decolonialisation and cosmopolitanism, posited sequentially by Frantz Fanon in The Wretched of the Earth (1961), and Ulrich Beck in The Cosmopolitan Vision (2004). The analysis expands to interrogate these two notions as prelude for reflecting on representations of selected projects: The Smart Village (2001); the Great Egyptian Museum (2002), Al-Azhar Park (2005), American University in Cairo New Campus (2008/2009), and the New Administrative Capital (2018).

Findings

The investigation on the interventional and the representational levels via aspects of discursivity and contradictions highlights that decolonisation and cosmopolitanism are two inseparable facets in the architectural practice in Egypt’s 21st century. These indivisible notions are based on idiosyncratic core to human experience, which emerged from concurrent overturning historical and secular everyday life striving to suppress ideological supremacy.

Research limitations/implications

Further detailed examples can be developed to offer discerning elucidations relevant to both notions of cosmopolitanism and decolonialisation.

Originality/value

The paper offers novel theoretical analysis of Cairo’s most recent architecture. The reflection on the notions of decolonialisation and cosmopolitanism is a timely example of the complex cultural encounters that have shaped the Egyptian architecture, given the recent interventions by the “Modern State” that legitimised such notions.

Details

Open House International, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article

Yasmin Murad, Haneen Abdel-Jabar, Amjad Diab and Husam Abu Hajar

The purpose of this study is to develop two empirical models that predict the shear strength of exterior beam-column joints exposed to monotonic and cyclic loading using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop two empirical models that predict the shear strength of exterior beam-column joints exposed to monotonic and cyclic loading using Gene expression programming (GEP).

Design/methodology/approach

The GEP model developed for the monotonic loading case is trained and validated using 81 data test points and that for cyclic loading case is trained and validated using 159 data test points that collected from different 9 and 39 experimental programs, respectively. The parameters that are selected to develop the cyclic GEP model are concrete compressive strength, joint aspect ratio, column axial load and joint transverse reinforcement. The monotonic GEP model is developed using concrete compressive strength, column depth, joint width and column axial load.

Findings

GEP models are proposed in this paper to predict the joint shear strength of beam-column joints under cyclic and monotonic loading. The predicted results obtained using the GEP models are compared to those calculated using the ACI-352 code formulations. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to further validate the GEP models.

Originality/value

The proposed GEP models provide an accurate prediction for joint shear strength of beam-column joints under cyclic and monotonic loading that is more fitting to the experimental database than the ACI-352 predictions where the GEP models have higher R2 value than the code formulations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article

Abobakr Al-Sakkaf, Tarek Zayed, Ashutosh Bagchi, Sherif Mahmoud and David Pickup

Heritage buildings are significant for their historical and architectural value. Due to the lack of rating systems designed specifically for heritage buildings, it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage buildings are significant for their historical and architectural value. Due to the lack of rating systems designed specifically for heritage buildings, it is essential to develop and validate a heritage building assessment tool that considers its specific characteristics. The purpose of this study is to provide an extensive review of research on Sustainability of Heritage Buildings (SHBs).

Design/methodology/approach

This review highlights methodologies applied in SHBs research and analyzes major global rating systems in order to identify their deficiencies for SHBs assessment. A systematic review was employed and articles from the top 10 high impact factor journals were studied. Twelve major global rating systems and their assessment criteria were identified.

Findings

Significant variability was observed among the assessment tools since each tool assesses several criteria, factors and indicators that fit its local context. Part of this variability can also be seen in the rating scales, threshold values and accreditation titles. As a result, the final sustainability ranking for a given building cannot be compared among the 12 rating systems. Most importantly, these systems fail to analyze some factors such as energy that are considered important with respect to heritage building assessment.

Originality/value

Since no specific rating system could be identified in this review as the most appropriate for heritage buildings, a new sustainability assessment tool that is specific to heritage buildings should be developed. Such a tool will enable facility managers to evaluate and improve the sustainability of their heritage buildings while preserving them.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article

Md. Hafij Ullah, Ruma Khanam and Tabassum Tasnim

This paper aims to examine the compliance status of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Financial Accounting Standards-1 and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the compliance status of Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Financial Accounting Standards-1 and Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) Standard-4 by Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), recognizing the regulatory influence for complying with AAOIFI and IFSB standards and identifying the factors influencing the compliance with these standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study used content analysis approach for investigating the compliance status. The study considered IBBL as the only sample because it is the only Islamic bank in Bangladesh which is the member of both AAOIFI and IFSB. Hence, this paper investigated the compliance status of IBBL as a member of AAOIFI and IFSB. The study examined the annual reports of 2008-2012 as these were the latest and contemporary reports in 2013 when the study was conducted. SPSS software version 22.0 was used to analyze the data. A total of 203 items under 13 categories of AAOIFI standard and 133 items under 17 categories of IFSB standard were considered. Ordinary least squares was run to test the hypotheses of the study.

Findings

The study found that IBBL on an average complied 46.31 per cent of AAOIFI and 52.50 per cent of IFSB standards during the period, and importantly, IBBL did not comply some of the categories of required disclosures. The study also observed that size, as measured by total asset and number of branches, has a significant influence on compliance with IFSB standard, but not AAOIFI. The findings of the study depicted that IBBL did not reasonably recognize the importance of complying with AAOIFI and IFSB standards. Poor compliance or non-compliance with AAOIFI and IFSB accounting and reporting standards by IBBL exposed that the bank is not efficient in managing Shari`ah compliance risks, operational risks and transparent financial reporting. Therefore, recognition of the Shari`ah standards by the respective IFIs and a “regulatory push” is vital for improving the level of compliance with these standards.

Research limitations/implications

The study considered IBBL as the only sample of the study because it is the only Islamic bank in Bangladesh which holds the membership of both AAOIFI and IFSB. The fiscal years 2008-2012 only were selected to evaluate the compliance status of the AAOIFI and IFSB standards in preparation and presentation of the financial statements of IBBL for comparative analysis because IFSB standard for accounting and disclosure was formulated in 2007; hence, the study could not evaluate the compliance status before 2008.

Practical implications

The study will help IBBL in identifying their limitations in complying AAOIFI and IFSB standards and also the regulators in designing the accounting and reporting frameworks in regulating Islamic banks in Bangladesh. The study would help IBBL in identifying the reasons for non-compliance, how improvement in compliance level may help the bank in mitigating Shari`ah compliance and operational risk and how new legal and institutional framework may improve the level of compliance with those standards.

Social implications

The study observed that the AAOIFI and IFSB standards were set for increasing the level of Shari`ah compliance, but the compliance status showed that different classes of accounting and reporting were ignored from compliance by IBBL. This study will benefit the stakeholders in choosing a Shari`ah-compliant bank.

Originality/value

This is a unique study which considered both AAOIFI and IFSB accounting and reporting standards in evaluating the reporting compliance status of an Islamic bank and identified the influence of reporting compliance on managing Shari`ah compliance risks, operational risks and transparency. This study expects to instigate the Islamic banks in complying accounting and reporting standards for being Shari`ah-compliant.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Hafij Ullah

– The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on both primary and secondary materials. The primary data were gathered through sample questionnaire survey and personal interviews by the researcher; the secondary data were obtained from Qur’an, Hadiths, different circulars/letters, manuals, research books and journals, annual reports, Web sites of the sample banks. Statistical tools and techniques like weighted average, percentage, SD, variance and correlation between Shari’ah violation score and bank-specific attributes were used applying statistical software Statistical Package for Social Science (version 17.0).

Findings

Shari’ah compliance status of the Islamic banks in Bangladesh is in a vulnerable condition, Shari’ah compliance status highly varies among the Islamic banks, and Shari’ah violation is high in investing activities because of lack of knowledge, lack of sincerity in complying Shari’ah, poor attention in Shari’ah audit and Shari’ah research and lack of strong Shari’ah supervisory board comprising full-time skillful members.

Practical implications

Among others, the major policy implications of this study are as follows: regulatory bodies and Shari’ah board members are expected to have guidelines from this study to find their limitations and to determine their future responsibilities; executives and Employees are expected to get the idea of present state of Shari’ah compliance and to identify their weaknesses in this regard; clients and other stakeholders are expected to have guidelines to choose the better Islamic banks to perform banking transactions; and the researchers in Islamic banking may usefully use the issues raised in this article for more comprehensive studies in Islamic banking and Shari’ah compliance.

Originality/value

The paper opens a new avenue in justifying the status of Shari’ah compliance with a new dataset and correlating Shari’ah violation score with bank-specific attributes.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article

Olubayo Moses Babatunde, Damilola Elizabeth Babatunde, Iheanacho Henry Denwigwe, Toyosi Beatrice Adedoja, Oluwaseye Samson Adedoja and Taiwo Emmanuel Okharedia

This study aims to analyze the effects of variations in annual real interest rates in the assessment of the techno-economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the effects of variations in annual real interest rates in the assessment of the techno-economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for an off-grid community.

Design/methodology/approach

Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software is used to propose an HRES for Abadam community in northern Nigeria. The HRES was designed to meet the basic needs of the community over a 25-year project lifespan. Based on the available energy resources in the community, photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine, diesel generator and battery were suggested for integration to serve the load requirements.

Findings

When the annual real interest rates were taken as 10 and 8 per cent, the total amount of total energy fraction from PV, wind turbine and the diesel generator is 28, 57 and 15 per cent, respectively. At these interest rates, wind turbines contributed more energy across all months than other energy resources. The energy resource distribution for 0, 2,4 and 6 per cent annual real interest rates have a similar pattern, but PV contributed a majority of the energy.

Practical implications

This study has used annual real interest and inflation rates dynamic behavior to determine optimal HRES for remote communities. Hence, its analysis will equip decision-makers with the necessary information for accurate planning.

Originality/value

The results of this study can be used to plan and design HRES infrastructure for off-grid communities around the world.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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