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1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Maloud Shakona, Kenneth Backman, Sheila Backman, William Norman, Ye Luo and Lauren Duffy

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of Islamic beliefs and practices on leisure and travel behavior of Muslims in Clemson, South Carolina. With the

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of Islamic beliefs and practices on leisure and travel behavior of Muslims in Clemson, South Carolina. With the increase of Muslims in the USA, from both conversion and immigration, it is important to examine the effects of their religion on leisure and travel behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews with six Muslim men and six Muslim women of different nationalities were conducted in English in the local Mosque of Clemson, South Carolina, in the fall of 2011.

Findings

The results provide some evidence that Islamic beliefs and behavioral practices influence leisure and travel behavior of Muslims in the USA. The study identifies seven major themes that play an important role in determining leisure and travel behavior of Muslims in Clemson. These are the importance of mosques, traveling with a Mohram, Hijab and a dress code for men and women, drinking alcohol and being in places where alcohol is served, eating pork, Holy Month of Ramadan and Dabiha.

Practical implications

The study highlights the need for tourism marketers to pay more attention to the influence of religion on leisure and travel behavior of Muslim travelers.

Originality/value

The study provides the tourism industry with a better understanding of the importance of religion influences on the special needs of Muslim travelers and shows how the industry can better accommodate these needs.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Brian Arthur Zinser

The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of the intended use of Islamic banking and financial services by US Muslims. It builds on the plethora of studies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of the intended use of Islamic banking and financial services by US Muslims. It builds on the plethora of studies primarily conducted in Muslim-majority countries.

Design/methodology/approach

An extended theory of planned behavior model was tested using structural equation modeling. The hypothesized paths were positive attitude, positive subject norms, perceived behavioral control, greater Islamic religiosity and lower perceived cost of being Muslim. A sample size of n = 251 was analyzed.

Findings

The analysis showed that positive attitudes toward Islamic financial services were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001), and its path was the strongest. The higher Muslim identification path was trending toward being statistically significant (p < 0.086). The analysis also showed that lower perceived cost of being Muslim path was statistically significant (p < 0.035), but in the opposite hypothesized direction. No support was found for the effect of positive subjective norms or perceived behavior control hypotheses.

Research limitations/implications

The study was exploratory in nature and has limitations, including some discriminant validity problems.

Practical implications

The paper includes recommendations for US Islamic banking and financial services providers to develop more effective market segmentation and targeting, as well as integrated marketing communication strategies.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills a void in research on Islamic marketing in the West, particularly the USA, a country with a nominal Muslim population.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Terrie C. Reeves, Arlise P. McKinney and Laila Azam

The purpose of this paper is to examine Muslim women’s decisions to wear headscarves, known as hijab, in the workplace. The decision to wear hijab may result in a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Muslim women’s decisions to wear headscarves, known as hijab, in the workplace. The decision to wear hijab may result in a stigmatized identity, so the paper also aims to examine perceived or experienced discrimination and impact on employment outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative methodology to capture nuances, the study was based on demographic responses and semi‐structured interview questions by 79 Muslim women physicians and other healthcare professionals.

Findings

The paper finds that many factors influenced their decisions, but Muslim women had a wide variety of views in terms of the hijab and adherence to Islamic precepts. Those who wear hijab reported negative experiences of intolerance and discrimination. The decision to wear hijab was subsequently associated with perceived discrimination that would limit one’s employment opportunities.

Practical implications

Religion is one diversity categorization that can be invisible yet still has a significant impact on workers and their engagement in the workplace. Organizations engaged in strategic diversity initiatives may need to better understand specific nuances of diversity concerning religious expression and the potential psychological toll hiding those expressions may have on workers. The paper's findings have implications for personnel selection, training, and managing interpersonal relationships in the workplace.

Originality/value

Religious expression is an under‐studied workplace diversity facet, especially when disclosing religion is a choice that may result in being stigmatized. There has been research on workplace treatment of Muslims and the influences of spirituality, but no research that examined the decision to wear hijab and the associated workplace consequences.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Margaret Wilson Gillikin, Koti L. Hubbard and Joy N. Stapleton

The purpose of this paper is to present a method to incorporate teaching about religion into K–12 social studies classes. A central tenet of social studies education is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a method to incorporate teaching about religion into K–12 social studies classes. A central tenet of social studies education is preparing students to be engaged citizens, and religious literacy is essential to this. Yet, teachers often feel uncomfortable teaching about religion. One way to approach this is by centering discussion about religion around understanding who our neighbors are.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs the Inquiry Design Model to outline lessons for early, middle and upper grades, each centered around the compelling question, “Who are my Muslim neighbors?” Beginning with a picturebook depicting a Muslim American child, the lessons explore supporting questions with academically appropriate sources, culminate with an evidence-based response to the compelling question and suggest an opportunity for students to take informed action.

Findings

While religion does not appear in many social studies standards, teaching about religion has strong connections to civics standards. In an increasingly diverse USA, students need to understand the beliefs and religious behaviors of their neighbors and how those traditions provide a sense of belonging within the faith community. This paper provides the necessary tools for teachers to teach this content. In addition to teaching these as outlined here, teachers can also select resources from across the three units in order to customize an inquiry for a particular group of students.

Originality/value

Teachers are often hesitant to teach about religion. This paper offers a concrete method for doing so. Incorporating religion into social studies classes is necessary for preparing students for civic engagement.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Leslie Elizabeth Sekerka and Marianne Marar Yacobian

The marginalization of Muslims can foster anxiety, anger, or fear in the workplace. Such negative reactions may prompt incivility among coworkers, denigrating a thoughtful…

1089

Abstract

Purpose

The marginalization of Muslims can foster anxiety, anger, or fear in the workplace. Such negative reactions may prompt incivility among coworkers, denigrating a thoughtful regard for others. While legal protections are intended to promote fairness, mandates do not always prevent discrimination. As a result, management needs to frame anti-Muslimism as an ethical issue and proactively cultivate environments that support respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To understand how anti-Muslimism may emerge in organizational settings, this work defines Islamophobia and examines how it manifests as workplace discrimination. The extant literature on the subject and a sample of anti-Muslim discrimination cases are studied to better understand this phenomenon.

Findings

An analysis of representative Equal Employment Opportunity Commission cases shows that a lack of accommodation for religious practices is a major ethical issue. Management can proactively address value tensions by creating safe spaces for organizational learning. Balanced experiential inquiry is offered as a process to help employees reveal their embedded biases through personal reflection and collective inquiry.

Practical implications

If managers intend to encourage equity and inclusion, they need to foster organizational learning that tackles emerging forms of discrimination like Islamophobia. A sustained focus on moral development becomes an imperative toward establishing an ethical climate and a workplace that fosters respect for all organizational members.

Social implications

Because organizations are at the intersection of business and society, it is incumbent upon managers to create environments that reject hostilities toward those who may be perceived as different.

Originality/value

In today’s sociopolitical climate, the concern of discrimination toward Muslims is a mainstream ethical issue. A compliance-based approach to advance organizational ethics is not enough. The authors present a way forward, building moral strength through moral competency.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Ihekwoaba Onwudiwe

This article examines definitions of terrorism, racial profiling and the demonisation of Arabs and Muslims in the United States (US). Additionally, it explores the impact…

Abstract

This article examines definitions of terrorism, racial profiling and the demonisation of Arabs and Muslims in the United States (US). Additionally, it explores the impact of the US Patriot Act 2001 in the war against terrorism.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Leslie E. Sekerka and Marianne Marar Yacobian

The purpose of this paper is to call to public leaders to exercise moral courage in choosing to understand and address phobic biases and prejudicial attitudes toward…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to call to public leaders to exercise moral courage in choosing to understand and address phobic biases and prejudicial attitudes toward Muslims in the workplace. With reference to developments in the USA, workplace discrimination is framed as an ethical issue, with Islamophobia viewed as a rapidly growing concern.

Design/methodology/approach

This work is a practical application of existing theory and research in positive organizational scholarship to address the concern of workplace discrimination; specifically Islamophobia. Propositions are developed to depict how public leaders can address Islamophobia and other forms of discrimination by role modeling moral courage.

Findings

The findings show that Islamophobia is an ethical challenge for public leaders, one that can begin to be addressed by exercising character strength that promotes tolerance, civility, and respect. This proactive approach will enable public leaders to serve as pillars of openness, inclusion, and thoughtful regard for others, regardless of organizational members’ faith or culture.

Social implications

The social implications are to encourage discourse among global public leaders, prompting awareness and concern for Islamophobia and promoting more informed paths for productive scholarship.

Originality/value

Studies of workplace discrimination typically focus on race and gender, with few considering how Muslims face increasing Islamophobia. This work adds value to the existing literature by explicitly encouraging public leaders to respond, rather than react, to discrimination with moral competency.

Details

International Journal of Public Leadership, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4929

Keywords

Content available
11760

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Jack N. Kondrasuk

To analyze recent and future terrorism in the world from the viewpoint of the USA.

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Abstract

Purpose

To analyze recent and future terrorism in the world from the viewpoint of the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Actions companies can take to help prevent and manage the negative effects of terrorist attacks are also discussed. A review of the literature from journals, the popular press and government sources was stressed to provide an official and public view of terrorism.

Findings

It was found that “terrorism” is pervasive around the world although maybe more concentrated in the Middle East at present. It is seen as annually increasing in number and severity of events. There were minor terrorist events in the USA in the 1990s, but the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York forever changed the view of terrorism by US citizens. The USA subsequently changed its administrative structure, economic infrastructure, beliefs, behaviors, and relations to others in the world. The USA is seen as the main terrorist target in the world and Al‐Qaeda, one of 40 foreign terrorist organizations, is seen as the main group attacking it. Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, Cuba, Libya, and Syria are seen as the main countries supporting terrorism. The main terrorist weapons are explosives, guns, biological, chemical, radiological, psychological, and to a lesser extent, nuclear.

Research limitations/implications

Although future events and subsequent research must bear it out, it appears that cyber terrorism and radioactive explosives may be used more in the future. Executives can improve their odds of withstanding terrorist attacks by understanding past and present aspects of terrorism. Future dealings with terrorists are seen as problematic, but there are actions companies can take, such as adding working crisis management plans, to help prevent and manage the negative effects of terrorist attacks.

Originality/value

This paper is an attempt to present and understand “terrorism” from a US perspective so that others in the world can better understand US motivations, actions, and rationale.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Daniel Hummel and Ayesha Tahir Hashmi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of a profit and loss sharing approach to tax increment financing (TIF) districts in the USA.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of a profit and loss sharing approach to tax increment financing (TIF) districts in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey based on this approach was distributed to representatives of community redevelopment authorities (CRAs) in the State of Florida to ascertain practitioner feedback.

Findings

Although a majority of the respondents did not feel it was possible for political, economic and legal reasons, some did feel that it was a practical, reasonable and sustainable approach to financing projects for economic development. Some responses were correlated, with others indicating that certain beliefs framed their answers to the questions.

Research limitations/implications

The surveys were only distributed to CRAs in the State of Florida. Future research will need to include other CRAs in other states to make the findings more generalizable. In addition, the results are merely descriptive and are not an assessment of a successful application.

Practical implications

The need for more development in blighted areas of many cities across the USA will put emphasis on innovative approaches in financing this. The growth of Islamic finance in the USA and the regulatory framework for it might open a doorway for its application in this area.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to apply an Islamic financing methodology to local economic development in the USA, with practitioner feedback.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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