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Article

Farida Ally and Toni Brennan

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of East African Muslim families who have a family member diagnosed with schizophrenia in the UK mental health system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of East African Muslim families who have a family member diagnosed with schizophrenia in the UK mental health system.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth semi-structured interviews with East African Muslim participants who had a close family member diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Findings

Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed participants’ concerns over diagnosis, over the side effects of medication and over the lack of choice of treatment. They reported disappointment and frustration with the rejection by psychiatric services of alternative conceptualizations of mental distress incorporating religious beliefs. Participants called for more culturally sensitive service provision open to taking into account non-western conceptualizations of mental distress and its treatment.

Research limitations/implications

Caution should be exercised in drawing firm conclusions from a pilot study with only four participants although generalization is not an aim of small-scale qualitative research.

Practical implications

The overall negative perceptions of psychiatric services in the participants’ accounts point to poor communication between services and service users and their families. If there are attempts at culturally sensitive service provision, according to this study, they are implemented elsewhere/not extensive enough/not reaching everyone – which warrants further investigation.

Originality/value

This study is valuable because it offers insights on how East African Muslim families living in the UK (an under-researched minority) experience the impact of living with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and contact with mental health services, within the context of a “Western” model of mental distress dramatically different from and rarely open to the conceptualization shared in their culture of origin.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Content available
Article

Rita Merhej

Research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world has traditionally focused on socio-cultural barriers that deprive persons with mental illness from their fundamental…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world has traditionally focused on socio-cultural barriers that deprive persons with mental illness from their fundamental human right for privacy and informed consent. The purpose of this paper is to address the question whether or not mental health legislations in a number of Arab countries effectively safeguard the human rights of people with mental illness and protect them from stigmatizing and discriminatory practices.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative review of literature was performed over two rounds of search, targeting published research on mental illness stigma in the Arab world from year 2000 until now and existing national mental health legislations in the Arab world, using English and Arabic databases.

Findings

The review reveals that beyond society and culture, persistence of mental illness stigma in the Arab world may be explained by absent or inefficient monitoring mechanisms of mental health legislations and policies within the health-care setting. Although integration of mental health services into the primary health care system is being gradually implemented as a step toward de-stigmatization of mental illness, more remains to be done to change the stigmatizing behavior of the health personnel toward mental illness.

Originality/value

Mental health authorities in the Arab world need to be more aware of the public perceptions explaining people’s fear and reluctance to seek mental health care, so as to ensure that the control and monitoring mechanisms at both the primary and mental health care levels foster a human rights, culturally competent, patient-friendly and non-stigmatizing model of mental health care.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article

Lauren T. Meaux, Stephanie C. Doran and Jennifer M. Cox

Unconscious biases against certain groups aid in forming assumptions which may be promulgated in the USA via popular news media linking rare but memorable violent acts…

Abstract

Purpose

Unconscious biases against certain groups aid in forming assumptions which may be promulgated in the USA via popular news media linking rare but memorable violent acts with specific groups. However, the relationship between marginalized group association, assumptions regarding the motive for violent acts and individual media consumption has never been directly examined. This study aims to directly examine this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, individuals read a vignette of a mass shooting in which the perpetrator’s implied religion (i.e. Islam or unknown religion) was manipulated. Participants then indicated their assumptions regarding motive (i.e. terrorism or mental illness) and personal media consumption habits.

Findings

Contrary to hypotheses, differences in assumed motive based on implied religion were not found; participants were not more likely to associate an assumed Muslim perpetrator with terrorism as a motive or consider the assumed non-Muslim perpetrator to be mentally ill.

Originality/value

These unexpected findings are discussed in the context of the data-collection period, which coincidentally overlapped with a well-publicized act of domestic terrorism that led to a unique national debate regarding biased news coverage and associations between religion, ethnicity, terrorism and mental illness.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article

Nada Alattar, Anne Felton and Theodore Stickley

Stigma associated with mental health problems is widespread in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Consequently, this may prevent many Saudi people from accessing the mental

Abstract

Purpose

Stigma associated with mental health problems is widespread in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Consequently, this may prevent many Saudi people from accessing the mental health-care services and support they need. The purpose of this study is to consider how stigma affects people needing to access mental health services in the KSA. To achieve this aim, this study reviews the knowledge base concerning stigma and mental health in KSA and considers specific further research necessary to increase the knowledge and understanding in this important area.

Design/methodology/approach

This review examines the relevant literature concerning mental health stigma and related issues in KSA using the Arksey and O'Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses frameworks. As a scoping review, it has used a systematic approach in literature searching. The results of the search were then thematically analysed and the themes were then discussed in light of the concepts of stigma and mental health.

Findings

Stigma around mental health impedes access to care, the nature of care and current clinical practice in the KSA. The voices of those with mental health issues in KSA are almost entirely unrepresented in the literature.

Originality/value

The review identifies that mental health stigma and cultural beliefs about mental health in KSA may act as barriers to accessing services. The voice of mental health service users in KSA remains largely unheard. If public discussion of mental health issues can increase, people’s experiences of accessing services may be improved.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article

Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Suhaiza Zailani and Ghazali Musa

This study aims to investigate the perceived role of the Islamic medical care practice of Muslim doctors in Malaysian Muslim-friendly private hospitals.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the perceived role of the Islamic medical care practice of Muslim doctors in Malaysian Muslim-friendly private hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collection through self-administered questionnaires voluntarily submitted by the respondents. The survey covered selected major Muslim-friendly private hospitals in the country in the states of Kedah, Johor, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan and Kuala Lumpur. The non-probability purposive sampling was used, as the respondents and locations of the survey areas were predetermined.

Findings

Five dimensions of the Muslim-friendly medical care practice were identified, namely, medical etiquettes, physical examination, proper cleansing process of blood and body fluids, proper handling and treatment of infectious diseases and doctors’ advice to Muslim patients. The findings also indicate that the scale development analysis produced excellent results which can be used for reproducible or repetitive medical care purposes and for integration facts and figures for inclusion into wider medical care policy and practices.

Practical implications

The results from the study can further develop Islamic medical care practices and enable medical service providers to upgrade their performances to an enviable strategic status.

Originality/value

Islamic medical care is a new mode of healthcare service market, as there are very few studies on this topic from the perspective of Muslim patients or no obvious facts are known. This study has first explored Muslim doctors’ perceived role in Islamic medical care practice in Malaysian Muslim-friendly private hospitals. This empirical study can immensely contribute to the further development of Islamic medical care practice for Muslim doctors in particular and for the Muslim-friendly hospital service marketing strategy in general.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Terrie C. Reeves, Arlise P. McKinney and Laila Azam

The purpose of this paper is to examine Muslim women’s decisions to wear headscarves, known as hijab, in the workplace. The decision to wear hijab may result in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Muslim women’s decisions to wear headscarves, known as hijab, in the workplace. The decision to wear hijab may result in a stigmatized identity, so the paper also aims to examine perceived or experienced discrimination and impact on employment outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative methodology to capture nuances, the study was based on demographic responses and semi‐structured interview questions by 79 Muslim women physicians and other healthcare professionals.

Findings

The paper finds that many factors influenced their decisions, but Muslim women had a wide variety of views in terms of the hijab and adherence to Islamic precepts. Those who wear hijab reported negative experiences of intolerance and discrimination. The decision to wear hijab was subsequently associated with perceived discrimination that would limit one’s employment opportunities.

Practical implications

Religion is one diversity categorization that can be invisible yet still has a significant impact on workers and their engagement in the workplace. Organizations engaged in strategic diversity initiatives may need to better understand specific nuances of diversity concerning religious expression and the potential psychological toll hiding those expressions may have on workers. The paper's findings have implications for personnel selection, training, and managing interpersonal relationships in the workplace.

Originality/value

Religious expression is an under‐studied workplace diversity facet, especially when disclosing religion is a choice that may result in being stigmatized. There has been research on workplace treatment of Muslims and the influences of spirituality, but no research that examined the decision to wear hijab and the associated workplace consequences.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

Seham Mansour Alyousef and Sami Abdulrahman Alhamidi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that contribute to stigmas held by mental health practitioners about people with mental health issues.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that contribute to stigmas held by mental health practitioners about people with mental health issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted to collect data from one focus group discussion comprised of six healthcare practitioners representing different aspects of health provision. Data were analysed using Nvivi.10 thematic content analysis, and major themes were identified. Participants also complete a demographic data sheet. This study was conducted in February 2018 at the medical city in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Findings

The focus group discussed the stigmas they held about people with mental health issues and the factors they perceived as heightening their prejudices. Factors identified included professional experiences, the media and community. Practitioners working in mental healthcare are vulnerable to developing stigmas about people with mental health problems. This research has begun to explore the factors that contribute to this phenomenon.

Research limitations/implications

The participants were drawn from several different mental healthcare providers, so attitudes expressed cannot be generalised.

Practical implications

Practitioners healthcare providers of all types including clinical practitioners, administrators and programme planners have a duty to confront the stigma of mental health among the community and healthcare providers, by expanding the volume of academic literature being authored, improving continuing professional education and enhancing employment opportunities in that sector.

Originality/value

The outcomes of this study were mainly applicable to the professional mental health team, educator of healthcare practitioners, clinical practitioners, community mental healthcare services and research related to this topic, especially for improved ethical and professional values for healthcare providers and enlightenment of society as a whole.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

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Article

Shoaib Ul-Haq, Irfan Butt, Zeeshan Ahmed and Faris Turki Al-Said

Islam plays a powerful symbolic and cultural role in the constitution of consumer preferences, especially in Muslim countries. To quantitatively study this role in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Islam plays a powerful symbolic and cultural role in the constitution of consumer preferences, especially in Muslim countries. To quantitatively study this role in the consumption patterns of Muslim consumers we need a suitable scale for religiosity. However, the existing scales of religiosity have been developed primarily for Christian/Jewish respondents and cannot provide valid results for Muslim consumers. This study aims to address these challenges by re-conceptualizing the religiosity construct for Muslims and conducting an exploratory study to generate an initial scale.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper initialized the scale development exercise with a systematic review of the existing Islamic literature to ensure that we use Islamic categories to build the scale. Once the authors had a large pool of items, they consulted experts on Shariah (Islamic law) to evaluate these items for clarity, face and content validity. Next, they conducted five focus groups to (a) determine if they had covered the full terrain of Muslim religiosity; (b) identify if the items correspond with the actual experiences of the target respondents; and (c) ensure linguistic compatibility. This was followed by administering an exploratory survey designed to test psychometric properties of the new scale and to analyze the underlying dimensionality of the inventory of items.

Findings

To extract a manageable number of latent dimensions in the survey data, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) procedure was conducted. This resulted in the extraction of five different factors which were named as Mu’amalat_societal ethics, Roshan Khayali (enlightened moderation), Ibadaat (prayers), Mu’amalat_societal laws, Azeemat (a state exhibiting scrupulous faithfulness) and Mu’amalat_business dealings. There is a divide between Ibadaat (individual and collective worship) and Muamlaat (social relations) that emerged in the data from the cluster analysis procedure.

Originality/value

Religion can be an important part of decision-making of a typical consumer. This paper proposes a new scale for Muslims to tap into their religiosity, as existing scales are not embedded in the Islamic literature. This study also distinguishes Muslim religiosity from its Western counterpart and thus helps in clarifying the Muslim religiosity construct.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Suhana Mohezar, Sedigheh Moghavvemi and Suhaiza Zailani

This paper aims to examine challenges and prospects of the Malaysian Islamic medical tourism sector and suggests strategies to leverage the strengths and opportunities as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine challenges and prospects of the Malaysian Islamic medical tourism sector and suggests strategies to leverage the strengths and opportunities as well as overcome the weaknesses and threats.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with the Islamic hospital managers. Information collected was transcribed and content analysis was used to group the variables into the four SWOT categories.

Findings

The SWOT analysis identified several strengths (e.g. great hospitality, country’s characteristics and development of Islamic compliant hospital), weaknesses (e.g. low international certifications), opportunities (e.g. growing Muslim populations, Sept 11 incidence) and threats (e.g. competition from major medical tourism market and non-uniformity of Islamic medical tourism standards).

Research limitations/implications

This paper could provide understanding of the sector and fundamental on the Islamic medical tourism market. Yet the SWOT analysis does not indicate how to achieve competitive advantage and result may become obsolete, with the dynamic environments.

Practical implications

This paper could serve as a guideline for the industry stakeholders to have better understanding in their business environment.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to integrate SWOT analysis and Islamic medical tourism industry. Hence, the findings could broaden knowledge on Islamic medical tourism industry and facilitate firms in tapping the growing market.

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Book part

Christopher J. L. Cunningham

This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of…

Abstract

This chapter explores religion and spirituality as a form and source of demographic differences relevant to the study of occupational stress and well-being. The purpose of the chapter is to provide a resource and starting point to occupational health and stress researchers who may be interested in religion/spirituality. A review of critical religion/spirituality concepts is provided, along with a discussion of how religion/spirituality can be integrated into common occupational stress theories and reconciled with commonly studied variables within this domain. A series of future research directions involving religion/spirituality and occupational health and stress are ultimately presented.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

Keywords

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