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Article

Rohail Hassan and Maran Marimuthu

This paper aims to examine the demographic diversity at top-level management and its impact on the performance of Malaysian-listed companies. In addition, Muslim diversity

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the demographic diversity at top-level management and its impact on the performance of Malaysian-listed companies. In addition, Muslim diversity on corporate boards is examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Although many organisations aspire to be socially diverse, diversity’s consequences for organisational performance remain unclear. This study specifies the whole distinct mechanism and measures it independently, bridging as the demographic diversity among the board of directors (BODs) and bonding as the firm’s financial performance. To maintain the homogeneity factor, the empirical analysis has been confined to 12 fully fledged sectors and 529 Malaysian listed firms out of 798 firms selected on the basis of judgmental sampling during the period of 2013. The paper applies the correlation matrix and linear regression model to justify this phenomenon.

Findings

The empirical findings suggest that gender diversity (Muslim and Non-Muslim women) is positively significant with firm performance with regards to management, shareholders and market perspectives. It means that both Muslim and non-Muslim women are contributing to firm performance. Ethnic diversity (minority) and Muslim diversity (majority) have no impact on firm performance. On the other hand, interaction variables are positively significant with firm performance. It means that majority and minorities are essential for corporate boards to produce a greater performance.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could include more variables such as director’s age profile and foreign participation as well as other types of diversities, such as cognitive diversity and corporate diversity. In addition, another possible extension could be the investigation of diversity issues between small scale and large or high and low-profit firms. The findings provide insightful information to firms, as this study suggests that the diverse corporate boards can enhance firm performance.

Originality/value

In recent years, diversity issues have been examined with regard to firm performance of the listed companies. Whilst extensive literature exists on diversity issues, this issue is still under debate and has had inconsistent results. The paper attempts to fill the gap in the existing literature, discuss the empirically diverse corporate boards with the interaction approach and impact on the firm performance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Fella Lahmar

The aim of this chapter is twofold: to provide a synopsis to the background underpinning Muslim diversity in Britain and to explicate how Muslim schools in Britain are…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is twofold: to provide a synopsis to the background underpinning Muslim diversity in Britain and to explicate how Muslim schools in Britain are embedded into their socio-political context. The process of migration and the flow of different cultural traditions beyond their nation states’ boundaries into Britain associated with late capitalism create what Featherstone coins ‘third cultures’. The process of moving backwards or forwards between an Islamic heritage, national experiences, British socio-political cultural context and global change necessitates ‘new types of flexible personal controls, dispositions and means of orientation, in effect a new type of habitus’ (Featherstone, 1990, p. 8). Accordingly, this chapter is divided into four parts. First, it relates Muslim presence in Britain contextualizing a history of migration. Second, it discusses British Muslim demographics and diversity. Third, it places Muslim schools within a British legislative context. Finally, it discusses leadership for Muslim schooling in Britain as praxis, in the Freireian sense, involving both reflection and action. This approach places Muslim schools within a socio-political context that includes a variety of contributors beyond those who initiated them.

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Article

Absdulsamad Alazzani, Wan Nordin Wan-Hussin and Michael Jones

Very limited research has been devoted to answering the question of whether the religious beliefs of the upper echelons of management and gender diversity have any impacts…

Abstract

Purpose

Very limited research has been devoted to answering the question of whether the religious beliefs of the upper echelons of management and gender diversity have any impacts on the communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) information in the marketplace. This study aims to fill the void in the literature by posing the two research questions: first, does the CEO religion affect a firm’s CSR behaviour?; second, do the women on the boards influence CSR reporting?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed the tests on a sample of 133 firms listed in Bursa Malaysia that have analysts following using a self-constructed CSR disclosure index based on information in annual reports in 2009. A total of 23 per cent of the sample firms have Muslim CEOs, and women made up only 8 per cent of board members.

Findings

The authors find that Muslim CEOs are significantly associated with greater disclosure of CSR information. The authors also find a moderate relationship between board gender diversity and CSR disclosure. This is probably because of insufficient number of women on boards.

Research limitations/implications

The disclosure index is based on unsubstantiated CSR information provided in annual reports, and the authors examine only two aspects of board diversity, namely, Muslim religiosity and gender mix.

Originality/value

This study advances the research on upper echelons theory by illuminating the importance of religious value in influencing the CSR behaviour of corporate leaders. This has been largely overlooked because of lack of data.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Heidi J. Torres

The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated social studies and literacy unit designed to teach about Islam in elementary classrooms. Concerns regarding teaching…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated social studies and literacy unit designed to teach about Islam in elementary classrooms. Concerns regarding teaching about religion in public schools are addressed, and a rationale is provided for specifically teaching about Islam.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit is described in detail, outlining key ideas and purposes for the unit’s scope, sequence and activities. Several extensions to the unit are included, as well as suggestions on how to address difficult topics that might arise.

Findings

Students participating in this unit exhibited interest and curiosity about Islam and Muslims, indicated by their desire to ask questions, discuss issues and engage in the activities. Reflections at the end of the unit indicate that students learned new information and ideas about Islam and Muslims.

Practical implications

The unit described in this paper as well as the resources and suggestions provide a framework for teachers who want to teach about Islam to elementary-aged children.

Originality/value

Although there are a number of articles in the literature that address ideas on teaching about Islam or other religions in the classroom, there are few that provide practical, specific, pedagogical information for doing so, particularly at the elementary level. This paper strives to contribute toward that aim.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

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Article

Jasmin Mahadevan, Katharina Kilian-Yasin, Iuliana Ancuţa Ilie and Franziska Müller

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the dangers of Orientalist framing. Orientalism (Said, 1979/2003) shows how “the West” actually creates “the Orient” as an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the dangers of Orientalist framing. Orientalism (Said, 1979/2003) shows how “the West” actually creates “the Orient” as an inferior opposite to affirm itself, for instance by using imaginative geographical frames such as “East” and “West” (Said, 1993).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative interviews were conducted with the members of a German-Tunisian project team in research engineering. The interview purpose was to let individuals reflect upon their experiences of difference and to find out whether these experiences are preframed by imaginative geographical categories.

Findings

Tunisian researchers were subjected to the dominant imaginative geographical frame “the Arab world.” This frame involves ascribed religiousness, gender stereotyping and ascriptions of backwardness.

Research limitations/implications

Research needs to investigate Orientalist thought and imaginative geographies in specific organizational and interpersonal interactions lest they overshadow managerial theory and practice.

Practical implications

Practitioners need to challenge dominant frames and Orientalist thought in their own practice and organizational surroundings to devise a truly inclusive managerial practice, for instance, regarding Muslim minorities.

Social implications

In times of Islamophobia and anti-Muslim sentiment in “the West,” this paper highlights the frames from which such sentiments might originate, and the need to reflect upon them.

Originality/value

The theoretical value lies in introducing a critical framing approach and the concept of imaginative geographies to perceived differences at work. For practice, it highlights how certain individuals are constructed as “Muslim others” and subjected to ascriptions of negative difference. By this mechanism, their inclusion is obstructed.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article

Masudul Alam Choudhury

Undertakes a critical review of the book, Muslims in Europe, to bring out the localized analysis of Islam and Muslims incontemporary Europe which is given in much of the…

Abstract

Undertakes a critical review of the book, Muslims in Europe , to bring out the localized analysis of Islam and Muslims in contemporary Europe which is given in much of the occidentalist literature. Shows that such a localized view does not represent the true character of the global Islamic revivalism in the post‐Cold War period, in which the phenomenon of Muslims in Europe is to be examined. Examines the alternative view of this global approach to the study of Muslims in Europe. In this context the alternative assumes the presentation of an Islamic sub‐nation model and its grass‐roots world view. Shows that the model is a globally interactive system, based on a knowledge‐centred universality. In the light of this, examines Islamic future in Europe and its relationship with dominant European governments.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Fiona Wingett and Sarah Turnbull

The purpose of this study is to explore the expectations of Muslim tourists when taking a halal holiday. Understanding consumer expectations is an important factor in any…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the expectations of Muslim tourists when taking a halal holiday. Understanding consumer expectations is an important factor in any service context since expectations determine whether the consumer is satisfied or dissatisfied with the service outcome.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory approach was adopted and in-depth interviews with Muslim tourists and halal holiday providers were undertaken.

Findings

The findings identified services and facilities Muslim consumers expect from a halal holiday and those they did not expect to see. Factors such as halal food, women-only facilities and dress codes were identified as services and facilities that are expected, whereas no alcohol was seen to be an important factor for Muslim tourists.

Research limitations/implications

This exploratory study used a small sample and hence the findings should not be seen to be generalisable. However, the study provides a number of valuable insights into the expectations of Muslim leisure tourists. Halal travel organisations and tourism boards will benefit from a better understanding of factors that influence the satisfaction/dissatisfaction of Muslim tourists.

Originality/value

The study makes three main contributions to our understanding of halal holidays. First, the study identifies expectations that are likely to influence satisfaction, such as halal food and women-only facilities. Second, the study highlights those expectations which are likely to cause dissatisfaction for halal holidaymakers, such as alcohol and dress codes. Third, the study highlights the difference in expectations which exist between halal holidaymakers and how the interpretation and practice of Islam is highly varied.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Mahmood Chandia and Jan Mei Soon

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different understandings regarding the concept of “what constitutes halal” and “who determines this concept?” In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different understandings regarding the concept of “what constitutes halal” and “who determines this concept?” In practice, this equates to contemporary legal understandings vs religious understandings. The paper further aims to provide an overview of competing Muslim understandings regarding the concept of “What does or does not constitute halal slaughter?” In practice, this equates to evaluating the application of no stunning at all upon an animal (unanimous acceptance) vs the application of reversible stunning upon an animal (contested).

Design/methodology/approach

The study includes a review of prior literature and considers the current scenario of the halal poultry trade and raises important questions regarding Islamic dietary practices, halal food integrity, religious and animal welfare understandings. Three key questions were raised: “To what extent does stunning impact halal slaughter?”; “Who determines what is halal slaughter?”; and “What are the variations and tensions between legal and religious understandings of halal slaughter?”.

Findings

The examination of such requirements and concomitant consumer and provider expectations is underpinned by a study of an operational framework, i.e. industry practices with poultry (hand slaughter, stunning, mechanical slaughter, etc.), ethical values and market forces to appraise whether there is a point of convergence for these that can be beneficial for both seller and consumer concerns. This paper has considered different perspectives on the religious slaughter and provided an overview of competing understandings regarding the above concepts.

Originality/value

This study although academic and philosophical in nature, raises questions on route to suggesting future research directions. It provides real value in stimulating more research in the area of halal food production and contributes to the understanding of different slaughter requirements for religious slaughter and the meat industry. It further sheds light on not only the religious and secular legal frameworks on animal slaughter and welfare but also the variations in understanding between them and provides examples of attempts to bridge any gap. The paper highlights the importance of halal food based on religious values and its implications for wider society.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Education, Immigration and Migration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-044-4

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Book part

Jennifer Fredette

In this chapter, I argue that the activism of Muslims in France is complex and diverse and illustrates the equally diverse politics and life experiences of these Muslims

Abstract

In this chapter, I argue that the activism of Muslims in France is complex and diverse and illustrates the equally diverse politics and life experiences of these Muslims. For all the disagreement among French activists who are Muslim, they are united in their opposition to an elite frame of failed citizenship and their efforts to project a new image of French Muslims that is thoroughly French. In this sense, we cannot understand French Muslim activism without considering French elites, particularly the government, and their role in shaping Muslim identity in France.

Details

Special Issue Social Movements/Legal Possibilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-826-8

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