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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Steve Oakes

A literature review of relevant empirical research examining the influence of background music within the context of service environments is presented. Studies revealing…

Abstract

A literature review of relevant empirical research examining the influence of background music within the context of service environments is presented. Studies revealing significant relationships between specific musical variables and desired consumer behavioural outcomes are displayed in a visual framework entitled the Musicscape. This framework draws on Bitner’s model of the Servicescape, which highlights music as just one of a range of ambient conditions influencing behaviour. The Musicscape provides an extended version of Bitner’s Servicescape model by focusing in detail on just one of these elements, the musical variable. Additional figures demonstrate an even more focused breakdown of Musicscape interactions by including arrows which identify the direction of significant relationships revealed in empirical studies. The framework portrays in visual terms the inherent complexity of attempts to influence response and subsequent behaviour by using music within a service environment.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Steve Oakes, Anthony Patterson and Helen Oakes

Despite the relatively low cultural status of department store music, it is proposed that music – the shopping soundtrack – is capable of transforming perceptions of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the relatively low cultural status of department store music, it is proposed that music – the shopping soundtrack – is capable of transforming perceptions of the environment in which it is heard, and eliciting immediate emotional and behavioural responses, thus underlining the influence of music, regardless of whether it is passively heard as a background element or actively listened to as a live performance in a dedicated venue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study addresses a gap in the marketing literature for introspective research evaluating the experience of music in service environments. It draws upon auto‐ethnographic data through which participants ponder their own consumption experience and provide detailed, subjective accounts of events and memories.

Findings

When considering the effects of music upon emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses, it highlights the importance of musicscape response moderators.

Practical implications

The service environment appears more exciting and attractive and may encourage increased spending when background music is congruous with other servicescape elements. Music with positive autobiographical resonance elicits pleasurably nostalgic emotions, positive evaluations and longer stay. However, the aural incongruity of unexpected silence in music‐free zones produces feelings of discomfort leading to negative store evaluation and departure.

Originality/value

Qualitative data are deliberately represented using typically positivist discourse to encourage resolution of the inherent tension between interpretivist and positivist perspectives and stimulate increased methodological integration (e.g. through future studies of music combining quantitative and qualitative data).

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

Steve Oakes and Adrian C. North

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review that highlights significant findings from empirical research examining the impact of music within various real…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a literature review that highlights significant findings from empirical research examining the impact of music within various real and simulated service environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the results of studies that have manipulated specific musical variables (genre, tempo, volume, and liking), and attempts to identify consistent patterns of findings to guide managers and researchers. The studies focus upon a range of dependent variables including evaluation of the environment, perceived wait and stay duration, consumption speed, affective response, and spending. Possible explanations for apparently inconsistent findings are discussed.

Findings

A variety of studies reveal the positive influence of musical congruity upon desired outcomes. Future research proposals identify the need to examine defining‐attribute and prototype theories of musical congruity.

Originality/value

The review highlights a range of implications drawn from the studies that will be of value to service organization managers who use music as a key component of their servicescape in order to enhance desired cognitive and affective responses.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Brett Lashua

Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Rajnish Jain and Shilpa Bagdare

The purpose of this review is to examine the influence of music on consumption experience and explore the relationships between musical variables and consumer responses in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this review is to examine the influence of music on consumption experience and explore the relationships between musical variables and consumer responses in the context of retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the review of studies conducted over last 30 years, empirical and conceptual, dealing with a large number of music‐related variables and their impact on various dimensions of consumption experience.

Findings

The studies report that music influences consumption experience at cognitive, emotional, and behavioural levels, specifically with regard to attitudes and perceptions, time and money spend, and moods and feelings, in retail experience. The influence of music is moderated by customer and store profiles, purchase timings, and other ambience factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides important insights into critical issues related to influence of music, for future research.

Practical implications

The research brings out important issues for designing musical environment in the retail stores to influence shopping experience and consumer responses.

Originality/value

Based on a critical review of important studies, the present paper proposes a framework to understand the effect of music on consumption experience in retail stores.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Multi-Channel Marketing, Branding and Retail Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-455-6

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Brett Lashua

Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Brett Lashua

Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

Abstract

Details

Popular Music in Contemporary Bulgaria: At the Crossroads
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-697-8

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Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

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