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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2019

Md Washim Raja, Sandip Anand and David Allan

Studying the role of advertising music (ad music) in a retail context can be an emergence of new marketing practices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

Studying the role of advertising music (ad music) in a retail context can be an emergence of new marketing practices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential usage and utility of ad music as an atmospheric stimulus in contrast to music (retail music) as an atmospheric stimulus. This paper also aims to provide a model, which depicts how ad music could be an alternative to retail music in retail settings with regard to consumers’ attitudinal influence and its optimistic correlation with related marketing outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviewed the literature related to the role of retail music as an atmospheric stimulus and studies related to the role of music in the ad.

Findings

Advertising music as an atmospheric stimulus is more likely to influence consumers’ attitude towards advertising music, towards advertising and towards the advertised brand. Contrary to retail music, advertising music as an atmospheric stimulus may help a consumer for ad recall, ad message/brand information recall, brand recall, brand identification and brand recognition. Consequently, advertising music may always have an advantage over retail music with regard to purchase intent, brand choice and financial return.

Practical implications

This work may encourage the advertisers for the proper usage of ad music as an atmospheric stimulus that may holistically magnify the saliency of advertising theoretically and practically.

Originality/value

This study is a novel attempt to conceptualise the potential scope of utilisation of ad music in the retail context.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Paul Carr

This paper discusses the academic, governmental and logistical issues surrounding the University of Glamorgan’s recent involvement in developing accredited training and…

Abstract

This paper discusses the academic, governmental and logistical issues surrounding the University of Glamorgan’s recent involvement in developing accredited training and education for one of the largest music technology manufacturers in the world – Roland UK. The paper reports the joint development of a Foundation Degree in Music Retail Management, reflecting upon the viability of implementing work based learning (WBL), including accrediting current training and prior learning (APL). Through analysing the early stages of the project, the paper aims to formulate a clearer perspective of what the University of Glamorgan and Roland UK, in addition to the government and the music retail industry, actually require from a foundation degree such as this. After presenting a synopsis of the current political climate and contextualising the existing status of musical instrument retail training, an overview is provided of the development of the Roland/Glamorgan partnership. This is followed by a discussion of the philosophical debates and mechanisms currently surrounding the implementation and accreditation of WBL. The paper cumulates with the development of a pedagogical model that takes into account the quality issues of both the University of Glamorgan and Roland UK in addition to government policy. Conclusions are then drawn regarding the importance of both institutions developing appropriate structural capital and being aware of cultural differences that can potentially restrict academic/industrial partnerships. Although this pilot was focused specifically upon Roland UK, its wider implications, in terms of the demand for accredited training for the music instrument retail industry, are considered.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Rajnish Jain and Shilpa Bagdare

The purpose of this review is to examine the influence of music on consumption experience and explore the relationships between musical variables and consumer responses in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this review is to examine the influence of music on consumption experience and explore the relationships between musical variables and consumer responses in the context of retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the review of studies conducted over last 30 years, empirical and conceptual, dealing with a large number of music‐related variables and their impact on various dimensions of consumption experience.

Findings

The studies report that music influences consumption experience at cognitive, emotional, and behavioural levels, specifically with regard to attitudes and perceptions, time and money spend, and moods and feelings, in retail experience. The influence of music is moderated by customer and store profiles, purchase timings, and other ambience factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides important insights into critical issues related to influence of music, for future research.

Practical implications

The research brings out important issues for designing musical environment in the retail stores to influence shopping experience and consumer responses.

Originality/value

Based on a critical review of important studies, the present paper proposes a framework to understand the effect of music on consumption experience in retail stores.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

M. Paz Toldos, Eva M. González and Scott Motyka

Previous research has demonstrated that, in retail settings, music has some of the largest effects on consumer behavior. However, it is still unknown how the language of…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has demonstrated that, in retail settings, music has some of the largest effects on consumer behavior. However, it is still unknown how the language of the lyrics (native vs foreign) affects consumer behavior. In order to address this gap in retail atmospherics, the purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effects of the language of the lyrics of the music played and explain the interactions between the music language and volume.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were obtained from a field study conducted in an apparel store and from 241 shoppers speaking Spanish as their native language. The study involved the manipulation of language of the lyrics of music played in the store (native vs foreign).

Findings

Results indicate that customers in a non-English speaking country are more likely to make purchases when music is played in English, which fits with the store’s global image. This effect is mediated by time spent in the store.

Practical implications

For managers of global apparel brands, the results suggest that English music may be a good option to increase time spent in the store and subsequent purchases. This is especially attractive as music is an atmospheric cue that can be easily modified at less expense than other atmospheric cues.

Originality/value

This work is the first to demonstrate that fitting the language of the lyrics of music in an international retail store to a global brand image affects consumer behavior. Furthermore, it demonstrates that atmospherics research may not directly transfer to non-English speaking countries.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2008

Greg Broekemier, Ray Marquardt and James W. Gentry

The purpose of this paper is to determine which two dimensions of music, happy/sad or liked/disliked, have significant effects on shopping intentions, thereby providing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine which two dimensions of music, happy/sad or liked/disliked, have significant effects on shopping intentions, thereby providing guidance for decision‐makers in service environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects viewed videotapes of an unfamiliar store in an experimental research design. Subjects were exposed to one of several musical treatments while viewing and were asked to speak their thoughts about the store aloud. Happy/sad musical treatments were determined through pretests while subjects' unprompted comments were used to assess like/dislike for the music. Subjects also reported intentions to shop in the stimulus store. The hypothesized model was then tested.

Findings

Happy/sad music had a significant direct effect on shopping intentions while the direct effect of liked/disliked music was marginally significant. However, the combination of the two music dimensions investigated is perhaps most noteworthy. Shopping intentions were greatest when subjects were exposed to happy music that was liked.

Research limitations/implications

Only a women's clothing store service setting with a limited target market was utilized. Care should be taken when generalizing beyond this setting and subject group.

Practical implications

Happy music that is liked by the target market can significantly increase intentions to shop in a retail service environment.

Originality/value

Little research has been done investigating the effects of the affective, or happy/sad, component of music in service settings. This study helps fill that gap in the literature. In addition, studies investigating music's effects in retail environments often examine only one dimension of music. The value of assessing effects of multiple dimensions of music is demonstrated.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

J. Duncan Herrington and Louis M. Capella

Discusses many of the empirical studies relating to the effects ofbackground music on a wide range of consumer behaviours and outlines therelevant features and limitations…

Abstract

Discusses many of the empirical studies relating to the effects of background music on a wide range of consumer behaviours and outlines the relevant features and limitations of these studies. Suggests that, while research has identified relationships between specific behaviours and specific musical characteristics (e.g. tempo, volume, mode), retailers should practice caution when attempting to manipulate specific aspects of their background music. A safer and potentially more effective strategy would be to select background music that reflects the musical preferences of targeted consumer segments. Presents useful information regarding selection of appropriate background music.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Jung‐Hwan Kim, Minjeong Kim and Sharron J. Lennon

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of web site atmospherics such as music and product presentation on consumers' emotional, cognitive, and conative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of web site atmospherics such as music and product presentation on consumers' emotional, cognitive, and conative responses in online shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of 272 female college students participated in a web experiment employing a 2 (Product presentation: flat vs model)×2 (Music: present vs absent) between‐subjects factorial design.

Findings

The findings of this study showed that: product presentation (model vs flat) had a significant effect on consumers' emotional responses; and there were positive relationships among consumers' emotional, cognitive, and conative responses. Unexpectedly, music had no effect on consumers' emotional responses.

Research limitations/implications

Generalizing the results of this study is limited by the use of a convenience sample of college women.

Practical implications

Online retailers need to pay more attention on developing effective online atmospherics that evoke positive shopping outcomes. Based on the findings, product presentation using a model as compared to flat is recommended for online apparel retailers.

Originality/value

The current study confirmed the stimulus‐organism‐response relationship by showing that product presentation (online stimuli) affected emotion and attitude towards the site (emotional/cognitive states) and consequently influences purchase intent (response). Thus, this study provides practical, useful information to web site designers and online retailers by indicating that how web site atmospherics lead to positive consumer shopping outcomes.

Details

Direct Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-5933

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Richard Yalch and Eric Spangenberg

Describes an experiment conducted comparing the effects ofbackground and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. Concludesthat choosing to play store music solely to…

Abstract

Describes an experiment conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. Concludes that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers′ preferences may not be the optimal approach; instead music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different‐aged customers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Jillian C. Sweeney and Fiona Wyber

This study extends the Mehrabian‐Russell environmental psychology model to include both emotional states and cognitive processing as mediators of the music‐intended…

Abstract

This study extends the Mehrabian‐Russell environmental psychology model to include both emotional states and cognitive processing as mediators of the music‐intended behavior relationship. Our model specifically suggests that music affects customers’ perceptions of service quality and merchandise quality as well as feelings of arousal and pleasure, in the context of a women’s fashion store. The effect of music on service quality has not previously received much attention. In addition, it has been suggested that previous results of studies examining the effect of music on consumer responses may have been largely the result of individual music tastes. In the present study, therefore, the effect of music tastes is also examined. Findings indicated that liking of music has a major effect on consumers’ evaluations (pleasure, arousal, service quality and merchandise quality), while the music characteristics (specifically slow pop or fast classical) have an additional effect on pleasure and service quality. Further, pleasure, service quality and merchandise quality affected intended approach behaviors, and arousal contributed to these behaviors when the store environment was considered pleasant. Affiliation behaviors similarly resulted from service quality, pleasure and arousal, but not merchandise quality. Overall results indicate the importance of understanding the effect of music on both consumers’ internal evaluations as well as intended behaviors.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Steve Oakes, Anthony Patterson and Helen Oakes

Despite the relatively low cultural status of department store music, it is proposed that music – the shopping soundtrack – is capable of transforming perceptions of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the relatively low cultural status of department store music, it is proposed that music – the shopping soundtrack – is capable of transforming perceptions of the environment in which it is heard, and eliciting immediate emotional and behavioural responses, thus underlining the influence of music, regardless of whether it is passively heard as a background element or actively listened to as a live performance in a dedicated venue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study addresses a gap in the marketing literature for introspective research evaluating the experience of music in service environments. It draws upon auto‐ethnographic data through which participants ponder their own consumption experience and provide detailed, subjective accounts of events and memories.

Findings

When considering the effects of music upon emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses, it highlights the importance of musicscape response moderators.

Practical implications

The service environment appears more exciting and attractive and may encourage increased spending when background music is congruous with other servicescape elements. Music with positive autobiographical resonance elicits pleasurably nostalgic emotions, positive evaluations and longer stay. However, the aural incongruity of unexpected silence in music‐free zones produces feelings of discomfort leading to negative store evaluation and departure.

Originality/value

Qualitative data are deliberately represented using typically positivist discourse to encourage resolution of the inherent tension between interpretivist and positivist perspectives and stimulate increased methodological integration (e.g. through future studies of music combining quantitative and qualitative data).

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

Keywords

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