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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2019

Md Washim Raja, Sandip Anand and David Allan

Studying the role of advertising music (ad music) in a retail context can be an emergence of new marketing practices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

Studying the role of advertising music (ad music) in a retail context can be an emergence of new marketing practices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential usage and utility of ad music as an atmospheric stimulus in contrast to music (retail music) as an atmospheric stimulus. This paper also aims to provide a model, which depicts how ad music could be an alternative to retail music in retail settings with regard to consumers’ attitudinal influence and its optimistic correlation with related marketing outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviewed the literature related to the role of retail music as an atmospheric stimulus and studies related to the role of music in the ad.

Findings

Advertising music as an atmospheric stimulus is more likely to influence consumers’ attitude towards advertising music, towards advertising and towards the advertised brand. Contrary to retail music, advertising music as an atmospheric stimulus may help a consumer for ad recall, ad message/brand information recall, brand recall, brand identification and brand recognition. Consequently, advertising music may always have an advantage over retail music with regard to purchase intent, brand choice and financial return.

Practical implications

This work may encourage the advertisers for the proper usage of ad music as an atmospheric stimulus that may holistically magnify the saliency of advertising theoretically and practically.

Originality/value

This study is a novel attempt to conceptualise the potential scope of utilisation of ad music in the retail context.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Lincoln G. Craton and Geoffrey P. Lantos

The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes and implications of potential negative consumer response to music in broadcast commercials. It aims to accomplish this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes and implications of potential negative consumer response to music in broadcast commercials. It aims to accomplish this by introducing a new consumer response variable, attitude toward the advertising music (Aam) and relating Aam's components to advertising goals. It also aims to propose that Aam is a significant component of attitude toward the ad (Aad).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an integrative review of the relevant literatures in the psychology of music, consumer marketing, and advertising to formulate Aam.

Findings

Favorable Aam is a necessary but insufficient condition for favorable Aad in ads employing music. Furthermore, a negative Aam might cause a negative Aad. Given the numerous possible negative responses to music in a TV or radio commercial, achieving a favorable Aam among most target audience members is very challenging, especially when music‐message fit is lacking.

Practical implications

The paper offers cautionary advice for advertisers using music and directions for future research.

Originality/value

The paper provides a novel integration of literatures in psychology and marketing/advertising. Whereas most scholars and practitioners assume that music adds value to commercials, the authors demonstrate key ways in which music can cause adverse listener reactions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Geoffrey P. Lantos and Lincoln G. Craton

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model of consumer response to music in broadcast commercials outlining four variables (listening situation, musical stimulus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model of consumer response to music in broadcast commercials outlining four variables (listening situation, musical stimulus, listener characteristics, and advertising processing strategy) that affect a consumer's attitude toward the advertising music (Aam).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an integrative review of the relevant literatures from the psychology of music, marketing, and advertising.

Findings

Aam can be positively but also negatively influenced by many factors. Only some of these variables are employed in any typical study on consumer response to music, which may account for some conflicting findings.

Practical implications

The paper discusses factors for effectively using commercial music to affect Aam, with special focus on advertising processing strategy. Advertisers are urged to exercise extreme caution in using music and to always pretest its use considering factors identified in this paper. The paper suggests ways in which the model can guide future research.

Originality/value

The paper integrates diverse literatures and outlines the major variables comprising our model of consumer response to advertising music. Advertisers can use these variables as a checklist for factors to consider in selecting ad music.

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Akram Abdul Cader

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the existing research on Islam and advertising with the perspective of the Salafi authority of Saudi Arabia. This study is an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the existing research on Islam and advertising with the perspective of the Salafi authority of Saudi Arabia. This study is an exploration of the impact of the conservative interpretation of Islam on advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

This study critically reviews the literature on advertising in Islam, specifically in the context of the conservative religious Saudi Arabia, Islam and advertising and its connection with the interpretations of the religiously conservative segment of Saudi Arabian society. This systematic review covered 42 studies in Islamic advertising and Salafist/Hanbali jurisprudence, ranging from 1980 to 2014. These studies were validated through data triangulation using a meta-synthesis of 39 articles with 5 articles on Salafism and 5 Hanbali juristic texts.

Findings

The investigation concludes that there are several factors to be considered when developing advertising messages and content for the conservative segment of Islam. The considerations are as follows: (C1) avoidance of Islamic creedal taboos and displays of immorality; (C2) avoiding usage of musical instruments and taboo entertainment; (C3) women must be dressed appropriately, and gender roles must be in conjunction with Islamic texts; and (C4) avoiding deceptive marketing, defaming competition, and ambiguous transactions. Although there was a general consensus on C1 and C3, few studies discussed C2 and C4. Hanbali jurisprudence, the official school of thought in Saudi Arabia, was found to be in agreement with all four considerations. Additionally, the study synthesizes previous studies and contributes more knowledge to the few existing literature on the topic of Islam and advertising. A better understanding of the conservative interpretation of Islam can contribute to scholarship in the field of Islamic marketing.

Research limitations/implications

This paper was limited to the Salafist/Wahhabist interpretation of Islam based on Hanbali jurisprudence found in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this paper can be extended and validated through studying the attitudes of Salafists in different regions toward advertising messages and content.

Practical implications

This paper was limited to the Salafist/Wahhabist interpretation of Islam based on Hanbali jurisprudence found in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this paper can be extended and validated through studying the attitudes of Salafists in different regions toward advertising messages and content.

Originality/value

This study adds to the limited research on Islamic attitudes and challenges toward advertising in the Middle East. The study reviews existing research and utilizes religious rulings to research the conservative Islamic perspective of advertising.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Hsuan‐Yi Chou and Nai‐Hwa Lien

When using popular music in advertising, the songs' release period (nostalgia) and the lyrics' relevance to the product are two important characteristics but neglected in

Abstract

Purpose

When using popular music in advertising, the songs' release period (nostalgia) and the lyrics' relevance to the product are two important characteristics but neglected in previous music‐related studies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of these two variables on consumers' responses to advertisements.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 × 2 experimental design was used to examine the effects of a song's period and the lyrics' relevance. The hypotheses were tested with a structural equation analysis.

Findings

Previously heard old songs have positive ad effects due to evoking consumers' good moods or by generating more favorable nostalgia‐related thoughts. High‐relevance lyrics facilitate the production of favorable ad execution‐related thoughts, which improve ad attitude directly and indirectly through good moods.

Research limitations/implications

Only undergraduate students are sampled. Further, the experiment focuses solely on music‐dominated ads for low involvement products.

Practical implications

For advertising targeting the young generation, the use of a popular song released during their childhood can elicit feelings of nostalgia and lead to good moods as well as favorable brand attitudes. Such effects, can be strengthened by high‐relevance lyrics.

Originality/value

Placing a previously heard popular song in a TV ad can evoke nostalgic feelings and generate favorable ad effects even when the product and other ad design elements are not related to nostalgic themes. The persuasion mechanism of nostalgia follows a dual‐route process, in which the cognitive route seems to be more influential than the affective route. The importance of lyrics' relevance is demonstrated to the extent that its impact on brand attitude can exceed that of song's nostalgia.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

David Allan and Stephanie A. Tryce

The purpose of this paper is to quantify and qualify the commercials in the Super Bowl.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify and qualify the commercials in the Super Bowl.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a content analysis of the placement of popular music in Super Bowl advertisements over a ten-year period (2005-2014).

Findings

More than a quarter of the commercials analyzed contained popular music. Although the use of popular music in commercials vacillated from year to year, popular music was most often observed in the product category of beverages; the music treatment most often used was original vocals; and song lyrics were most often relevant to the narrative of the commercial, rather than the brand.

Originality/value

This study extends the growing body of Super Bowl advertising research to popular music in commercials and provides a benchmark for all future research in this area.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2019

Leila Khoshghadam, Elika Kordrostami and Yuping Liu-Thompkins

This paper aims to examine the role of life satisfaction in consumers’ reaction to nostalgic music in an advertisement in terms of attitude toward the brand and purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of life satisfaction in consumers’ reaction to nostalgic music in an advertisement in terms of attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. It suggests that life satisfaction forms the lens through which individuals interpret and reconstruct past emotional experiences evoked by nostalgia. It further investigates the role of product category involvement in the interplay between life satisfaction and nostalgic music.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted. The first study featured a 2 (nostalgic vs non-nostalgic music) × 2 (high vs low involvement) between-subjects design and tested the research hypotheses with 208 consumers. The second study featured two involvement conditions (high vs low) and explored the underlying process behind the hypotheses. Linear regression was used to analyze the data in both studies.

Findings

For the low involvement product category, nostalgic music was more effective than non-nostalgic music for consumers with high life satisfaction, whereas non-nostalgic music was more effective for consumers with low life satisfaction levels. For the high involvement product category, life satisfaction did not moderate consumers’ reaction to nostalgic music.

Research limitations/implications

This research suggests that past experiences evoked through nostalgic music are not static but are subject to bias and interpretation depending on an individual’s current mindset. Hence, the eventual effect of nostalgia is determined by how past events are reconstrued based on the individual’s current state.

Practical implications

This paper warns against the blind use of nostalgic appeals in advertising, points to the need to consider the audience’s state of mind, and suggests an opportunity to leverage life satisfaction influencers in designing effective advertising campaigns.

Social implications

The findings have strong implications for public policymakers. The results are crucial as policymakers often use public service announcement (PSA) to change the attitude of the public toward some phenomena. Knowing the current state of life satisfaction in society, they can increase the efficiency of public service announcements by including a nostalgic song in them.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first one in the marketing literature that looks at the efficiency of nostalgic songs in advertisements. The authors tested the conceptual framework by using two studies and offered novel implications to both marketers and scholars.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2021

Jun-Phil Uhm, Hyun-Woo Lee, Jin-Wook Han and Dong-Kyu Kim

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of background music on consumer's psychological and physiological responses when watching sports advertisements. We investigated how consumers' exposure to background music affects emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intentions; and further tested consumers' information processing by using the same measures. Effects of music on viewer responses were hypothesized using arousal theory while the information processing was hypothesized using hierarchy-of-effects model.

Design/methodology/approach

We employed a between-subjects experimental design with random assignment. Fifty-four participants were recruited with 27 in an experimental group and 27 in a control group. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and self-report measures were used to assess information processing. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the mean differences of variables between the groups. Partial least squares algorithm and bootstrapping were performed to further explore the relationships among the measures.

Findings

Mean differences indicated that the background music exposed group's emotional arousal, attention, brand attitude and purchase intention were significantly higher than those of the non-exposure group. Path analysis showed that the level of arousal induced by watching sports advertisements affected attention, attention affected brand attitude and brand attitude affected purchase intention. Indirect paths from arousal to brand attitude and attention to purchase intention were significant.

Originality/value

This study provides practical implications for sports marketers regarding methods to increase the effectiveness of sport advertisement. Results might contribute theoretically to the sports advertisement field by demonstrating the relationship between physiological and marketing-effect factors. Our method of measuring physiological response using qEEG is also expected to influence physiological measurement in sports marketing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Zana Knittel, Karolin Beurer and Adele Berndt

The purpose of this research is to explore the reasons for brand avoidance among Generation Y consumers. Researchers have traditionally focused on the positive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the reasons for brand avoidance among Generation Y consumers. Researchers have traditionally focused on the positive relationship between consumers and brands, but, increasingly, consumers are consciously avoiding brands.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study consisting of both focus groups and interviews was conducted among Generation Y participants.

Findings

The findings support previous research that identifies four types of brand avoidance, namely, experiential, identity, moral and deficit-value avoidance. However, the study also suggests that an additional type of brand avoidance, namely, advertising avoidance, also occurs. Aspects of advertising that can contribute to brand avoidance include the content of the advertising, the use of a celebrity endorser and the music in the advertising, as well as the response to the advertising. This study thus proposes an expanded framework of brand avoidance.

Research limitations/implications

This study has found support for the existing types and reasons impacting brand avoidance but suggests that advertising may also impact brand avoidance. This is an aspect that requires further research.

Practical implications

For marketing managers, the findings suggest that not only can product experiences result in brand avoidance, but that advertising may be a further reason for this phenomenon.

Originality/value

While there has been a great deal of attention on the positive aspects of brands, research on the negative aspects has largely been ignored. Further, the identification of advertising as a reason for brand avoidance is also suggested.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Anthony Grimes

The purpose of this paper is draw together the different explanations of low attention advertising effects in the related, yet traditionally separate, paradigms of low…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is draw together the different explanations of low attention advertising effects in the related, yet traditionally separate, paradigms of low involvement processing and mere exposure effects. Further to this, the paper aims to integrate these perspectives into a more holistic theoretical framework for researching and explaining low attention advertising effects.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review of the consumer literature in the related areas of low involvement processing and mere exposure effects is undertaken. This reveals very different explanations of the psychological processes that underpin research within these paradigms, and gives rise to a conceptual problem in the understanding of how advertising creates effects under conditions of low attention.

Findings

This paper argues that these two streams of research should not be seen as competing theories, however, but that collectively they explain the different routes by which advertising creates effects under conditions of low attention. Specifically, the paper proposes an integrated model of advertising effects that identifies two distinct routes to the creation of advertising effects under conditions of low attention. This model is founded on the notion that mere exposure effects are essentially driven by perceptual processes, whilst low involvement processing is almost universally seen to be underpinned by conceptual processes.

Practical implications

As the two routes incorporate different psychological processes, it is argued that such a distinction gives rise to important implications for advertising design and research. These are discussed in detail.

Originality/value

This paper draws together the various strands of research from related, yet traditionally separate, fields of research and provides a framework in which to develop further empirical and theoretical work into low attention advertising effects.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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