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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Thea Vinnicombe and Pek U. Joey Sou

Academic studies have sought to understand the motivations of festival and event attendees usually through single-event case studies. This approach has failed to generate…

Abstract

Purpose

Academic studies have sought to understand the motivations of festival and event attendees usually through single-event case studies. This approach has failed to generate a generalizable set of motivation items. In addition, there is increasing criticism in the literature of the common methodological framework used in festival motivation studies, due to a perceived over-reliance on motivations derived from the broader tourism and travel research, with too little attention to event-specific factors. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues by analyzing a sub-category of motivation studies, music festivals, in order to see if this approach can elicit a consistent set of motivation dimensions for the sub-category, which can in turn be compared and contrasted with the broader literature. A new case study of motivations to attend the 28th Macau International Music Festival (MIMF) is included to complement the existing music festival sub-category by adding a classical music and music festivals in Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Motivation dimensions important to music festivals are compared to dimensions across the broader festival motivation literature to find similarities and differences. Factor analysis is used to identify the motivation dimensions of attendees at the MIMF and the results are compared to those of existing music festival studies.

Findings

Music festival goers are shown to be primarily motivated by the core festival offering, the music, in contrast to festival attendees in general, where socialization has emerged as the primary motivating element. The results of the additional case study support these findings.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous research, this study examines the possibility of identifying common motivations among festival attendees through studying festivals by sub-categories.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Beate Flath and Maryam Momen Pour Tafreshi

The purpose of this article is to illuminate the relations of work-related practices of local managers of live music events in Ostwestfalen-Lippe (OWL) and barriers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to illuminate the relations of work-related practices of local managers of live music events in Ostwestfalen-Lippe (OWL) and barriers and needs of vulnerable customers (VC) in order to explore possibilities to increase cultural participation of VC.

Design/methodology/approach

This article explores work-related practices of managers of live music events in OWL and asks if and to what extent these practices have an influence on the cultural participation of “vulnerable customers” (VC). It combines the findings of two studies: a) an explorative investigation on the work-related self-conceptions of managers of live music events in OWL (Study 1), and b) a sub-project on cultural participation of VC, which is part of the research project “kulturPreis. Increasing cultural participation through innovative and economically sustainable pricing concepts”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Study 2).

Findings

It can be stated that there is an imbalance of knowledge: while VC tend to have a clear understanding of which barriers are the responsibility of managers of live music events, managers tend to lack knowledge regarding the needs of VC, and regarding the interrelationships between financial and social barriers facing them. Whether this knowledge and understanding can be developed in the future depends on the possibilities of exchanges between managers of live music events, cultural institutions, welfare organisations, political institutions and not least VC.

Originality/value

Based on these studies, this article combines different approaches by linking work-related practices of managers of live music events with cultural participation of VC.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Francesc González‐Reverté and Oriol Miralbell‐Izard

The purpose of this paper is to assess the touristic potential of music festivals in Catalonia. It is an opportune goal because even though this region is experiencing an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the touristic potential of music festivals in Catalonia. It is an opportune goal because even though this region is experiencing an important increase of new festivals and cultural events, there is a lack of adequate coordinating and guiding tourism policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The data was gathered with a survey to managers of music festivals that provided information about their management structure and economic results. The study findings are the result of an analysis done with a statistical multivariate technique and constructing indicators of event economic feasibility and tourism specialisation.

Findings

Data reveals the coexistence of two different types of festivals in Catalonia depending on their cultural or touristic orientation and with clear differences in their management style. Both types have a professionalized management structure and an economic self‐sufficiency when compared with the rest of Catalan cultural events, so they can be considered as an asset for regional tourism development. Nevertheless, some problems are detected in management practices that should be improved when implementing a specific tourism event policy.

Originality/value

The research has built a unique event data base that can be useful for decision making in tourism public administration. The paper suggests that local and regional administration should consider music festivals and cultural events, in general, as excellent resources to create new tourism products. Some of the characteristics of festivals, such as their important potential as tourism attractions and their cultural identity or the economical success, are critical assets to their high potential in local tourism development. These findings should justify a more resolute public policy of events and music festivals in Catalonia.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Helen Marie Mallette, Wanda George and Ilya Blum

The purpose of this paper is to propose and introduce a new classification model to segment a nation’s cultural tourists based on their motivations to travel to a military…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and introduce a new classification model to segment a nation’s cultural tourists based on their motivations to travel to a military music festival. Little research is apparent about the types of people, and their motivations, who attend these types of festivals. In addition, the research investigates the impact of military music festivals on the concepts of patriotism and national identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach involves empirical testing of a Canadian audience attending the Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, a longstanding annual musical event held in Nova Scotia, Canada, that pays tribute to the country’s military heritage. A proposed classification model that includes two dimensions is applied, which investigates: motivation to attend the event and kinship to Canada’s military and naval traditions.

Findings

Findings provide a better understanding of the diversity of the Canadian cultural tourist audience attending a military music display in terms of tourists’ demographics, experience of the show and the desire to return. This research also provides new insights as to the ability of a military musical event to arouse emotions of national pride, patriotism and strengthen national identity.

Originality/value

This research is important to event sponsors and organizers of military music events as they attempt to maintain productivity and attendance growth in an increasingly competitive entertainment environment.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Alan Simon, Alastair Parker, Gary Stockport and Amrik Sohal

The music festival industry is challenged by intense competition and financial exigency. As a result, many festivals have either folded or are currently struggling…

Abstract

Purpose

The music festival industry is challenged by intense competition and financial exigency. As a result, many festivals have either folded or are currently struggling. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show that motivator-hygiene-professional (MHP) strategic capabilities (SCs) are positively associated with quality music festival management thereby providing a playbook for potentially mitigating these challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

The mixed methods research design comprised a case study of a leading event management company as well as nation-wide in-depth interviews and questionnaire survey. The authors initially confirmed the nature of the challenges to the industry from the case study and the in-depth interviews. The authors then developed an MHP Model of 15 SCs that were identified from the literature and the qualitative research. The relationship of the MHP SCs model to quality music festival management was tested in the questionnaire survey.

Findings

The respondents suggested that all the SCs were related to quality music festival management. However, Professional SCs were considered comparatively less important than motivator and hygiene SCs. Across all three groups, interviewees highlighted the significance of artists, site and operational planning, financial and stakeholder management and ticket pricing. In addition, careful planning, delegation and quality focus, problem solving, resolve and flexibility, leadership and vision, communication and innovation were considered conducive to the quality management of music festival organisations.

Practical implications

The MHP SCs model and dimensions of quality management offer music festival event managers a detailed practical playbook for moderating challenges to music festival management. In essence the authors provide the specific drivers that festival managers should best focus their attention upon. Visionary leadership, artist differentiation, innovation, customer service and flexible management have priority.

Originality/value

The findings add to the festival management literature by demonstrating the importance of motivator, hygiene and additional professional SCs for moderating challenges to the music festival industry. To the best of authors’ knowledge, no previous studies have directly investigated specific SCs critical for quality event and festival management. In particular, the academic significance of this paper is that the authors have combined Herzberg’s motivator and hygiene factors with SCs, which are in essence success drivers, to create a novel holistic MHP SCs model for quality music festival management. Further explanatory insight is gained by the addition of a third factor of professional SCs.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2011

Chris Anderton

This paper aims to examine the cultural heritage of outdoor rock and pop music festivals in Britain since the mid‐1960s, and relates it to developments in, and critiques…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the cultural heritage of outdoor rock and pop music festivals in Britain since the mid‐1960s, and relates it to developments in, and critiques of, corporate sponsorship in the contemporary music festival sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses extant research materials to construct an account of British music festival history since the mid‐1960s. It then draws upon Bakhtin's concept of the carnivalesque and the literature on sponsorship, experiential marketing and branding, in order to understand critiques of corporate sponsorship and the changing nature of the sector.

Findings

Outdoor rock and pop music festivals were dominated by the ideologies of a “countercultural carnivalesque” from the late 1960s until the mid‐1990s. In the 1990s, changes in legislation began a process of professionalization, corporatization, and a reliance on brand sponsorships. Two broad trajectories are identified within the contemporary sector: one is strongly rooted in the heritage of the countercultural carnivalesque, while the other is more overtly commercial.

Research limitations/implications

It is argued that experiential marketing and brand activation are key methods for achieving a balance between the competing aspects of commerce and carnival. Hence, festival organisers and sponsors need to understand the history of the sector and of their own events and attendees in order to use corporate sponsorship more effectively.

Originality/value

This paper adds historical and theoretical depth to the debate between commerce and carnival within the music festival sector, and makes connections between cultural theory and the literature on sponsorship and branding.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2021

Marisol Alonso-Vazquez and Christina Ballico

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has once again brought to our attention one of the three main pillars of sustainability–the environment. It has also…

Abstract

Purpose

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has once again brought to our attention one of the three main pillars of sustainability–the environment. It has also brought into sharp relief the fragility of the live music festival sector, whose success hinges fundamentally on the capacity for both travel and mass gatherings to occur. Considering this intersection of environmental sustainability and the live music festival sector, this paper–which reports on events occurring long before the global pandemic took hold–examines the ways in which eight Australian folk and world music festivals successfully engage in eco-friendly and pro-environmental practices and educational activities at their events. Findings from this research will assist industry practitioners in being able to engage in similar practices at their events, as well as further academic understandings of the relationship between the environment and the live music sector, and the role of environmental communication practices within this.

Design/methodology/approach

This study engaged an exploratory research design using interviews to gain an insight into the perceptions of eight live music festival promoters regarding their patrons' on-site eco-friendly behaviours and engagement with the eco-friendly initiatives at their events.

Findings

Social support within the on-site festival community (applied here through the notion of a sense of communitas), coupled with the provision of eco-friendly initiatives and effective environmental communication approaches, were key pivot drivers to support patrons' pro-environmental behaviours. Engagement with environmental authorities and experts during the festivals was found to validate their eco-friendly approaches.

Originality/value

This paper provides details of, as well as insights into, the success of the eco-friendly and pro-environmental education practices engaged at select world and folk music festivals in Australia. It broadens and builds upon existing understandings of environmental communication practices.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the motives of visitors to an electronic dance music (EDM) festival in South Africa and clustered the participants according to these motives.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a visitor survey at the oldest EDM festival in South Africa, namely, H2O, five motives for attending H2O were identified (fun and dance; novelty; excitement, group identity and entertainment; lifestyle and well-being; and travel and escape), while the results revealed three clusters of EDM festival visitors: enthusiasts, energizers and electros. The results demonstrated that clustering EDM festival visitors based on their motives is a useful market segmentation tool as it yields a clear and direct profile and understanding of different types of attendees and their preferences.

Findings

The results as well as findings emphasize how EDM events can play a role in expanding tourism, especially youth travel, by hosting more EDM festivals in the country.

Originality/value

The study proposes a 3E typology of EDM festival visitors that could be applied to other EDM festival and event markets. This research, therefore, makes a clear contribution to the literature on EDM festivals and events and the market that this distinct music genre attracts.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Thea Vinnicombe and Yu Chen Wu

To date, researchers examining the motivations of volunteers at festivals and events have used a range of measurement indexes, most of which appear to have common…

Abstract

Purpose

To date, researchers examining the motivations of volunteers at festivals and events have used a range of measurement indexes, most of which appear to have common antecedents in the psychology literature. It is not clear if different events actually require different scales, or if individual scales are more generalizable than is currently recognized so that the proliferation of scales is largely an academic exercise. The current study takes a preliminary step in exploring this issue by using an existing scale developed to measure the motivations of volunteers at western sporting events to examine the motivations of volunteers at a music festival in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The Volunteer Motivation Scale for International Sporting Events (VMS-ISE) is administered to volunteers at the Midi Music Festival in China. The 467 respondents are divided into two subgroups. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is applied to the first subsample to explore the factor structure of the index. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is then applied to the second subsample to test the factor structure of the resolved scale.

Findings

The results of the EFA are promising, yielding a resolved factor structure, which is very close to the hypothesized index. The resolved scale is reasonably well supported by the subsequent CFA.

Originality/value

The findings suggest it may be possible for researchers to use a smaller number of scales on a larger range of festivals leading to a better understanding of similarities and differences in motivations across event volunteers. The results should also be helpful to festival organizers in their continuing efforts to recruit volunteers.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Danielle Robyn Pilcher and Nick Eade

Despite the ongoing research into visitor motivation in the live events and tourism industries, only a limited amount of research has examined the motivational factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the ongoing research into visitor motivation in the live events and tourism industries, only a limited amount of research has examined the motivational factors exhibited in individual segments of society. The purpose of this paper was to identify a relationship between visitor demographics and visitor motivation, for the purpose of enhanced market research at folk festivals in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, a qualitative study of visitor demographics and their accompanying motivation to attend Purbeck Folk Festival is reported. The study was conducted in the form of interviews, which investigated the underlying motivation behind visitor attendance to Purbeck Folk Festival in 2014. The research process, guided by the literature of Robson (2011) and Bryman (2012), aimed to establish the extent to which visitor demographics did or did not impact visitor motivation to attend the event.

Findings

The study revealed five motivational dimensions, and from this devised five core audience segments including: the escapists, the socialites, the family type, the experience seekers and the folkniks. This study highlights the correlation between visitor demographics and visitor motivation and suggests further applications of this research and similar research in the field of live events. The study contributes an insight into the audience of Purbeck Folk Festival and may be used to provide an understanding of audience profile and behaviour at folk festivals within the UK.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the nature of the research, participants will be secured through non-probability quota sampling, which is a method of convenience. This approach may place limitations on the validity of the findings, as researcher bias may occur when selecting participants, for example, avoiding visitors who look intimidating or abnormal (Robson, 2011). The use of open-ended questions in the capacity of a greenfield event was identified as a potential difficulty, as participants are required to think about their answers and provide opinions, unlike a closed question method, which although quicker and easier, may not be as effective (Kumar, 2014). Therefore, to keep participants engaged and willing to provide further information, the interview design was kept short and questions are easily comprehendible.

Originality/value

The research study reflects early the work of Mayo (Dickson, 1973), Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1966), and builds on more recent literature by Kruger and Saayman (2012), which analysed the relationship between audience profile and motivation to attend.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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