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The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of real earnings management by private and public firms in a unique institutional setting, which is the Gulf Cooperation…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of real earnings management by private and public firms in a unique institutional setting, which is the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The paper also compares the level of real earnings management between public and private firms in the GCC area.
The GCC area is a unique setting to investigate the use of real earnings management because of the low enforcement of reporting standards and supervisory rules, lack of sophisticated financial analysis, specialized media tools and high concentration of capital ownership. The authors use different models of real earnings management proposed by Roychowdhury, 2006, cash flow management, productions cost management and discretionary expenses management to examine the use of real earnings management.
The paper documents evidence consistent with private and public firms using real earnings management to influence their earnings figures. The paper also shows that the level of real earnings management is higher for private firms compared to public firms when cash flow management and discretionary expenses management models are used. The production cost model results show evidence consistent with public firms only engaging in real earnings management through production cost reduction.
The results of this study might not be applicable to other emerging markets.
The findings of this study should promote a general understanding of firms’ behavior in unique environment such as GCC countries. Regulators in the GCC region should be aware that real earnings management techniques have been used by firms and that extra caution is required when auditing or analyzing the financial information of private and public firms in the GCC market.
This paper contributes to the literature in many aspects. First, it provides additional evidence on the use of earnings management in unique market contexts outside the USA and Europe. The GCC markets share many common characteristics that make them interesting settings to be investigated. Second, this paper adds more evidence on the use of earnings management between public and private firms. In this regard, the paper adds additional evidence in the discussions proposed by Ball and Shivakumar (2005) and Givoly et al. (2010) who use two competing perspectives to investigate earnings quality in public and private firms: the demand hypothesis and the opportunistic behavior hypothesis.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and variety of practices of internet financial reporting (IFR) by companies listed on the Muscat Securities Market…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and variety of practices of internet financial reporting (IFR) by companies listed on the Muscat Securities Market (MSM) in Oman. While IFR is fast becoming the norm in most western countries, there is little empirical evidence of the phenomenon in the Middle East region. This paper attempts to fill some of the gap in the literature by providing evidence of IFR practices in Oman.
The 142 companies listed on the MSM were investigated to ascertain whether they maintain websites and/or if these sites are being used for communicating financial information.
Only 84 of the listed companies were found to operate websites, with even less (only 31) engaging in IFR. However, IFR is not restricted to the publication of annual financial statements only as the companies also disclose financial highlights through their websites.
The results of this study indicate that IFR is still at an embryonic stage in Oman and there are lots of opportunities and challenges for all stakeholder parties in corporate reporting.
The study highlights the challenges and opportunities for IFR in the Middle East Region, as well as a number of areas for further study.
– The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of financial reporting on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy, namely Jordan.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of financial reporting on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy, namely Jordan.
The paper surveys 127 companies listed in the first market of Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) for the year ended 2008/2009. The primary sources of the data used in this study are the global and the Jordanian electronic web sites. The paper employs descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests to explore the internet financial reporting (IFR) practices among Jordanian companies.
The results show that 87 Jordanian companies (69 percent) possess web sites with about 51 percent (44 of the 87) include financial reports and 32 out of 44 companies (about 73 percent) disseminate all their financial information on their web sites. The paper also finds that the extent of disclosure of the corporate financial and nonfinancial information on the ASE web site is statistically different form the companies’ web sites. Furthermore, the current paper reveals that some firm-specific characteristics such as firm size; financial leverage, age, and ownership concentration may distinguish those companies who engage in IFR from their counterparts. Finally, the results suggest that the financial sector is more advanced in terms of using the internet to disseminate information when compared to the industrial and services sectors.
In the context of Jordan, there is limited number of studies attempted to address corporate financial reporting on the internet. Therefore, the present study makes significant contribution to the existing body of knowledge by shedding more light on the status of financial disclosure on the internet by companies operating in an emerging economy like Jordan. Also, the current paper explores the extent of corporate information disclosed on both the official web site of ASE and companies’ web sites.