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The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for researchers to study this largely unexplored area.
Municipal occupational regulatory data were gathered in 2017 and 2018 from the 50 largest cities in the USA. Data available in the data set include city and state IDs, occupational IDs, requirements associated with the regulations (e.g. education, experience and fees), penalties for practicing without meeting the requirements, regulatory type and NAICS category. Descriptive statistics are used to present information about the number and types of occupations regulated and the number and types of regulations present in the cities.
The median number of occupations regulated by a city is 24.5, but the numbers per city vary substantially. The 1,832 occupations in the data set are distributed across every NAICS category. The most prevalent form of regulation is registration; certification is least used. Cities are quite diverse in the types of regulations applied to occupations, and the type of regulation varies substantially by industry type.
Research on licensing is dominated by state-level analyses. Largely absent are systematic analyses of licensing and other regulation at the municipal level, likely due to a lack of data. This means the current licensing literature underestimates – perhaps severely so – the prevalence, burdens and effects of licensing. The data introduced and discussed in this paper can help remedy this dearth of municipal licensing analyses.
This study aims to analyze the trends for crime and STDs after the passage of massage therapist licensing. In 1977, Texas passed a law permitting county-level licensing…
This study aims to analyze the trends for crime and STDs after the passage of massage therapist licensing. In 1977, Texas passed a law permitting county-level licensing laws for massage therapists, which was soon followed by a statewide licensing requirement in 1985. This early massage therapy law was upheld by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. Massage therapy licensing is commonly associated with preventing crime, specifically prostitution. However, massage parlors also represent an opportunity for entrepreneurs starting businesses, who face significant barriers to entry across the USA.
The authors analyze the effect of state- and city-level licensing of massage therapists on crime and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases using data from the FBI Uniform Crime Reports from 1985–2013 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1993-2015.
The authors find that state- and city-level licensing of massage therapists was not associated with preventing crimes related to prostitution or reducing sexually transmitted diseases. This analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that relaxing the stringency of massage therapist licensing would not lead to increases in crime or additional spread of disease while likely encouraging entrepreneurship.
This study is one of the first to examine the effects of city-level licensing on health and safety of consumers.
By drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted amongst waste-pickers and recycling traders in the waste paper, plastic and scrap metal sectors, and engaging with…
By drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted amongst waste-pickers and recycling traders in the waste paper, plastic and scrap metal sectors, and engaging with literature from economic anthropology and history, as well as archival sources, this paper documents changing perceptions of just price, morality and fairness in the Turkish recycling market. The paper suggests that multiple markets imply multiple prices, which are contingent and contested. When dealing with price mechanisms largely outside their control, actors tend to associate a fair price with the going market price, rather than factors such as state regulation. Approaches to morality and assessments of fairness become more ambiguous when prices are mediated by actors’ own practices. These range from gift relations to paternalism, envy and deception.
THE Municipal Aerodrome movement in England is beginning to take shape, and there is no doubt progress in this development is becoming increasingly rapid. The Civil…
THE Municipal Aerodrome movement in England is beginning to take shape, and there is no doubt progress in this development is becoming increasingly rapid. The Civil Aviation Department now issue a monthly “Progress Report,” the latest issue of which, dated March 31, shows that 170 towns are taking an interest in the desirability of providing facilities for aeroplanes. Of these, eight—Blackpool, Bristol, Hull, Ipswich, Liverpool, Manchester, Nottingham and Plymouth—already possess municipal aerodromes licensed by the Air Ministry. Six further towns—Carlisle, Leicester, Portsmouth, Stoke‐on‐Trent, Sheffield and Southampton—have bought sites, and an additional 18 are at present in negotiation for the purchase of sites. Besides these, 12 towns have reserved sites for aerodromes in their town‐planning development schemes, while another 67 have already had possibly suitable sites inspected, 3 more awaiting a visit for this purpose.
DURING the last eighteen months a large amount of my time has been devoted to the question of the establishment of municipal aerodromes in this country. In that time I…
DURING the last eighteen months a large amount of my time has been devoted to the question of the establishment of municipal aerodromes in this country. In that time I have inspected and reported upon some 125 sites.
This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General…
This chapter looks at the past, present and future of international cannabis control required by the UN drug control conventions in the post-2016 United Nations General Assembly Special Session era with an eye on the next High Level Ministerial Segment (HLMS) at the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs in 2019, and beyond. From a policy analysis perspective, the author meanders through the increasing tendency to legally regulate recreational cannabis markets notwithstanding the obligation enshrined in the UN drug control conventions to limit cannabis exclusively for ‘medical and scientific’ purposes. Taking into account relevant national and international developments, the chapter describes how the growing discomfort with the status of cannabis and the prohibitive and punitive approach stemming from the international drug control regime went through a process from soft to hard defections of the treaty obligations. The case of the Netherlands demonstrates the difficulty faced by reform-minded states in reconciling their wish for a different cannabis control mechanism with their obligations under international law, resulting in an incomplete regulation of its coffee-shop system, where small amounts of cannabis are tolerated for sale, but where the illicit supply to the shops remained unregulated. Subsequent more wide-ranging reforms to regulate cannabis from seed to sale in Uruguay, several US States and – in 2018 – in Canada, are clearly violating the obligations of the UN drug control conventions. Nevertheless, the HLMS will likely leave the elephant in the room untouched. The emerging paradigm shift regarding cannabis shows that a modernisation of the UN drug control regime is long overdue. This chapter discusses some of the options available.
Social‐cultural and structural arguments have been used to explain why Japan's legal culture is different than other industrialized nations; however, both arguments lack…
Social‐cultural and structural arguments have been used to explain why Japan's legal culture is different than other industrialized nations; however, both arguments lack data about client usage. This paper examines the use of Japanese lawyers by businesses in Japan. Senior executives from 572 Japanese and foreign businesses responded to a survey about their use of legal services. Japanese businesses are found to retain lawyers more frequently for legal action and corporate procedural matters, but foreign businesses are more likely to retain lawyers for government compliance activities. While both theoretical arguments help to explain Japan's legal culture, the common denominator is the small number of Japanese lawyers.