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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Richard Reed and Susan F. Storrud‐Barnes

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For patenting, the paper seeks to show how invention value and firm rivalry drive the tactics of competing, deterring competitors, retreating from markets, and cooperating. It also aims to explore the effects of the contingencies of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is conceptual.

Findings

The base model shows that patenting can be used to protect markets where there is high invention‐value and high rivalry. When both invention‐value and rivalry are low, the best tactic is to cooperate. When value is high and rivalry low, patenting can be used as a signaling and deterring mechanism, but when value is low and rivalry is high the best option is to let patents lapse and retreat from markets. The moderating effects of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness affect rivalry and the amount of patenting that will be done.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides propositions for empirical testing that are predictive of firm performance, rivalry, and patent bulking. Despite the authors' attention to key contingencies, it is impossible to be completely comprehensive in addressing all contingencies.

Practical implications

The framework provides tactics for competing and, consequently, maximizing income and minimizing costs.

Originality/value

The work synthesizes extant thinking on patents and multipoint competition. While the base model should be valuable for managers, the overall work should be valuable for academics.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2004

Juan Florin and Alphonso O. Ogbuehi

Strategy and marketing scholars look at strategic issues from different points of view and attempt to explain strategic choice and performance from their unique…

Abstract

Strategy and marketing scholars look at strategic issues from different points of view and attempt to explain strategic choice and performance from their unique perspectives. This paper combines these perspectives in the context of international ventures and develops a conceptual framework integrating international marketing strategy decisions with entry mode decisions. The resulting contingency framework extends the hierarchical entry‐mode decision model and allows for a better specification of the strategy‐performance relationship in international business.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Eduardo Fracchia and Luiz F. Mesquita

Conventional economic and management theories explain that business groups facing market liberalization policy reforms (i.e., competitive shocks) would have incentives to…

Abstract

Conventional economic and management theories explain that business groups facing market liberalization policy reforms (i.e., competitive shocks) would have incentives to reduce corporate portfolios and increase internationalization. We empirically examine the strategic responses of Argentine business groups and, through an inductive theory building process, propose refinements to this theory. We argue that such a strategy process is moderated not only by differences in market forces set out by policy reforms across different economic segments but also by the path dependency of resources and capabilities as well as management decision‐making style of individual business groups. We discuss implications for theory and practice.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Hao Ma

Competitive advantage is perhaps the most widely used term in strategic management, yet it remains poorly defined and operationalized. This paper makes three observations…

Abstract

Competitive advantage is perhaps the most widely used term in strategic management, yet it remains poorly defined and operationalized. This paper makes three observations regarding competitive advantage and conceptually explores the various patterns of relationship between competitive advantage and firm performance. First, competitive advantage does not equate to superior performance. Second, competitive advantage is a relational term. Third, it is context‐specific. This paper examines three patterns of relationship between competitive advantage and firm performance: 1) competitive advantage leading to superior performance; 2) competitive advantage without superior performance, and 3) superior performance without competitive advantage. The ultimate purpose of this article is to help generate a healthy debate among strategy scholars on the usefulness of the competitive advantage construct for our theory building and testing. This paper proposes that we re‐examine the notion of competitive advantage and formally assess its usefulness for theory building and testing in the field of Strategic Management. The notion of competitive advantage has been a cornerstone of our field. As such, research on competitive advantage occupies a central position in strategy literature (e.g., Porter, 1980, 1985; Rumelt, 1984, 1987; Barney, 1986, 1991; Ghemawat, 1986, 1991; Peteraf, 1993; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). However, the notion of competitive advantage itself has rarely been systematically addressed and, to date, remains poorly defined and operationalized. Is competitive advantage what it takes to compete, a characterization observed during competition, or an outcome of competition? Is competitive advantage contingent on the competitive situation or is it a more general trait of the firm? Put differently, how is competitive advantage different from competence, strengths and, ultimately, performance? This article, addressing the above questions, makes three observations regarding competitive advantage. First, competitive advantage does not equate to (superior) performance. Second, competitive advantage is a relational construct. Third, competitive advantage is context‐specific. In presenting these three observations, this article proposes suggestions to refine and operationalize “competitive advantage.” It then conceptually explores the relationship between competitive advantage and performance, which is argued to be much more complex than it is currently being treated in the literature. Concluding remarks follow.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Daniel B. Sands

This work addresses how consumer perceptions of quality may be influenced by the composition of competition. I develop a theoretical framework that explains how consumer…

Abstract

This work addresses how consumer perceptions of quality may be influenced by the composition of competition. I develop a theoretical framework that explains how consumer evaluations of quality can be negatively impacted by a product's stylistic similarity to popular competitors. These issues are examined empirically using more than 75,000 online consumer evaluations, from the evaluation aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, of 123 feature films released in the United States during 2007. Results suggest that during a movie's opening week, movies that are stylistically similar to the top-performing box office movie are evaluated less favorably. Additional analyses indicate that this negative effect may persist in later periods due to social conformity pressures, and that there is reduced demand for those movies that are stylistically similar to the top box office performer. This article contributes to the broader literature in strategic management by depicting how stylistic features of competitors can affect consumer behaviour and perceptions of quality in markets. This work also suggests managerial implications for entry-timing decisions and positioning choices.

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Sally Sledge

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of factors that impact global competitiveness for firms in the Fortune Global 500.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of factors that impact global competitiveness for firms in the Fortune Global 500.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses regression analysis to investigate the relationship between relevant competitiveness factors and firm performance for Fortune Global 500 firms, using the time period 1995‐2009.

Findings

The composition of firms on the list has changed over the timeframe. The results indicate that headquarters location and globalization are key indicators of firm performance. Other factors such as chief executive officer tenure have a lesser impact on firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

The timeframe of the study may have impacted the findings. The study included only large firms and thus the findings may not hold for smaller or medium‐sized firms. Additional follow‐up studies are planned.

Practical implications

Managers can identify factors associated with global competitiveness from the paper and pursue those factors in their business strategies.

Originality/value

This study replicates other studies that analyze the relationship between firm situational factors and firm performance. However, this study uses a unique sample, the Fortune Global 500, over a 15‐year period.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Stanislav D. Dobrev, Arjen van Witteloostuijn and Joel A.C. Baum

At its core, this volume tackles the contradictory views of the performance-enhancing effects of organizational flexibility and inertia head on, and in doing so…

Abstract

At its core, this volume tackles the contradictory views of the performance-enhancing effects of organizational flexibility and inertia head on, and in doing so, contributes to the development of theory and empirical evidence at the interface of strategic management and organizational ecology. In addition to the inertia–flexibility nexus, the volume explores a wide range of additional connections between these two perspectives across nine topical areas that both ecological and strategic management researchers have examined: (1) Entrepreneurship, (2) Top Management Teams, (3) Organizational Change, (4) Organizational Learning, (5) Technology Strategy, (6) Competitive Strategy, (7) Cooperative Strategy, (8) Scale and Scope, and (9) Industry Evolution.

Details

Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

Abstract

Details

Strategic Management in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-166-5

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Book part
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Z. Seyda Deligonul

To explain why international market diversification is a viable strategy, a substantial portion of the past literature hinges its conclusions on mainstay perspectives…

Abstract

To explain why international market diversification is a viable strategy, a substantial portion of the past literature hinges its conclusions on mainstay perspectives. Some authors utilize internalization theory and transaction cost analysis (e.g., Teece). Others draw from the resource-based explanation of the firm (e.g., Chang, 1995), institutional theory (e.g., Davis, Desai, & Francis, 2000), organizational learning (Ruigrok & Wagner, 2003); a combination approach (e.g., Madhok, 1997) or eclectic paradigm (Dunning, 1988). These perspectives are widely discussed in the literature. For that reason we present the earlier work only in a brief summary.

Details

New Challenges to International Marketing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-469-6

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