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Article

Anil Kumar Uppugunduru and Syed Ershad Ahmed

Multipliers that form the basic building blocks in most of the error-resilient media processing applications are computationally intensive and power-hungry modules…

Abstract

Purpose

Multipliers that form the basic building blocks in most of the error-resilient media processing applications are computationally intensive and power-hungry modules. Therefore, improving the multiplier’s performance in terms of area, critical path delay and power has become an important research area. This paper aims to propose two improved multiplier designs based on a new approximate compressor circuit to reduce the hardware complexity at the partial product reduction stage. The proposed approximate 4:2 compressor design significantly reduces the overall hardware cost of the multiplier. The error introduced by the approximate compressor is reduced using a new technique of assigning inputs to the compressors in the partial product reduction structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiplier designs implemented using the proposed approximate 4:2 compressor are targeted for error-resilient applications. For fair comparisons, various multiplier designs, including the proposed one, are implemented in MATLAB. The quality analysis is carried out using standard images, and metrics such as structural similarity index are computed to quantify the result of proposed designs with the existing architectures. Next, Verilog gate-level designs are synthesized to compute area, delay and power to prove the efficacy of the proposed designs.

Findings

Exhaustive error and hardware analysis have been carried out for the existing and proposed multiplier architectures. Error analysis carried out using MATLAB proves that the proposed designs achieve better quality metrics than existing designs. Hardware results show that area, the power consumed and critical path delay are reduced up to 39.8%, 51.7% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to the existing designs. Toward the end, the proposed designs impact is quantified and compared with existing designs on real-time image sharpening and image multiplication applications.

Originality/value

The area, delay and power metrics of the multiplier can be improved using an approximate compressor in an error-resilient application. Accordingly, in this work, a new compressor is proposed that reduces the hardware complexity in the multiplier architecture. However, the proposed approximate compressor, while reducing the computational complexity, tends to introduce error in the multiplier. The error introduced by the approximate compressor is reduced using a new technique of assigning inputs to the compressors in the partial product reduction structure. With the help of the approximate compressor and a technique of input realignment, hardware efficient and highly accurate multiplier designs are achieved.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

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Article

Jacobus D. Brandsen, Axelle Viré, Sergio R. Turteltaub and Gerard J.W. Van Bussel

When simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI), it is often essential that the no-slip condition is accurately enforced at the wetted boundary of the structure. This…

Abstract

Purpose

When simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI), it is often essential that the no-slip condition is accurately enforced at the wetted boundary of the structure. This paper aims to evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of the penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods, within the context of modelling FSI, through a comparative analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

In the immersed boundary method, the no-slip condition is typically imposed by augmenting the governing equations of the fluid with an artificial body force. The relative accuracy and computational time of the penalty and Lagrange multiplier formulations of this body force are evaluated by using each to solve three test problems, namely, flow through a channel, the harmonic motion of a cylinder through a stationary fluid and the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a cylinder.

Findings

The Lagrange multiplier formulation provided an accurate solution, especially when enforcing the no-slip condition, and was robust as it did not require “tuning” of problem specific parameters. However, these benefits came at a higher computational cost relative to the penalty formulation. The penalty formulation achieved similar levels of accuracy to the Lagrange multiplier formulation, but only if the appropriate penalty factor was selected, which was difficult to determine a priori.

Originality/value

Both the Lagrange multiplier and penalty formulations of the immersed boundary method are prominent in the literature. A systematic quantitative comparison of these two methods is presented within the same computational environment. A novel application of the Lagrange multiplier method to the modelling of VIV is also provided.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Andreas Gkouzos and Manolis Christofakis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplier effects of economic activities in the local economy of Greek non-metropolitan prefectures at NUTS3 level according…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplier effects of economic activities in the local economy of Greek non-metropolitan prefectures at NUTS3 level according to the Eurostat classification.

Design/methodology/approach

A disaggregate economic base model using OLS regression with clustered standard errors is implemented in 49 non-metropolitan prefectures and 17 economic activities for 2000 and 2012. The specific model indicates a clear picture of multiplier effects of economic activities among the prefectures as it has a similar logic to the input-output analysis while bearing in mind the spatial effects among prefectures. The specific model has not applied for testing base multipliers in the Greek economy according to the academic literature.

Findings

Non-traditional export-oriented activities play a significant role in the economic growth of the non-metropolitan prefectures. Their multiplier effects are higher than the traditional basic activities. Especially, some of these activities indicate strong shifts on specific local activities, which tend to be the significant multiplier effects on the overall local economy. Of course, the existence of agglomeration economies plays a considerable role in non-metropolitan prefectures with a significant population and non-metropolitan prefectures which are in insular space or belong to the perimetric and interior mountainous space, which are sparsely populated.

Originality/value

The specific model applies at the NUTS3 level, according to the Eurostat classification. Also, the model indicates that the multiplier effects come from non-traditional export activities, such as, information-communication, arts entertainment, health services, professional support services and real estate in the overall local economy. Finally, the spatial correlation influences the sectoral multipliers.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Christian T.L. Janssen

Income multipliers are commonly used in the valuation of income streams. All income dollars, however, are not alike, and investors make distinctions based on the nature…

Abstract

Income multipliers are commonly used in the valuation of income streams. All income dollars, however, are not alike, and investors make distinctions based on the nature and source of the income. The income multiplier is adjusted for the characteristics of the investment. The present study deals with major apartment buildings and concerns the estimation of income multipliers from market observations. Regression analysis is used to estimate the gross and net income multipliers, as well as adjustments for differences in property features, zoning aspects, and economic conditions. The multipliers are then used in the valuation of two subject properties. An important issue is reconciling the estimates when the two multipliers lead to somewhat different values. The sample consists of high‐rise buildings in the West End area of downtown Vancouver, Canada, but the approach is general and widely applicable.

Details

Property Management, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article

Fujin Yi, Wuyi Lu and Yingheng Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplier effects of the grain subsidy program in China, which is a large food self-sufficiency project that is implemented as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the multiplier effects of the grain subsidy program in China, which is a large food self-sufficiency project that is implemented as a cash transfer program. Income multiplier effects have not been empirically examined in the evaluation of the grain subsidy program although increasing the income of farmers is the original goal of this project.

Design/methodology/approach

A large number of household-level observations are employed to measure the program’s income multiplier. An unrestricted model was first employed to measure the multipliers in a period of two years, and the difference was evaluated. Then, the income promotion effects of grain subsidy on various income sources for each specific subset of the population, such as liquidity conditions and household characteristics, were estimated.

Findings

The results show that the grain subsidy program has a high income multiplier, and the income promotion effect of the transferred subsidies is from agricultural production derived by intensifying input for each unit of land. The multiplier effect of the grain subsidy program as a cash transfer program can be interpreted as the shadow value of relaxing liquidity constraints and could be particularly utilized by households with more farming land and farmers in less developed regions in China. Hence, to maximize the income multiplier effect, the grain subsidy distribution method should consider these criteria instead of retaining the prevalent standard that is based on contracted land areas.

Originality/value

This study addresses the gap that the effect of China’s grain subsidy program on income increment has not been empirically examined in nation wide.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article

Julius Juma Okello, Wellington Jogo, Norman Kwikiriza and Penina Muoki

The sustainability of decentralized seed producers established to enhance farmers’ access to seed of newly introduced biofortified crops is a major challenge…

Abstract

Purpose

The sustainability of decentralized seed producers established to enhance farmers’ access to seed of newly introduced biofortified crops is a major challenge. Understanding what motivates the multipliers of clonally propagated crops to engage in seed multiplication is critical for enhancing access to improved seed varieties. The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure and content of mental models associated with the decision to engage in biofortified sweetpotato vine multiplication as a business.

Design/methodology/approach

The study focused on decentralized vine multipliers from Kenya and Ethiopia. These were stratified by orientation toward nutrition or commercial value addition. A total of 45 multipliers were interviewed. Means-end chain (MEC) analysis combined with laddering technique was used to generate mental constructs multipliers relate with the decision to engage in biofortified sweetpotato vine multiplication.

Findings

The structure and content of mental models of biofortified sweetpotato vine multipliers supporting nutrition-focused interventions and those supporting commercial value-addition sweetpotato interventions are different. Nutrition-focused multipliers are driven by the benefits of good health, while commercial value-addition interventions are driven by the benefit of making “more money.” The content and structure of mental models are also country/region specific.

Research limitations/implications

This study has demonstrated that decision to engage in community seed production business is driven not only by the desire to make profits but, equally importantly, by personal and societal (social) factors. It has also discussed the limitations of current analysis and future research areas.

Originality/value

This study is the first to apply MES analysis to assess how decision to invest in seed multiplication business is affected farmers’ personal values and other psychosocial factors.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Article

W.F. LEVER

Considerable interest has been shown in recent years in the calculation of regional income and/or employment multipliers. Their role in the formulation and evaluation of…

Abstract

Considerable interest has been shown in recent years in the calculation of regional income and/or employment multipliers. Their role in the formulation and evaluation of regional policy has been stressed by Wilson (1968) and some writers have been prepared to suggest that high levels of leakage and consequent low multipliers are causes of economic decline or slow growth in the peripheral regions just as much as are economic structure or locational disadvantages (Thirlwell, 1972). The early approaches to the calculation of income or employment multipliers generally used aggregate data on employment, where data on output were not available, national input—output tables to identify input mixes and generalised economic base concepts to distinguish local and nonlocal purchases and sales (Archibald, 1967; Brown et al, 1967; Steele, 1969). More recent work, however, had identified another approach, forsaking the use of aggregated national data sets and employing intensive survey methods of individual industrial plants, such as Greig's study of the pulp and paper mills at Fort William (1971), of educational establishments such as universities (Brownrigg, 1973; Lewes and Kirkness, 1973) or of service sectors such as tourism (Blake and MacDowell, 1967). More recently Lever (1974a) has introduced a more rigorous comparative method into the study of individual manufacturing establishments.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Juan Antonio Campos Soria and Luis Robles Teigeiro

The purpose of this study was to estimate the capacity of the predominant activity of the Hotel and Restaurant (H&R) sector to create female employment in European Union…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to estimate the capacity of the predominant activity of the Hotel and Restaurant (H&R) sector to create female employment in European Union (EU) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used was conducted in two stages. First, a branch employment multiplier was calculated using the Leontief input-output tables (IOTs), which show the direct and indirect capacity of the activity to generate female employment. Second, a regression model was estimated to explain the determinants of the female employment multiplier in the H&R sector. It should be noted that the reliability and simplicity of the proposed model allows countries without IOTs, but with gender-disaggregated labor statistics, to easily estimate their own female employment multiplier.

Findings

The results show that the job-creation capacity of the H&R sector significantly varies across the EU countries, especially in relation to the female employment multiplier. Although international differences in gender wage gaps help to explain such multipliers, institutional factors and feminization rate also play a key role.

Research limitations/implications

The results may contribute to improving the actions of member states to stimulate the sustainable development of the tourism sector.

Originality/value

Based on previous literature, the finding that higher tourism expenditure may result in increases in tourism employment gives rise to another set of interesting questions. The most fundamental of these may concern the nature of the economic underpinnings of the growth of female employment. This paper contributes to this issue by conducting a specific analysis across EU countries using a homogenous and comparable methodology.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Razzaque Hamza Bhatti and Muhammad Junaid Khawaja

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether a long-run stable money multiplier exists in Kazakhstan. It also investigates whether different episodes of currency…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether a long-run stable money multiplier exists in Kazakhstan. It also investigates whether different episodes of currency shocks, including the financial crisis and recession of 2008–2010, have affected the working of the money multiplier in Kazakhstan.

Design/methodology/approach

The long-run multiplier is tested employing three cointegration tests: Engle–Granger (1987), Phillips–Ouliaris (1990) and Johansen and Juselius (1990).

Findings

The results of cointegration and coefficient restrictions tests are consistent with the money multiplier when broad money (M2 and M3) is used rather than when narrow money (M1) is used. The relationship between broad money and monetary base is structurally stable when examined on the basis of a dynamic (an error-correction) model. However, the M2 multiplier performs better than the M3 multiplier.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is restricted to testing a mechanistic version of the money multiplier and its stability using both narrow (M1) and broad money (M2 and M3) supplies. Thus, the paper focusses on the money view of the multiplier rather than the credit view of the multiplier.

Practical implications

One implication that emerges from the findings of this paper is that the National Bank of Kazakhstan can control M2 by controlling the monetary base, and hence the latter can serve as an indicator for monetary policy.

Social implications

The validity of the money multiplier implies that monetary policy can be conducted to control the money supply and the provision of bank credit to private sector to stabilize economic activity, thereby leading towards social stability in the economy as well.

Originality/value

In addition to offering a coherent survey of the literature on the standard money multiplier, this paper is a first attempt to find a stable money multiplier for Kazakhstan.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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