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Building on the Rayleigh‐Stevenson approach fictitious internal source distributions responsible for the leading near‐field contribution of the long wavelength scattering…
Building on the Rayleigh‐Stevenson approach fictitious internal source distributions responsible for the leading near‐field contribution of the long wavelength scattering by a non‐dissipative dielectric prolate spheroid are derived. The equivalent multiline sources arising from every polarization of the incoming field on the segment between the foci can be regarded as the result of an ultimate contraction of the volume polarization in the spheroid, or plainly as prolonged multipoles. In the low‐frequency asymptotic solution of the first‐order in terms of ω the solutions involve line and strip currents, and biline and quadriline charges, the density distributions of which obey simple polynomial laws. Numerical examples are provided, demonstrating their significance in the calculation of near‐zone fields in comparison with the direct radiation of elementary sets of point sources approximating the multiline distributions. The range of validity of the low‐frequency expansion is estimated by comparing with results obtained using the T‐matrix method.
This paper aims to evaluate two operational modes of the worker allocation problem (WAP) in the multiple U-line system (MULS). Five objectives are optimised simultaneously…
This paper aims to evaluate two operational modes of the worker allocation problem (WAP) in the multiple U-line system (MULS). Five objectives are optimised simultaneously for the most complicated operational modes, i.e. machine-dominant working and fixed-station walking. Besides, the benefits of using multiline workstations (MLWs) are investigated.
The elite non-dominated sorting differential evolutionary III (ENSDE III) algorithm is developed as a solution technique. Also, the largest remaining available time heuristic is proposed as a baseline in determining the number and utilisation of workers when the use of MLWs is not allowed.
ENSDE III outperforms the cutting-edged multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, i.e. multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition and non-dominated sorting differential evolutionary III, under two key Pareto metrics, i.e. generational distance and inverted generational distance, regardless of the problem size. The best-found number of workers from ENSDE III is substantially lower than the upper bound. The MULS with MLWs requires fewer workers than the one without.
Although this research has extended several issues in the basic model of multiple U-line systems, some assumptions were used to facilitate mathematical computation as follows. The U-line system in this research assumed that all lines were produced only a single product. Besides, all workers were well-trained to gain the same skill. These assumptions could be extended in the future.
The implication of this research is the benefits of multiline workstations (MLWs) used in the multiple U-line system. Instead of leaving each individual line to operate independently, all lines should be working in parallel through the use of MLWs to gain benefits in terms of worker reduction, balancing worker’s workload, higher system utilisation.
This research is the first to address the WAP in the MULS with machine-dominant working and fixed-station walking modes. Worker’s fatigue due to standing and walking while working is incorporated into the model. The novel ENSDE III algorithm is developed to optimise the multi-objective WAP in a Pareto sense. The benefits of exploiting MLWs are also illustrated.
In the convergence between the capital markets and reinsurance markets, the prime mover of insurance risk into capital markets have been investment banks. Also, among the most active leveraged underwriters of capital market credit risk are reinsurers, as opposed to hedge funds or banks. A key example of the institutional consequences of “convergence,” in particular of product design are Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs). CDOs combine a managed portfolio of bonds or loans with a hierarchy of claims or priority of loss payments (typical of insurance structures). Early buyers of CDOs were typically high‐yield bond portfolio managers. More recently, reinsurers have come to appreciate the “insurance nature” of these CDO structures, and multiline reinsurers have begun to support CDOs via financial guarantees.
The purpose of this paper is to study the repeatability of path manufacturing in the drop on demand inkjet printing process and the influences of environmental and…
The purpose of this paper is to study the repeatability of path manufacturing in the drop on demand inkjet printing process and the influences of environmental and application factors on path resistance.
Paths were printed as multiline paths in packets one-, two- and three-layer paths on polyimide substrates using nanoparticle silver ink. The sintering conditions were determined experimentally. The paths were subjected to climatic and shock exposures and to bending processes. The resistance, profile and width of the paths were measured and analyzed. The temperature distribution for electrically heated paths was measured to identify the defects.
This research shows the repeatability of printing processes and identifies the sources that cause diversification in path parameters after the whole technological process. The influence of shock, climatic and mechanical exposures on path electrical properties is indicated. An effective method for identifying defects thermally is shown.
The research could have limited universality by arbitrarily use of substrate material, ink, printhead, process parameters and kind of sample exposures.
The research includes practically useful information about the width, thickness, defects and resistances and their changes during a typical application for a path printed with different technological parameters.
This research presents the results of original empirical research on problems concerning the manufacture of paths with uniform parameters and shows how path parameters will change under exposures that may occur in a typical application. The research combines both production and application aspects.
Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.Methodology/approach – Anderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003…
Purpose – This article examines the operating lease cost stickiness characteristics exhibited by retail firms.
Methodology/approach – Anderson, Banker, and Janakiraman (2003) laid important groundwork for the study of asymmetric cost behavior or cost stickiness. The authors found that a firm’s selling, general, and administrative costs (SG&A) costs increase more with a sales increase than those expenses decrease with an equivalent sales decline. Their findings provided avenues for many studies with differing focal variables; however, extant research has not explored the degree of cost stickiness associated with operating lease expenses. Recognizing the nature and magnitude of operating leases and the competitive and changing environment for retailers, this study adapts Anderson et al.’s (2003) model to provide insights into operating lease stickiness. The study uses archival financial data from 1997 through 2016 for specialty retail firms in testing the lease cost stickiness hypotheses.
Findings – The results of this study supported the hypotheses that operating lease expenses exhibit stickiness behavior and are relatively stickier than future lease commitments for retail firms.
Originality/value – By focusing on retail firms and related lease expenses, this study provides insights into the increasingly competitive retailer environment. This article’s findings will enhance understanding of how specialty retail firms’ managers react to reduced revenues. Finally, given recent authoritative pronouncements affecting accounting for leases and the significance of leasing transactions, research providing insights into cost behavior and managerial actions stands to make an important contribution to literature and practice.
Situated on the southern shore of Lough Neagh, the largest freshwater lake in the British Isles, is the new city of Craigavon, home of PCB manufacturer, Irlandus Circuits. By way of contrast to typical industrial locations, Craigavon Borough boasts considerable unspoilt countryside, featuring the Oxford Island nature reserve, breathtaking parklands, warden organised bird‐watching, and a series of scenic walks along river and canal banks which form part of a network of paths across Northern Ireland called the Ulster Way.
In this paper a method for analysis and modelling of transmission interconnect lines with zero or nonzero thickness on Si–SiO2 substrate is presented. The analysis is…
In this paper a method for analysis and modelling of transmission interconnect lines with zero or nonzero thickness on Si–SiO2 substrate is presented. The analysis is based on semi‐analytical expressions for the frequency‐dependent transmission line admittances. The electromagnetic concept of free charge density is applied. It allows us to obtain integral equations between electric scalar potential and charge density distributions. These equations are solved by the Galerkin procedure of the method of moments. This new model represents narrow and thick line interconnect behaviour over a wide range of frequencies up to 20 GHz. The accuracy of the developed method in this work is validated by comparing with the rigorous simulation data obtained by full‐wave electromagnetic solver and CAD‐oriented equivalent‐circuit modelling approach. The response of the proposed model is shown to be in good agreement with the frequency‐dependent capacitance and conductance characteristics of general coupled multiconductor on‐chip interconnects.