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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Robert Van de Graaff Randolph

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of a high performance alliance macro-culture as a multilevel construct reflective of resilient collaborative systems of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of a high performance alliance macro-culture as a multilevel construct reflective of resilient collaborative systems of exchange within strategic alliances and explores the distinct capabilities of this multilevel approach in predicting alliance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses developed in this study are tested using primary data collected from 650 members of 15 non-profit organizations in two multi-organizational collaborative networks. Considering the multilevel nature of the study the structural hypotheses are tested using a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and the predictive hypotheses are tested using multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

All but one structural hypothesis are supported and all predictive hypotheses are supported suggesting that a multilevel macro-cultural conceptualization is effective in exploring the relationship between collaborative exchange systems and their outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations stem from the generalizability of the data collected as the alliances formed by non-profit firms may not be wholly reflective of the alliance structures and goals of other firm types.

Originality/value

This study primarily contributes to multilevel study of strategic alliances and the study of collaborative norms and structures of allied groupings. The results of this study lend support to the importance of taking a network governance perspective and illustrate the limitations of traditional single-level approaches when studying interfirm collaborative networks and structural resilience therein.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Rodney Lacey and Peer C. Fiss

The contrast of multilevel and comparative research may seem counterintuitive at first. After all, one might argue that comparative research on organizations by necessity…

Abstract

The contrast of multilevel and comparative research may seem counterintuitive at first. After all, one might argue that comparative research on organizations by necessity spans several levels of analysis (Rokkan, 1966). Yet, multilevel and comparative research on organizations present rather distinct traditions in organization studies, each with its own epistemological assumptions and associated methods. Accordingly, an approach that aims to incorporate both multilevel and comparative ideas needs to start with taking inventory of these prior literatures to situate itself. In the following, we thus turn to the literatures on multilevel and comparative research as different traditions with surprisingly little overlap.

Details

Studying Differences between Organizations: Comparative Approaches to Organizational Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-647-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Aušrinė Šilenskytė and Adam Smale

This paper aims to illustrate why an understanding of how levels of analysis interact is an essential part of multilevel research in the field of international business…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to illustrate why an understanding of how levels of analysis interact is an essential part of multilevel research in the field of international business (IB). Using research on strategy implementation (SI) in multinational corporations (MNCs) as an example, this paper develops a taxonomy and research agenda that demonstrates the key role critical scholars can play in advancing multilevel theorization.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the assumptions of methodological collectivism and individualism, the paper presents a four-step framework: defining the theoretical boundaries of the selected subject; juxtaposing theoretical arguments with empirical work; identifying single- and multi-level theories; and developing a research agenda.

Findings

Research on SI in MNCs has been dominated by one type of theorizing that focuses on the designs of organizational systems or the power of institutions. Multilevel theorization grounded in methodological individualism would offer new knowledge by including the views of under-represented stakeholders, questioning the justice of established systems and overall implications of MNC operations.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed four-step framework encourages scholars to adopt a systematic approach to multilevel theorizing and draw upon the untapped potential of IB theories.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the IB field by introducing an approach to assessing IB research from a multilevel theorizing perspective. The actionable research agenda on SI and the taxonomy of SI research can assist scholars in making aligned choices on study design and envisioning research questions that yield meaningful contributions to theory and practice.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Sabrina Loufrani-Fedida and Bénédicte Aldebert

This paper aims to improve the understanding of competence management in innovative small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through a multilevel approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the understanding of competence management in innovative small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through a multilevel approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a three-part structure to propose a conceptual and theoretical framework. It first explores the full scope of multilevel approaches to human resource management research, both in theory and in practice. It then reviews the literature on competence management in innovative SMEs, before demonstrating that the topic is a multilevel phenomenon. Finally, it reflects on the research and methodology implications, identifies limitations and provides suggestions for future research.

Findings

This literature review shows that competence management in innovative SMEs is a multilevel phenomenon. It outlines the research and methodology implications, identifies limitations and suggests future research directions.

Originality/value

The overarching contribution is to offer a literature review and a research agenda for a multilevel approach to competence management in the development of innovative SMEs.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Zhonghua Zhang, John Chi-Kin Lee and Ping Ho Wong

The purpose of this paper is to address the statistical issues associated with the hierarchically structured data in previous studies that focused on servant leadership…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the statistical issues associated with the hierarchically structured data in previous studies that focused on servant leadership. To resolve these issues, multilevel modeling methods were applied to re-visit the construct validity of the servant leadership questionnaire developed by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) and investigate the relationship between servant leadership and job satisfaction under a multilevel framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey data was obtained from a sample of 2,089 teachers from 117 primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. The analyses were conducted using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MLCFA) and multilevel structural equation modeling (MLSEM).

Findings

The results revealed the significant and non-trivial variances that were explained at the organization level in the items measuring servant leadership, which justified the use of MLCFA and MLSEM. The results of MLCFA provided empirical support for the multidimensional construct as well as the second-order factorial structure of servant leadership measures at both the individual and organization levels. In addition, the positive relationships between servant leadership and the followers’ job satisfaction were found to vary at different levels.

Originality/value

This study reiterates the importance of using appropriate methods to capture a solid definition of the construct of servant leadership and provides new insights into the conceptual framework of servant leadership as well as the effects of servant leadership on individual and organizational outcomes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2004

Robert E Ployhart

Does staffing contribute to organizational effectiveness and sustained competitive advantage, or are many of staffing’s implications merely cross-level fallacies? This…

Abstract

Does staffing contribute to organizational effectiveness and sustained competitive advantage, or are many of staffing’s implications merely cross-level fallacies? This article provides a critical examination of staffing research and practice, and proposes a multilevel model of staffing that ties together micro (e.g. personnel selection), meso (e.g. team staffing), and macro (e.g. organizational strategy, Human Resources practices) theory, research, and practice. The model is both integrative and prescriptive, providing a basic organizing structure for examining staffing research within and across levels. The article begins with a review of multilevel theory, followed by a review and critique of the dominant staffing paradigms from a multilevel perspective. It is shown these single level paradigms cannot answer many of the primary questions of interest to staffing specialists. In contrast, the multilevel staffing model not only addresses these limitations, but also prompts a variety of new predictions that oftentimes run counter to prevailing wisdom. Staffing specialists are challenged to show how our science and practice contribute to better functioning organizations.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-103-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Eva Maria Schulte, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock and Simone Kauffeld

This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these behaviors. A multilevel model is developed to test individual and team level age effects.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 313 employees nested in 54 teams completed a forgiveness questionnaire and were videotaped during regular team meetings.

Findings

Multilevel modeling revealed that both individual age and average team age predicted counteractive team meeting behavior. Team level age diversity was linked to decreased counteractive behavior. Forgiveness moderated the negative link between individual age (but not team average age) and counteractive behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first study examining age effects in the context of counteractive meeting behavior. Although the authors' findings need to be substantiated in further research, they show that older team members engage in significantly more counteractive communication – forgiveness can help alleviate this effect.

Practical implications

Teams with older team members should be sensitized to avoid counteractive behavior. Moreover, team composition should target high age diversity. Managerial interventions should also aim to facilitate forgiveness in the work environment, especially among older team members.

Originality/value

Research on dysfunctional team meeting behavior is sparse, and the role of age effects has not been examined in this context. The authors identify a significant link between age and counteractive meeting behavior. This multilevel model shows differential effects of individual age, team average age, and age diversity on counteractive communication. Furthermore, a buffer against these dysfunctional behaviors is identified: forgiveness.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Aristides I. Ferreira, Luis F. Martinez, José Pereira Lamelas and Rosa I. Rodrigues

Employees’ turnover intention is a key problem that hotel managers face daily. This is partially explained by the inevitability of performing tasks with little…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees’ turnover intention is a key problem that hotel managers face daily. This is partially explained by the inevitability of performing tasks with little significance and low identity. This study aims to understand how job embeddedness and job satisfaction could lessen the undesirable effect of task characteristics on turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 525 employees operating in 46 Portuguese hotels was used in this study. The questionnaire included demographic variables and four reliable instruments used to measure job satisfaction, job characteristics, job embeddedness and turnover intentions. The study used a multilevel statistical approach considering both the individual and the hotel levels of analysis.

Findings

Through multilevel statistics, the findings suggest that both at the individual level and the hotel level of analysis, job satisfaction and job embeddedness fully mediated the relationship between different task characteristics (significance and identity) and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

Despite a possible absence of common method variance, due to the confirmatory factor analysis, social desirability bias may exist because of the self-reported nature of the survey.

Practical implications

Managers should increase the perceived costs of employees leaving the hotel by introducing training programs and plans for career development. Also, to increase job embeddedness, managers should also rethink the organizational dynamics of this industry.

Originality/value

This research provides empirical evidence of the antecedents and mediators of employees’ intentions to leave the hotel industry both at the individual and at the hotel level (multilevel approach).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Sadia Mansoor, Erica French and Muhammad Ali

A narrow focus of past diversity research and inconsistent findings have contributed to a lack of understanding of how to manage diversity for positive outcomes. Focusing…

Abstract

Purpose

A narrow focus of past diversity research and inconsistent findings have contributed to a lack of understanding of how to manage diversity for positive outcomes. Focusing on age, gender and ethnic diversity, this paper aims to review literature on group objective demographic diversity and individual perceived demographic diversity to present an integrated multilevel framework for our improved understanding and to present testable propositions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a thorough review of 51 empirical studies of demographic diversity at individual and group levels to propose a multilevel framework.

Findings

Drawing on information elaboration theory, social categorization theory and social identity theory, an integrated multilevel framework is proposed at individual and group levels. The framework suggests that demographic diversity (age, gender and ethnicity) aids positive information elaboration processes, while also causing negative social categorization processes. These processes impact individual and group outcomes. The framework also identifies moderating factors not sufficiently addressed in the demographic diversity literature. Propositions and implications for future research in the field of demographic diversity are presented.

Originality/value

This review provides an integrated multilevel framework of objective and perceived demographic diversity and its positive and negative processes and effects at both individual and group levels, drawn from information elaboration, social categorization and social identity theories.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Wen‐Chung Hsieh, Chun‐Hsi Vivian Chen, Chi‐Cheng Lee and Rui‐Hsin Kao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work characteristics on members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, and the subsequent effect on police officers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work characteristics on members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, and the subsequent effect on police officers’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A multilevel model is adopted to analyze quantitative data obtained by using 812 police officers and 54 chiefs of police stations in Taiwan as the research objects.

Findings

The authors found that work characteristics affected members’ self‐efficacy and collective efficacy, which further affected the individual‐ and group‐level performance and the contextual effect of social work characteristics (SWCs) and collective efficacy on self‐efficacy and individual performance. The authors also confirmed the cross‐level moderation of social characteristics on the relationship between motivational work characteristics (MWCs) and self‐efficacy, and between self‐efficacy and individual performance.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation was the characteristics of the sample, which consisted of mostly first‐line uniformed police officers in Taiwan. From the perspective of managerial implications, it is felt that police organizations should beef up the training on police officers’ collective efficacy, such as building group spirit, improving members’ sense of responsibility, and building up trust with the organization.

Originality/value

The findings prove that the study of work design is particularly important for enhancing the management effectiveness of police organization, because it explains the causes of a number of organizational behaviors as well as a number of important results that influence the police organization (e.g. efficacy and performance).

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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