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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Henar Díez, Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega and Ana Urrutia

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value…

Abstract

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value judgments on the measurement. In the unidimensional approach, Zheng (2007a, 2007b) suggests replacing all these properties with the unit-consistency axiom, which requires that the inequality or poverty rankings, rather than their cardinal values, are not altered when income is measured in different monetary units. The aim of this paper is to introduce a multidimensional generalization of this axiom and characterize classes of multidimensional inequality and poverty measures that are unit consistent.

Design/methodology/approach: Zheng (2007a, 2007b) characterizes families of inequality and poverty measures that fulfil the unit-consistency axiom. Tsui (1999, 2002), in turn, derives families of the multidimensional relative inequality and poverty measures. Both of these contributions are the background taken to achieve our characterization results.

Findings: This paper merges these two generalizations to identify the canonical forms of all the multidimensional subgroup- and unit-consistent inequality and poverty measures. The inequality families we derive are generalizations of both the Zheng and Tsui inequality families. The poverty indices presented are generalizations of Tsui's relative poverty families as well as the families identified by Zheng.

Originality/value: The inequality and poverty families characterized in this paper are unit and subgroup consistent, both of them being appropriate requirements in empirical applications in which inequality or poverty in a population split into groups is measured. Then, in empirical applications, it makes sense to choose measures from the families we derive.

Details

Inequality and Opportunity: Papers from the Second ECINEQ Society Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-135-0

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

Verónica Amarante, Rodrigo Arim and Andrea Vigorito

The multidimensional nature of well-being is now widely recognized. However, multidimensional poverty measurement is still an expanding field of research and a consensus…

Abstract

The multidimensional nature of well-being is now widely recognized. However, multidimensional poverty measurement is still an expanding field of research and a consensus about the “best” composite indicator has not yet emerged. In this chapter, we provide an empirical analysis using three existing methodologies: Bourguignon and Chakravarty (2003), Alkire and Foster (2007), and Lemmi (2005); Chiappero Martinetti (2000). We present an empirical study of the convergence and divergence of poverty profiles for children in Uruguay considering the following dimensions: nutritional status, child educational achievement, housing condition, and household income. Our data gather information of 1,185 children attending public schools in Montevideo and the surrounding metropolitan area, and were specially gathered to carry out a multidimensional analysis of poverty.

Our results indicate that the three families of indexes yield very different cardinalizations of poverty. At the same time, the correlation coefficients among the three groups of measures for the generalized headcount ratio also highlight important differences in the children labeled as “more deprived.” For the generalized severity and intensity indexes the correlation coefficients increase significantly suggesting a high level of concordance among the three measures, particularly among the Bourguignon and Chakravarty methodology and the Alkire and Foster one.

Details

Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2006

Joseph Deutsch and Jacques Silber

Looking at the Jewish population in Israel in 1995 this paper compares three multidimensional approaches to poverty measurement and checks to what extent they identify the…

Abstract

Looking at the Jewish population in Israel in 1995 this paper compares three multidimensional approaches to poverty measurement and checks to what extent they identify the same households as poor. Logit regressions are then estimated to understand which variables have an impact on poverty. Finally, the so-called Shapley decomposition is introduced to estimate the exact marginal impact of these determinants of poverty.

Of particular interest to this study was the combined effect of the generation to which the head of the household belongs and his/her place of birth. It turns out that the ethnic origin has a significant impact on multidimensional poverty in Israel insofar as being a head of household born in Asia or Africa, whatever the generation to which one belongs, increases, ceteris paribus, the probability of being poor.

Details

The Economics of Immigration and Social Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-390-7

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Van Q. Tran, Sabina Alkire and Stephan Klasen

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of…

Abstract

There has been a rapid expansion in the literature on the measurement of multidimensional poverty in recent years. This paper focuses on the longitudinal aspects of multidimensional poverty and its link to dynamic income poverty measurement. Using panel household survey data in Vietnam from 2007, 2008, and 2010, the paper analyses the prevalence and dynamics of both multidimensional and monetary poverty from the same dataset. The results show that the monetary poor (or non-poor) are not always multidimensionally poor (or non-poor) – indeed the overlap between the two measures is much less than 50 percent. Additionally, monetary poverty shows faster progress as well as a higher level of fluctuation than multidimensional poverty. We suggest that rapid economic growth as experienced by Vietnam has had a larger and more immediate impact on monetary than on multidimensional poverty.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire

Post reform India has generated high economic growth, yet progress in income poverty and many other key development outcomes has been modest. This chapter primarily…

Abstract

Post reform India has generated high economic growth, yet progress in income poverty and many other key development outcomes has been modest. This chapter primarily examines how inclusive economic growth has been in India between 2005–2006 and 2015–2016 in reducing multidimensional poverty captured by the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The authors employ a constellation of elasticity and semi-elasticity measures to examine vertical, horizontal as well as dimensional inclusiveness of economic growth. Nationally, the authors estimate that a 1% annual economic growth in India during their study period is associated with an annual reduction in MPI of 1.34%. The association of the national growth to state poverty reduction (horizontal inclusiveness) is, however, not uniform. Some states have been successful in reducing poverty faster than the national average despite slower economic growth between 2005–2005 and 2015–2016; whereas, other states have been less successful to do so despite faster economic growth during the same period. The authors’ analyses and findings show how these tools may be used in practical applications to measure inclusive growth and inform policy.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality: Poverty, Inequality and Shocks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-558-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

Raheem Olatunji Aminu, Wei Si, Shakirat Bolatito Ibrahim, Aisha Olushola Arowolo and Adefunke Fadilat O. Ayinde

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the second wave of the LSMS-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture General Household Survey Panel 2012/2013. The methods adopted in analysing the data were descriptive statistics, Alkire and Foster Method (AFM) and logit regression model.

Findings

The result shows that 84.34% of the households were headed by a male while 80.26% of the respondents were married with a mean household size of seven persons. The multidimensional poverty of arable crop farm households in Nigeria is 0.60, while the adjusted headcount ratio (MPI) is 0.27, with an average intensity of 0.45. We found that deprivation in the dimension of living standard accounted for 45.5% of the overall multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The result of the logistic regression indicates that household location, gender, household size and non-farm income are negatively correlated to poverty. The factors that increase poverty among households are the age of the household head and access to extension services.

Originality/value

The study presents an alternative means of assessing poverty among smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria. This study recommends that policymakers should focus more on improving the living standard of arable crop farming households to reduce poverty in rural areas. Similarly, concerted efforts should be made towards providing adequate health care and improved sanitation, supply of electricity and educational training that goes beyond primary education for farming household members.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Yina Zhang and Jie Chen

Using the latest census data (2010), this paper investigates housing poverty conditions in Shanghai, the largest city in China. The data shows that a large fraction of…

Abstract

Using the latest census data (2010), this paper investigates housing poverty conditions in Shanghai, the largest city in China. The data shows that a large fraction of Shanghai households are still living in excessively over-crowded housing. Meanwhile, the incidence ratio of housing poverty among migrants is more than five times than among natives. In particular, 45% of rural migrant households were living in housing poverty. Poverty decomposition analysis shows that approximately 70% of total housing poverty in Shanghai is attributable to rural migrants. Our finding is supported by estimating the multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The findings in this paper have significant implications to general housing policy making in urban China.

Details

Open House International, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Sabina Alkire and Yangyang Shen

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China…

Abstract

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find China’s global MPI was 0.035 in 2010 and decreased significantly to 0.017 in 2014. The dimensional composition of MPI suggests that nutrition, education, safe drinking water, and cooking fuel contribute most to overall non-monetary poverty in China. Such analysis is also applied to subgroups, including geographic areas (rural/urban, east/central/west, provinces), as well as social characteristics such as gender of the household heads, age, education level, marital status, household size, migration status, ethnicity, and religion. We find the level and composition of poverty differs significantly across certain subgroups. We also find high levels of mismatch between monetary and multidimensional poverty at the household level, which highlights the importance of using both complementary measures to track progress in eradicating poverty.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

María Emma Santos, María Ana Lugo, Luis Felipe López-Calva, Guillermo Cruces and Diego Battistón

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been…

Abstract

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been criticized on several grounds, including the selection of indicators, the implicit weighting scheme and the aggregation methodology, among others. The estimates by the UBN approach have traditionally been complemented (or replaced) with income poverty estimates. Under the premise that poverty is inherently multidimensional, in this chapter we propose three methodological refinements to the UBN approach. Using the proposed methodology we provide a set of comparable poverty estimates for six Latin American countries between 1992 and 2006.

Details

Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Sikiru Jimoh Babalola and Saidatulakmal Mohd

The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of household and community characteristics on multidimensional poverty in communities hosting public universities in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of household and community characteristics on multidimensional poverty in communities hosting public universities in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study constructs Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) using Alkire-Foster methodology and uses logistic regression to analyse the likelihood of experiencing multidimensional poverty.

Findings

Findings from the study suggest that child schooling attendance, child mortality and asset ownership are the indicators in which households are mostly deprived in education, health and living standards consecutively. In addition, using logistic regression, the study finds multidimensional poverty reducing effects of education, age (before old), household size (having more economically active members), income and residing in urban areas. The study, however, documents that living far away from the universities increases the likelihood of experiencing multidimensional poverty in those communities.

Research limitations/implications

To reduce multidimensional poverty in the communities of study, there is need to implement policies that will improve child schooling, reduce infant mortality, increase gainful employment and create enabling environment for asset ownership. This is in addition to upgrading infrastructure in those communities especially in their fringe areas so that development can spread, and multidimensional poverty reduction can follow in no distant future.

Originality/value

Unlike capturing the effect of location on possibility of experiencing poverty using rural or urban dummy, the authors, in addition to that, incorporate distance to university variable on the premise of distance decay mechanism.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

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