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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Joachim Merz and Bettina Scherg

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion…

Abstract

A growing polarization of society accompanied by an erosion of the middle class is receiving increasing attention in recent German economic and social policy discussion. Our study contributes to this discussion in two ways: First, on a theoretical level we propose extended multidimensional polarization indices based on a constant elasticity of substitution (CES)-type well-being function and present a new measure to multidimensional polarization, the mean minimum polarization gap, 2DGAP. This polarization intensity measure provides transparency with regard to each single attribute, which is important for targeted policies, while at the same time respecting their interdependent relations. Second, in an empirical application, time is incorporated, in addition to the traditional income measure, as a fundamental resource for any activity. In particular, genuine personal leisure time will account for social participation in the sense of social inclusion/exclusion and Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

Instead of arbitrarily choosing the attribute parameters in the CES well-being function, the interdependent relations of time and income are evaluated by the German population. With the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and detailed time use diary data from the German Time Use Surveys (GTUSs) 1991/1992 and 2001/2002, we quantify available and extended multidimensional polarization measures as well as our new approach to measuring the polarization of the working poor and affluent in Germany.

There are three prominent empirical results: Genuine personal leisure time in addition to income is an important and significant polarization attribute. Compensation is of economic and statistical significance. The new minimum 2DGAP approach reveals that multidimensional polarization increased in the 1990s in Germany.

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

María Emma Santos, María Ana Lugo, Luis Felipe López-Calva, Guillermo Cruces and Diego Battistón

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been…

Abstract

Latin America has a longstanding tradition in multidimensional poverty measurement through the unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) approach. However, the method has been criticized on several grounds, including the selection of indicators, the implicit weighting scheme and the aggregation methodology, among others. The estimates by the UBN approach have traditionally been complemented (or replaced) with income poverty estimates. Under the premise that poverty is inherently multidimensional, in this chapter we propose three methodological refinements to the UBN approach. Using the proposed methodology we provide a set of comparable poverty estimates for six Latin American countries between 1992 and 2006.

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Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2006

Joseph Deutsch and Jacques Silber

Looking at the Jewish population in Israel in 1995 this paper compares three multidimensional approaches to poverty measurement and checks to what extent they identify the…

Abstract

Looking at the Jewish population in Israel in 1995 this paper compares three multidimensional approaches to poverty measurement and checks to what extent they identify the same households as poor. Logit regressions are then estimated to understand which variables have an impact on poverty. Finally, the so-called Shapley decomposition is introduced to estimate the exact marginal impact of these determinants of poverty.

Of particular interest to this study was the combined effect of the generation to which the head of the household belongs and his/her place of birth. It turns out that the ethnic origin has a significant impact on multidimensional poverty in Israel insofar as being a head of household born in Asia or Africa, whatever the generation to which one belongs, increases, ceteris paribus, the probability of being poor.

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The Economics of Immigration and Social Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-390-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

John Ele‐Ojo Ataguba, Hyacinth Eme Ichoku and William M. Fonta

The purpose of this paper is to compare the assessment of poverty/deprivation using different conceptions of this phenomenon including the traditional money‐metric measure…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the assessment of poverty/deprivation using different conceptions of this phenomenon including the traditional money‐metric measure and different forms of multidimensional constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were drawn from a household survey conducted in Nsukka, Nigeria. Interviewer‐administered questionnaires were used in data collection from about 410 households across urban and rural localities. The counting and FGT methodologies were used to assess impoverishment, while regression analyses were used to assess the determinants of deprivation across different constructs.

Findings

Between 70 per cent and 78 per cent of the study population were identified as poor/deprived. However, more than 11 per cent of those living on less than USD1.25/day were classified as non‐poor using different measures of multidimensional poverty. Similarly, more than 62 per cent of individuals who live on more than 1.25USD/day (i.e. non‐poor) are classified as poor using different measures of multidimensional deprivation. There is some level of correlation between measures, some inevitably stronger than others. The major determinants of deprivation across the various constructs of deprivation include large family size, low level of education, poor employment, rural location, and poor health.

Originality/value

This paper uses novel datasets that incorporate variables relating to the capability approach in understanding deprivation. Specifically, it analyses the so‐called missing dimensions of poverty. It also applies a new methodology for the assessment of impoverishment and deprivation. It highlights the importance of the capability approach in explaining poverty.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides…

Abstract

A number of multidimensional poverty measures that respect the ordinal nature of dimensions have recently been proposed within the counting approach framework. Besides ensuring a reduction in poverty, however, it is important to monitor distributional changes to ensure that poverty reduction has been inclusive in reaching the poorest. Distributional issues are typically captured by adjusting a poverty measure to be sensitive to inequality among the poor. This approach, however, has certain practical and conceptual limitations. It conflicts, for example, with some policy-relevant measurement features, such as the ability to decompose a measure into dimensions post-identification and does not create an appropriate framework for assessing disparity in poverty across population subgroups. In this chapter, we propose and justify the use of a separate decomposable inequality measure – a positive multiple of “variance” – to capture the distribution of deprivations among the poor and to assess disparity in poverty across population subgroups. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach through two contrasting inter-temporal illustrations using Demographic Health Survey data sets for Haiti and India.

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Jabrane Amaghouss and Aoamar Ibourk

In recent years, there is growing recognition of the importance of geography and space in the analysis of economic convergence by focusing on the dynamics of monetary…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, there is growing recognition of the importance of geography and space in the analysis of economic convergence by focusing on the dynamics of monetary indicators. The analysis of spatial convergence based on socio-economic indicators are rare. These variables present a complement to understand the spatial dynamics of territorial units. The purpose of this paper is, first, to analyzes and describes trends in multidimensional poverty in Morocco and second it explores the convergence hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are driven from HCP (2017). It concerns 75 provinces over the period 2004 and 2014. In addition to the availability of data, this period corresponds to significant changes in public policy. The nature of the observations necessitates the use of the spatial analysis techniques.

Findings

The results show that poverty is a geographical phenomenon with low speed of convergence. The paper propose some solutions to help policymakers implement an effective targeting policy aimed at reducing spatial inequalities in terms of multidimensional poverty in Morocco.

Originality/value

The analysis of spatial convergence based on socio-economic indicators are rare. This paper will focus on the convergence of the poverty index for a developing country.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2010

Verónica Amarante, Rodrigo Arim and Andrea Vigorito

The multidimensional nature of well-being is now widely recognized. However, multidimensional poverty measurement is still an expanding field of research and a consensus…

Abstract

The multidimensional nature of well-being is now widely recognized. However, multidimensional poverty measurement is still an expanding field of research and a consensus about the “best” composite indicator has not yet emerged. In this chapter, we provide an empirical analysis using three existing methodologies: Bourguignon and Chakravarty (2003), Alkire and Foster (2007), and Lemmi (2005); Chiappero Martinetti (2000). We present an empirical study of the convergence and divergence of poverty profiles for children in Uruguay considering the following dimensions: nutritional status, child educational achievement, housing condition, and household income. Our data gather information of 1,185 children attending public schools in Montevideo and the surrounding metropolitan area, and were specially gathered to carry out a multidimensional analysis of poverty.

Our results indicate that the three families of indexes yield very different cardinalizations of poverty. At the same time, the correlation coefficients among the three groups of measures for the generalized headcount ratio also highlight important differences in the children labeled as “more deprived.” For the generalized severity and intensity indexes the correlation coefficients increase significantly suggesting a high level of concordance among the three measures, particularly among the Bourguignon and Chakravarty methodology and the Alkire and Foster one.

Details

Studies in Applied Welfare Analysis: Papers from the Third ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-146-7

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2021

Raheem Olatunji Aminu, Wei Si, Shakirat Bolatito Ibrahim, Aisha Olushola Arowolo and Adefunke Fadilat O. Ayinde

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper evaluates the impact of socio and demographic factors on the multidimensional poverty of smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the second wave of the LSMS-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture General Household Survey Panel 2012/2013. The methods adopted in analysing the data were descriptive statistics, Alkire and Foster Method (AFM) and logit regression model.

Findings

The result shows that 84.34% of the households were headed by a male while 80.26% of the respondents were married with a mean household size of seven persons. The multidimensional poverty of arable crop farm households in Nigeria is 0.60, while the adjusted headcount ratio (MPI) is 0.27, with an average intensity of 0.45. We found that deprivation in the dimension of living standard accounted for 45.5% of the overall multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The result of the logistic regression indicates that household location, gender, household size and non-farm income are negatively correlated to poverty. The factors that increase poverty among households are the age of the household head and access to extension services.

Originality/value

The study presents an alternative means of assessing poverty among smallholder arable crop farming households in Nigeria. This study recommends that policymakers should focus more on improving the living standard of arable crop farming households to reduce poverty in rural areas. Similarly, concerted efforts should be made towards providing adequate health care and improved sanitation, supply of electricity and educational training that goes beyond primary education for farming household members.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Muhammad Waqas Khalid, Junaid Zahid, Muhammad Ahad, Aadil Hameed Shah and Fakhra Ashfaq

The purpose of this paper is to measure the unidimensional and multidimensional inequality in the case of Pakistan and compare their results at the provincial as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the unidimensional and multidimensional inequality in the case of Pakistan and compare their results at the provincial as well as regional (urban and rural areas) level. The authors collected data from Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement and Household Integrated Economic Survey for fiscal years of 1998–1999 and 2013–2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used Gini coefficient for unidimensional inequality and multidimensional indexing approach of Araar (2009) for multidimensional inequality.

Findings

The findings predicted that unidimensional inequality is relatively high in the urban area due to uneven dissemination of income, but multidimensional inequality is quite high in rural areas because of higher disparities among all dimensions. At the provincial level, Punjab has relatively high-income inequality followed by Sindh, KPK and Baluchistan.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to compare two time periods to explore unidimensional and multidimensional inequality in all provinces of Pakistan and their representative rural-urban regions by applying Araar and Duclos’s (2009) approach. Further, this study opens some new insights for policy makers.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire

Post reform India has generated high economic growth, yet progress in income poverty and many other key development outcomes has been modest. This chapter primarily…

Abstract

Post reform India has generated high economic growth, yet progress in income poverty and many other key development outcomes has been modest. This chapter primarily examines how inclusive economic growth has been in India between 2005–2006 and 2015–2016 in reducing multidimensional poverty captured by the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI). The authors employ a constellation of elasticity and semi-elasticity measures to examine vertical, horizontal as well as dimensional inclusiveness of economic growth. Nationally, the authors estimate that a 1% annual economic growth in India during their study period is associated with an annual reduction in MPI of 1.34%. The association of the national growth to state poverty reduction (horizontal inclusiveness) is, however, not uniform. Some states have been successful in reducing poverty faster than the national average despite slower economic growth between 2005–2005 and 2015–2016; whereas, other states have been less successful to do so despite faster economic growth during the same period. The authors’ analyses and findings show how these tools may be used in practical applications to measure inclusive growth and inform policy.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality: Poverty, Inequality and Shocks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-558-5

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