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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Mary Dawson, Juan M. Madera and Jack A. Neal

One out of four foodservice employees speaks a foreign language at home. Furthermore, 37 percent of those employees speak limited English. Given this, hospitality managers…

Abstract

Purpose

One out of four foodservice employees speaks a foreign language at home. Furthermore, 37 percent of those employees speak limited English. Given this, hospitality managers must find ways to effectively communicate with their employees. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed a perspective‐taking manipulation. Participants were placed in the role of an individual that does not speak the native language that is used in the workplace. Groups were measured on performance, quality, and accuracy. Groups were video‐taped to measure frequency of non‐verbal behaviors. Participants were surveyed to measure their levels of positivity.

Findings

The results of this study identified effective non‐verbal communication strategies for managers (combination of gestures, demonstrating, and pointing). When the leader used these strategies, the groups were able to complete the recipes faster. Managers who spoke another language expressed a more positive behavior towards the group. The group also expressed more positive behaviors towards each other when they had a second language leader.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation is that data were collected from students and the methodology simulated an environment of limited language proficiency. Although this method has been shown to be effective, the true experiences of what non‐English speaking workers might face include more complex processes.

Practical implications

This research suggests that non‐verbal tools are effective when communication barriers exist. Managers who are multiculturally competent are more efficient in leading employees. Positive feedback must be given even if it is non‐verbal.

Originality/value

This research offers valuable strategies for hospitality managers to communicate with those employees who speak limited English.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Nikleia Eteokleous

This study seeks to evaluate the application of a social‐virtual curriculum delivered through in‐classroom and web‐based activities, aiming to develop youth's…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to evaluate the application of a social‐virtual curriculum delivered through in‐classroom and web‐based activities, aiming to develop youth's social‐cultural skills, cultural competency and multicultural awareness. Specifically, the study evaluates the overall impact of the curriculum to the participating youth's Universality‐Diversity Orientation, diversity of contact, relativistic appreciation (RA) and comfort with differences. It examines the influence of gender, ethnicity and religion to the aforementioned variables. Finally, it aims to identify the role of the curriculum and the Web 2.0 in promoting multiculturalism and multicultural education and in changing youth's perceptions, and attitudes towards others.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was applied, using the Miville‐Guzman Universality‐Diversity Scale that measures an individual's Universal‐Diverse Orientation. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations and Cronbach's alpha) and inferential (the independent t‐test, the paired‐sample t‐test and the one‐way analysis of variances) statistics were conducted. Questionnaires were given to 303 students. The pre‐measurement took place in April 2008 (70 per cent response rate) and the post‐measurement took place in June‐July 2009 (45 per cent response rate).

Findings

The study discusses the impact of the social‐virtual curriculum, the influence of gender, ethnicity and religion, the role of the social‐virtual curriculum and the Web 2.0 tools in promoting multiculturalism and multicultural education and in changing youth's beliefs, perceptions and attitudes towards others and the new learning, collaboration and communication culture established.

Originality/value

The study constitutes the foundation for further research to be conducted regarding the educational use of Web 2.0 tools, the in‐depth examination of the application of the educational networking within the school curriculum.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

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Book part
Publication date: 22 December 2016

Selena Kohel

This chapter analyzes the impact of intercultural academic experiences on students in the areas of intercultural sensitivity and multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyzes the impact of intercultural academic experiences on students in the areas of intercultural sensitivity and multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Methodology/approach

Cottey College’s mission statement includes a clause about educating students to be useful members of a global society (Mission, n.d., para. 1). Toward achieving the mission, each of Cottey College’s second year students is offered an international experience over spring break that is largely paid for by endowed funds. For spring break 2015, the author of this chapter and a colleague offered a trip to Thailand. To participate, students were required to take part in a Step into the World!: Thailand course that was intended to prepare them to successfully navigate, and later reflect upon, their experience abroad. The trip portion of the course spanned 10 days. To measure what impacts the course may have had, students were asked to complete a pre-course and post-course survey, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (Fritz, Möllenberg, & Chen, 2002), and to complete journal entries and a personal impact statement by which their multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills were assessed.

Findings

Analysis of the results suggests the Step into the World!: Thailand course had a positive impact on the majority of students’ intercultural sensitivity and multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

Originality/value

The findings support the importance of intentionally combining inside and outside of the classroom experiences to enhance student outcomes.

Details

Integrating Curricular and Co-Curricular Endeavors to Enhance Student Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-063-3

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Kathy S. Collins, Ibrahim Duyar and Carolyn L. Pearson

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the levels of cultural intelligence (CQ) of principals and teachers influence Latino students’ achievement. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the levels of cultural intelligence (CQ) of principals and teachers influence Latino students’ achievement. The study first tested the applicability of Ang and Van Dyne’s (2008) Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire (CQS) for the measurement of principals and teachers’ CQ levels by construct validating this instrument. Later, it investigated whether the CQ levels of principals and teachers explain the achievement levels of Latino students in mathematics and language arts.

Design/methodology/approach

A naturalistic relational research design was used to study the relationships between the study variables. Participants included a cluster random sample of 86 principals and 311 teachers in a southern state. The convergent validation was used to establish the construct validity of the CQS by correlating CQS subscale scores with several measures of principal and teacher multicultural exposure. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between the principal and teacher CQS subscale scores and the Latino student achievement scores on state standardized tests.

Findings

The four-factor structure of the CQS scale was found to be valid in the educational settings. Principals’ level of CQ significantly predicted Latino students’ achievement scores of eight grade math and eight grade language arts. On the contrary to the expectations, there was no evidence to suggest that teacher-level CQ as measured by the CQS is predictive of Latino student achievement. Further analyses showed that multicultural exposures of teachers, such as being multilingual and visiting other countries, significantly predicted Latino students’ language arts performance.

Originality/value

This study has policy and research implications toward understanding and eliminating achievement gaps of Latino student populations. It sheds empirical light on whether this gap can be explained with the multicultural intelligence levels of principals and teachers, the two most influential actors in schools. By construct validating CQS, the study methodologically contributed to the pertinent educational research, which lacks instruments for the measurement of CQ levels of educational workforce.

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Kish Cumi, Ahmad Washington and Arash Daneshzadeh

The proliferation of zero-tolerance behavioral policies and the presence of school resource officers (SROs) are receiving justifiable scrutiny for the deleterious effects…

Abstract

The proliferation of zero-tolerance behavioral policies and the presence of school resource officers (SROs) are receiving justifiable scrutiny for the deleterious effects they have on students’ functioning. While many have argued the convergence of these policies thwart the development of Black and Latino boys, critiques examining the experiences of Black girls are scant. Disaggregated disciplinary data from across the country reveal “… black girls are suspended at higher rates (12%) than girls of any other race or ethnicity and most boys …” (U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, 2014, p. 1) suggesting that when it comes to schooling, Black girls are, indeed, “pushed out, overpoliced and underprotected” (Crenshaw, Ocen, & Nanda, 2015, p. 1). The authors of this chapter argue that youth advocates can use hip-hop culture, a tradition rich with resistant prose, to develop critical consciousness and engage Black girls in discussion about socially contrived binaries that reinforce the STPP. The authors demonstrate how the anti-oppressive lyrics of women emcees (e.g., Rapsody, Sa-Roc) can foster therapeutic alliances and dialogues with young Black girls, and how these lyrics might serve to inspire Black girls in composing their own counterhegemonic autobiographical narratives to resist the school-to-prison pipeline.

Details

The Power of Resistance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-462-6

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño

The purpose of this study is to identify intercultural competencies in community instructors who serve in CONAFE in Chiapas, México.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify intercultural competencies in community instructors who serve in CONAFE in Chiapas, México.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied a mixed methods method, based on an ethnographic design with a naturalistic approach. The quantitative instrument was applied to 119 community instructors; from these participants, four interviews were conducted with a sample of case-type participants, and four cases are presented.

Findings

The results show differences between community instructors who demonstrate intercultural skills and those who require developing them. It is concluded that teachers should receive training that strengthens their intercultural competences to enable indigenous children to take advantage of the knowledge they acquire in their community and the pedagogical advantage offered by the use of their mother tongue in the teaching–learning process.

Originality/value

This educational research about intercultural competences in the field of indigenous education, community education and intercultural education provides significant learning that advances the understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2009

Carla Moleiro, Ana Silva, Rute Rodrigues and Vera Borges

The paper addresses diversity, multi‐culturalism and mental health. It reports qualitative data from a larger project on multi‐cultural counselling competencies in…

Abstract

The paper addresses diversity, multi‐culturalism and mental health. It reports qualitative data from a larger project on multi‐cultural counselling competencies in Portugal which sought to meet the needs identified by specific minority groups by developing integrative, responsive and culturally sensitive treatments. A qualitative study is presented, with the aim of exploring the representations of mental health and illness held by ethnic minority groups in Portugal, as well as their specific needs and obstacles encountered in their interactions with health professionals. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted, and the results indicate that the meanings of health and mental health varied. Meanings of psychological health were related to general well‐being. Help‐seeking behaviours were associated with providing and receiving family and social support, mainly among participants of African descent. Although the great majority of participants had had no experience of counselling or psychotherapy, they expected psychologists to be multiculturally sensitive, as well as knowledgeable about diversity and multi‐culturalism. Implications for development of mental health services for minority clients are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Sunday O. Obi, Festus E. Obiakor, Stephanie L. Obi, Tachelle Banks, Sean Warner and Natalie Spencer

The historian, Arthur M. Schlesinger (1999), once wrote that “a basic theme of American history has been the movement, uneven but steady, from exclusion to inclusion” – a…

Abstract

The historian, Arthur M. Schlesinger (1999), once wrote that “a basic theme of American history has been the movement, uneven but steady, from exclusion to inclusion” – a movement “fueled by ideals” (p. 173). He might well have been talking about the United States’ public education system where it has become evident that segments of its pupil population have been overlooked or neglected. The good news is that there have been some efforts to ameliorate this problem. However, despite these efforts, there continues to be lingering problems for culturally and linguistically diverse students with gifts and talents. In this chapter, we address how to maximize the success potential of these students.

Details

Gifted Education: Current Perspectives and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-741-2

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Eleni Oikonomidoy

The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how collective conceptual reflections facilitated by online blogs can promote pre‐service teachers' growth in multicultural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how collective conceptual reflections facilitated by online blogs can promote pre‐service teachers' growth in multicultural education classes.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of one blog is used to demonstrate how information gained through that triggered the instructor's informed reflection and guided subsequent in‐class teaching/learning.

Findings

Through the analysis of the demonstrative blog, it becomes apparent that while pre‐service teachers were appropriating vocabulary used in the field of multicultural education, their narratives were superficial and oversimplified. Subsequent in‐class activities designed to attend to the conceptual gaps were used to problematize the simplistic views.

Research limitations/implications

The data presented cannot be generalized to all pre‐service teachers. Since the purpose of this paper is to attend to the process and not the content, the demonstrative blog serves only as one possible example, which can be easily adapted with different concepts/goals.

Practical implications

It is proposed that the identification of students' collective zones of proximal development (Vygotsky) in key elements of the multicultural learning chain can provide important information to the instructor for the re‐design of future teaching.

Originality/value

Continual assessment of the effectiveness of multicultural education classes is needed, if such classes are to have a long‐term impact on pre‐service teachers' future practice. The micro‐level method proposed in this paper offers one possible way to manage the oftentimes overwhelming amount of information that they are built upon while continually monitoring students' learning.

Details

Multicultural Education & Technology Journal, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-497X

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Cindy L Anderton and Elizabeth M King

This study aims to build on Gee’s (2003) earlier question exploring specifically the learning processes associated with broadening cultural empathy and exploring personal…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to build on Gee’s (2003) earlier question exploring specifically the learning processes associated with broadening cultural empathy and exploring personal bias through gameplay in the role-playing game, Oblivion.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology for this case study (Stake, 1995) was informed by narrative (Reissman, 2001) methods that focused on collecting descriptions of the unique experiences of participants while being engaged in gameplay and their personal reflections synthesizing game-based engagement and course content. “Narrative research offers the possibility of exploring nuances and interrelationships among aspects of experience that the reader might better understand other related situations” (Josselson, p. 239). Our study focused on using narrative research methods to examine embodiment within the fictional world of the game as an experiential participatory-learning experience.

Findings

All participants indicated that the most salient learning experiences of the course was playing the game. The process participants underwent the experience of an event in the game and linked this gaming experience to their personal real-life reaction combined with emotions and thoughts. They then self-reflected on those reactions, which cumulatively contributed to self-reported increased self-awareness in the areas of personal bias, stereotypes, attitudes, values, beliefs and privilege. Three themes were identified from the data, namely, increase or variance in levels of self-awareness, navigating unfamiliar cultural systems and increased understanding and cognitive empathy for others. In addition, a fourth additional theme of embodiment and the value of embodiment were identified.

Research limitations/implications

Lacking in the findings were reports by participants regarding application of skills to different cultural populations. Future research will focus on how integration of application of skills can be facilitated using similar pedagogical practices. Because this study included a small number of participants who were counseling students in a master’s program, the applicability of the findings to other student populations is limited. Further research would need to determine whether or not the findings could be replicated with other types of students.

Practical implications

Embedding the intervention within the structure of a course appeared to provide a supportive and safe space for experiencing embodied selves, it also provided a mode for performing their future selves for and with colleagues experiencing similar situations. In this way, they were able to venture with and among their colleagues toward a fuller understanding of self, and particularly in conjunction to diverse populations. These features of the intervention appeared to work in concert together holistically affording a space where they could be vulnerable enough, open enough, to begin questioning their central thoughts and beliefs and increase their empathy for others who are different.

Social implications

Using the game of Oblivion allowed our students to have an embodied experience in a virtual space where they got to experience being in a completely different culture and experience culture shock. They had to make decisions that forced them to review their belief systems, go against their belief systems, or explore options that were against their belief systems in a safe way with no real-life repercussions. This embodied experience allowed our participants to engage in behaviors that none would dare to do in their real world and provided a comfort zone to explore taboo subjects.

Originality/value

Embedding the game within the curriculum encouraged participants to experience feelings of embodied empathy (Gee, 2010). Oblivion assisted in this process by providing participants the opportunity to gain entry into a unique designed world, a realistic but pseudo-cultural world replete with social and institutional structures both familiar and foreign to their real life. This appeared to provide a realistic manifestation of self, positioning participants toward experiencing embodied empathy for the designed scenarios in the game.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

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