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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Antonella Di Fonzo and Carlo Russo

Geographical Indications (GI) are complex and multi-purpose institutions. Their objectives include encouraging diversification of agricultural production, improving…

Abstract

Purpose

Geographical Indications (GI) are complex and multi-purpose institutions. Their objectives include encouraging diversification of agricultural production, improving farmers’ income, countering depopulation of rural areas, satisfying consumer demand for high-quality good, and protecting consumers from food fraud. The authors argue that such objectives are not necessarily aligned as divergence may arise among stakeholders (such as farmers, consumers or rural communities) about the optimal design of the GI. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a simple, static game-theory model describing the basic choices that a planner faces in designing a GI.

Findings

The authors conclude that the optimal organization requires finding trade-offs among conflicting but equally desirable objectives. Perfect monitoring is not a sufficient condition to resolve such conflicts. Sub-consortia and flexible production agreements may increase the efficiency of a GI.

Research limitations/implications

The authors described basic trade-offs in GI design using the simplest possible model. To this purpose the authors introduced limiting assumptions that may be relaxed in future research. The representation of the GI agreement focussed on the quality level only, abstracting from all other consideration. Using a static model prevented us from explicit modeling of (loss of) reputation effects. The simplifying assumptions about consumer behavior and cost functions have reduced the generality of the results. Extensions of the model may consider introducing additional elements in the GI agreement such as production areas or governance models, dynamic games and general functional forms.

Practical implications

The authors found that in designing a GI: first, promotion approaches revolving around small groups of local leaders (i.e. efficient, high-quality producers) might overshoot quality, resulting in unsustainable production agreements; second, introducing degrees of flexibility in the production agreement may help achieving a sustainable GI; and finally, sub-consortia/optional labels may help dealing with producers’ heterogeneity.

Social implications

The authors found that setting a high standard in the production agreement is not sufficient condition for delivering quality food to consumers, as producers might have incentive to commit frauds. A simple command and control approach to quality in GI’s is not always the most efficient strategy, because it may reduce participation. In designing the GI, the goals of identity preservation and food quality must be balanced with consideration of producers’ incentives. The involvement of producers in the design of the GI is a critical success driver. Yet, this practice can be problematic because of producers’ heterogeneity.

Originality/value

The paper provides theoretical foundation for best practices in forming a GI, including: multi-stakeholder involvement, management of farmer heterogeneity and monitoring.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Petros Parganas, Roman Liasko and Christos Anagnostopoulos

Professional football clubs currently strive for a number of concurrent goals, ranging from on-field success to profit maximization to fan expansion and engagement. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Professional football clubs currently strive for a number of concurrent goals, ranging from on-field success to profit maximization to fan expansion and engagement. The purpose of this paper, theoretically informed by the social penetration theory, is to analyze the economics behind such goals and examine the association between team performance, commercial success, and social media followers in professional team sports.

Design/methodology/approach

A data set relating to 20 European professional football clubs that combines financial (revenues and costs), sporting, and digital-reach measures for three consecutive football seasons (2013/2014 to 2015/2016) was used. In addition, to elaborate on this data in terms of a descriptive study, the study constructs a range of correlation statistical tests and linear modeling techniques to obtain quantitative results.

Findings

The results indicate that all the three main sources of club revenues (match-day, commercial/sponsorship, and broadcasting) are positive drivers for Facebook followers. Staff investments (staff costs) are also positively related to Facebook followers, albeit to a lesser extent, while higher-ranked clubs seem to follow a constant approach in terms of their revenues and cost structure.

Originality/value

This study seeks to bridge the communication and sport economic research, providing evidence that Facebook followers are part of the cyclical phenomenon of team revenues and team performance. In doing so, it initiates a debate on the relationship between the digital expansion of a football club and its sports and financial indicators.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1975

Kenneth E. Boulding

I have been involved lately in a committee which is thinking about planning for my university, so I have been forced to think about planning myself. Planning is a good or…

Abstract

I have been involved lately in a committee which is thinking about planning for my university, so I have been forced to think about planning myself. Planning is a good or a bad word depending to a considerable degree, I suspect, on whether one is doing the planning or whether one is being planned. My reflections on the subject have taken the form of twelve rather haphazard propositions, none of which I put forward as being necessarily true, but which are perhaps plausible enough to be worth investigating.

Details

Planning Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Mohd Helmi Ali, Kim Hua Tan and Md Daud Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to propose a food supply chain (SC) integrity framework in the context of halal food.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a food supply chain (SC) integrity framework in the context of halal food.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a discussion on the development of food SC integrity framework using triangulation of interviews’ insights with literature.

Findings

Current industry practices such as standards have not been sufficient in embracing the concept of food SC integrity. As the food SC is complex, food SC integrity framework is proposed as a solution. This paper proposes food SC integrity framework for halal food. It consists of four dimensions, namely: raw material, production, service, and information integrity. In addition, key elements for each dimension are derived from the interviews’ insights.

Research limitations/implications

The framework provides the evidence that the safeguarding of halal food integrity does not rely solely on certification; but it requires an extensive effort beyond certification.

Practical implications

Safeguarding of food integrity should involve all stages and actors of the SC. Religious standards should incorporate SC integrity profiling through a controlling mechanism to promote higher food product integrity.

Originality/value

Food SC integrity framework is important to religious food as it plays a significant role to the population. This study contributes to a newly developed SC integrity framework in the context of halal food.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Talib Younis, S.A.M. Ibrahim and M.A. McLean

The second of a two‐part article (Part I published in IJPSM, Vol. 5 No.1) which continues the historical overview from 1949 whenthe new democratic government instigated…

Abstract

The second of a two‐part article (Part I published in IJPSM , Vol. 5 No.1) which continues the historical overview from 1949 when the new democratic government instigated administrative reforms based on initiatives from foreign research. In the period after the Second World War attempts at reform were hindered by increased number of Civil Servants and economic problems, particularly inflation and a fall in the standard of living. Traces the difficulties which emerged between the bureaucracy and successive governments as a direct result of their failure to appreciate the role of the bureaucracy. The 1960 revolution led to the establishment of three bodies with specific tasks to change the structure of the economic and administrative systems and to implement five‐year plans, but which met with limited success. Discusses the ensuing excessive review and evaluation in every sphere of state activity which has continued to date.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Sun Mi Park, Kueng Mi Choi, Yun Ja Nam and Young‐A Lee

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐purpose body form that could be used to develop different types of garments by putting body skins with ease on the standard…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multi‐purpose body form that could be used to develop different types of garments by putting body skins with ease on the standard body form.

Design/methodology/approach

Free form deformation method was used to generate a virtual model upon the basis of the averaged wire frame. The virtual model was made into a real‐life model by a rapid prototyping (RP) process, and then, the standard body form was made by molding the RP. The 3D polygon shell for a body skin got flattened down to 2D patterns and made by a urethane material.

Findings

The standard body form developed by using 3D body scan data better represented the characteristics of the body shapes than the previously hand‐made ones. In addition, by standardizing the production of the body form itself, it is now possible to make body forms into the standards and be consistent in their qualities.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the methodology of utilizing 3D body scan data in a garment design, which is possible by incorporating advanced 3D modeling technologies and 3D data of a human body in making body forms. For the mass production of a body skin, it is necessary to develop various special materials simulating soft tissues.

Originality/value

The apparel industry can enjoy cost cutting effects by using this multi‐purpose body form. A company does not have to spend money in purchasing different sizes and shapes of body forms, let alone saving the spaces to store them once purchased.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

W. David Rees and Christine Porter

In this two‐part article the problems of operating employee appraisal schemes effectively are identified. Appraisal of formal appraisal schemes suggests that most do not…

Abstract

In this two‐part article the problems of operating employee appraisal schemes effectively are identified. Appraisal of formal appraisal schemes suggests that most do not operate satisfactorily. Multi‐purpose schemes can be cumbersome and include conflicting objectives. The feedback process can also cause major problems. Such problems can be exacerbated with schemes of 360‐degree appraisal according to their complexity and the role conflicts they can precipitate. In the second part of the article the level of organisational investment needed for schemes to operate effectively is considered. The ways in which competencies, self‐appraisal, and peer audit can be constructively used are examined. Competencies developed for selection purposes may be usefully applied in appraisal, provided they are accurate. The crucial link between formal and informal appraisal processes is considered as is the importance and skills involved in informal appraisal. Finally, the way in which the training needs of appraisees need to be realistically identified and assessed is explained.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Biren Prasad

Introduces a set of JIT house of matrices (collectively called hereJIT quality matrices (JQM) and a matrix‐based procedure to analyse theresults of strategic planning and…

Abstract

Introduces a set of JIT house of matrices (collectively called here JIT quality matrices (JQM) and a matrix‐based procedure to analyse the results of strategic planning and implementation. Discusses the application of this matrix‐based approach to quantify and rank a set of chosen JIT tactics (called quality characteristics) at various points during its (JIT) implementation. The JQM and the matrix‐based procedure together define a measure of merits (a rating system) to prioritize a set of chosen JIT tactics. The rating system is derived from the same principles on which quality function deployment (QFD) was based. By providing the manufacturing and strategic development teams with a dynamic rating system, it has been possible to measure the progress and strategize a new line of JIT tactics, whenever the company′s situation or priority changes. With JQM, it is possible to realize an incorporation of continuous improvements (CPI) into the JIT implementation process. Inclusion of CPI is an inherent part of this procedure requiring no additional effort. The benefit of integrating CPI with JQM is manifested by its ability to reconfigure the chosen implementation strategies dynamically. The procedure allows the strategic team, at the start (based on its rating), to select an optimal mix of JIT tactics. Later, anytime during its implementation cycle, the team can monitor the process dynamically by analysing a quality characteristics trade‐off to see whether a mid‐course correction or change in the line of JIT tactics is necessary. This enables the planning team to sustain a series of successful planning activities throughout the strategic implementation process. This also prevents the manufacturing and strategic teams from unknowingly making any possible implementation mistakes.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Sabine Kuhlmann

This chapter is aimed at contributing to the question of how institutional reforms affect multi-level governance (MLG) capacities and thus the performance of public task…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter is aimed at contributing to the question of how institutional reforms affect multi-level governance (MLG) capacities and thus the performance of public task fulfillment with a particular focus on the local level of government in England, France, and Germany.

Methodology/approach

Drawing on concepts of institutional evaluation, we analytically distinguish six dimensions of impact assessment: vertical coordination; horizontal coordination; efficiency/savings; effectiveness/quality; political accountability/democratic control; equity of service standards. Methodologically, we rely on document analysis and expert judgments that could be gleaned from case studies in the three countries and a comprehensive evaluation of the available secondary data in the respective national and local contexts.

Findings

Institutional reforms in the intergovernmental setting have exerted a significant influence on task fulfillment and the performance of service delivery. Irrespective of whether MLG practice corresponds to type I or type II, task devolution (decentralization/de-concentration) furthers the interlocal variation and makes the equity of service delivery shrink. There is a general tendency of improved horizontal/MLG type I coordination capacities, especially after political decentralization, less in the case of administrative decentralization. However, decentralization often entails considerable additional costs which sometimes overload local governments.

Research implications

The distinction between multi-purpose territorial organization/MLG I and single-purpose functional organization/MLG II provides a suitable analytical frame for institutional evaluation and impact assessment of reforms in the intergovernmental setting. Furthermore, comparative research into the relationship between MLG and institutional reforms is needed to reveal the explanatory power of intervening factors, such as the local budgetary and staff situation, local policy preferences, and political interests in conjunction with the salience of the transferred tasks.

Practical implications

The findings provide evidence on the causal relationship between specific types of (vertical) institutional reforms, performance, and task-related characteristics. Policy-makers and government actors may use this information when drafting institutional reform programs and determining the allocation of public tasks in the intergovernmental setting.

Social implications

In general, the euphoric expectations placed upon decentralization strategies in modern societies cannot straightforwardly be justified. Our findings show that any type of task transfer to lower levels of government exacerbates existing disparities or creates new ones. However, the integration of tasks within multi-functional, politically accountable local governments may help to improve MLG type I coordination in favor of local communities and territorially based societal actors, while the opposite may be said with regard to de-concentration and the strengthening of MLG type II coordination.

Originality/value

The chapter addresses a missing linkage in the existing MLG literature which has hitherto predominantly been focused on the political decision-making and on the implementation of reforms in the intergovernmental settings of European countries, whereas the impact of such reforms and of their consequences for MLG has remained largely ignored.

Details

Multi-Level Governance: The Missing Linkages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-874-8

Keywords

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