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1 – 10 of over 2000
Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Christopher S. Collins and Robert A. Rhoads

Globalization has become such an all-encompassing concept that it is almost meaningless. However, most scholars recognize that the term conveys in some manner or form a…

Abstract

Globalization has become such an all-encompassing concept that it is almost meaningless. However, most scholars recognize that the term conveys in some manner or form a shrinkage of time and space such that events happening in one part of the world have the potential to impact other locales (Giddens, 1999; Held, 1991). Beyond this most basic meaning, it is hard to find any agreement on what the term actually conveys or when in fact the world actually entered a global age (Morrow & Torres, 2000). Given the vagueness of globalization as a concept, the challenge then is to be as clear as possible in discussing various forces related to globalization that may impact a particular phenomenon under study. In the case of this chapter, the phenomenon of interest is university transformation in the developing world.

Details

The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2012

Richard Haigh and Richard Sutton

The purpose of this paper is to identify what strategies and mechanisms might be utilised to achieve an effective level of participation by multi‐national construction…

611

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify what strategies and mechanisms might be utilised to achieve an effective level of participation by multi‐national construction enterprises in post‐disaster recovery efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory qualitative research methodology has been utilised. A total of 28 interviews were conducted. The respondents were from multi‐national construction enterprises, international and national humanitarian agencies, construction industry professional organisations, and national government agencies related to disaster management.

Findings

The findings suggest that there is great potential for using the resources of multi‐national construction enterprise resources to fill the professional resource gap in post‐disaster recovery. The best method for achieving this engagement is less clear. Although there are concerns about construction enterprises engaging with a more strategic outlook, there is also recognition that explicit and transparent arrangements would alleviate many of these concerns.

Originality/value

The value of building partnerships with the private sector is slowly being realised, but it remains a niche phenomenon and more research is required. This study provides a better understanding of the nature and extent of the relationship between multi‐national construction enterprises and efforts to reconstruct buildings and infrastructure following a disaster.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Nana Xu and Yusen Xu

Reverse innovation plays an important role in the innovation catch-up by latecomer enterprise. With the development of economic globalization, reverse innovation of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Reverse innovation plays an important role in the innovation catch-up by latecomer enterprise. With the development of economic globalization, reverse innovation of the latecomer enterprise research has received increased attention day by day. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the key success factors and the realization mechanism of reverse innovation of the latecomer engineering and technical services enterprise.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts the grounded theory analysis as the research method, by analyzing the phenomenon, collating the results, mining through the systematic data and verifying the theory temporarily. Therefore, it is ideal for the research to build the theory by analyzing the phenomenon. Before the serious coding begins, the reliability of coders is first examined. Coders extract some sample as the first test sample; then, three coders code according to the description and requirements and calculate the coding results according to the formulas that the noted scholar Holsti has proposed. Then, the authors perform the coding three times that include open coding, axial coding and selective coding, and then, the key factor model of reverse innovation of the engineering and technical service enterprise is refined.

Findings

The investigation reveals that technology localization, connection with the international market and industrial chain integration are the key success factors of reverse innovation of the latecomer engineering and technological service enterprise. Meanwhile, the latecomer enterprise gives full attention to local comprehensive comparative advantage to carry out technology localization during the reverse innovation. The diversified international coupling mechanism is an important support for technology localization. The engineering and technical service enterprise needs to pay attention to the service chain of the vertical integration in the process of reverse innovation.

Originality/value

The paper enriches the related research of reverse innovation based on a new industry and provides management support for innovation catch-up of the latecomer enterprises that have a big technological gap when compared with the multi-national companies.

Details

Journal of Science & Technology Policy Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

King Carl Tornam Duho, Cletus Agyenim-Boateng, Emmanuel Tetteh Asare and Joseph Mensah Onumah

The purpose of this study is to examine the convergence and determinants of anti-corruption disclosures of extractive firms in Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the convergence and determinants of anti-corruption disclosures of extractive firms in Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an unbalanced panel data of 27 firms operating in 5 African countries covering the period 2006 to 2018. Corporate data is collected from the global reporting initiative (GRI) database. The study uses an index to measure overall disclosure and individual items are coded as binary. The study uses fixed effects, panel logistic and panel-corrected standard error regression, depending on the type of dependent variable used.

Findings

The results indicate that the determinants of anti-corruption disclosure are membership in the United Nations global compact (UNGC) and Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative, multi-national enterprise status, corruption perception index and human development index (HDI). Specifically, UNGC membership and multi-national status enhance the disclosure on corruption analysis. Countries with a high prevalence of corruption tend to disclose more on corruption analysis. Disclosure on corruption training is high among firms that are UNGC signatories, countries with a high HDI and countries with a high prevalence of corruption. There is a weak effect of firm-level, industry-level and country-level factors on disclosures on corruption response.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides insights on the use of GRI 205: Anti-Corruption, which has relevant implications for practitioners, policymakers and the academic community.

Originality/value

This study is premier in exploring anti-corruption disclosure with a special focus on extractive firms in Africa. It is also unique in providing a test of both beta and sigma convergence among the firms.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Arup Varma and Linda Russell

The purpose of the paper is twofold – first, to explore the role of perceived organizational support (POS) during the three critical stages of the female expatriate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is twofold – first, to explore the role of perceived organizational support (POS) during the three critical stages of the female expatriate experience, with a view to explaining the disproportionately low numbers of females in expatriate roles; and second, to offer specific suggestions to multi-national enterprises to help them create a level playing field so females can compete for expatriate assignments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw upon the theory of POS to explore how the perceived lack of support from their organization during the critical stages of expatriate assignments affects women’s interest, and potentially their performance, in expatriate assignments. The authors develop and present relevant propositions.

Findings

This is a conceptual paper that offers a process model of the impact of POS on the three stages of selection of females for expatriates.

Research limitations/implications

From a theoretical perspective it is clear that POS can play an important role in the willingness of females to accept international assignments. Thus POS can be a critical determinant of the potential levels of female participation in expatriate assignments. Previously, scholars have argued that the low numbers of female expatriates may be a result of a lack of interest on their part, or because they may not be welcomed in many countries. However, subsequent theses have argued, and many studies have shown, that females can be equally successful. The proposed process model helps to better understand how organizations might dismantle the barriers faced by potential female expatriates, by addressing the key issues at each stage.

Practical implications

Multinational enterprises need to ensure that they are drawing from their full pool of talent, if they are to compete effectively against other multinational enterprises. By paying attention to the suggestions, and adopting and executing the propositions, they will be able to avoid the possibility that their qualified female employees may withdraw from the organization if they believe that they are not likely to be considered for expatriate assignments, simply because of their gender, even though they are interested.

Social implications

From a societal perspective, it is indeed critical that qualified females are provided the same opportunities that are made available to males. Given that roughly half the population is female, multi-national enterprises that fail to treat their female employees fairly will be seen as poor corporate citizens.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to address the critical issue of low numbers of females on expatriate assignments by drawing upon the tenets of the theory of POS. The authors offer several propositions to help multinational enterprises understand the impact of the gender imbalance in expatriate assignments, and offer suggestions on how organizations might improve the participation of females in expatriate assignments.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

David A. Kirby and Nagwa Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000 undergraduates at the British University in Egypt, drawn from the University's three faculties.

Findings

The paper finds that, although three organizations, Ashoka Arab World, The Schwab Foundation and Yes Egypt, do much to support and promote social enterprise in Egypt, students are confused over what a social entrepreneur is or does and are largely unaware of existing Egyptian social entrepreneurs. The majority want a career in a multi‐national enterprise but a sizeable number are interested in establishing a social enterprise.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is small and limited to one institution but the findings corroborate theory and indicate a need for both greater awareness (information/knowledge), and support/encouragement.

Practical implications

There is a need to change the Egyptian education system to encourage students to think and behave more entrepreneurially, at the same time equipping them with the skills to start their own ventures on graduation.

Social implications

To promote a more socially aware, sustainable economy, Egyptian support organizations need to work with the country's universities to change the curriculum and the way students are taught.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first academic studies on entrepreneurship in Egypt. It will interest academics, educational policy makers and those concerned with the promotion of entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2021

Hui Li, Lei Xu and Youqing Fan

The purpose of this paper is to explore mechanisms of cultural distance in the base of Chinese Service Multi-National Enterprise (MNE) settings. When attempting to enter…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore mechanisms of cultural distance in the base of Chinese Service Multi-National Enterprise (MNE) settings. When attempting to enter overseas markets, many service MNEs face challenges caused by the cultural distance between the home and host countries. Culture distance attracts much attention in academia and industry. However, there are few empirical works to examine how cultural distance affects customer orientation strategies in a global supply chain. This paper aims to answer the following research question: How is the effect of cultural distance on customer acquisition and customer retention strategies, and the effect of customer orientation strategies on the performance of service-oriented MNEs controlled by Chinese capital along the Belt and Road Initiative?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the effect of cultural distance on the customer acquisition strategy and customer retention strategy, and the effect of customer orientation strategies on the performance of Chinese Service MNEs. A large-scale empirical study of Chinese Service MNEs operating in overseas markets is performed and questionnaires were distributed and collected. This paper uses Hofstede's method (Hofstede, 2010), Schwartz's method (Schwartz, 2003) and House et al.'s method (House et al., 2004) to calculate cultural distance. By using each kind of method, this study calculates the absolute culture distance and relative culture distance respectively.

Findings

The results suggest that cultural distance negatively affects customer orientation strategy, customer acquisition strategy positively affects performance and the interaction of customer acquisition and customer retention positively affects performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study aims to contribute to the existing literature with a more fine-grained understanding of the inclusion of customer orientation strategy of Chinese Service MNEs in global supply chains.

Practical implications

The findings outline several important implications that Chinese Service MNEs seeking to expand to overseas markets.

Originality/value

This paper contributes a novel, combined perspective of culture distance and customer orientation strategy.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Victor Zitian Chen, Jing Li and Daniel M. Shapiro

The purpose of this study is to extend the classic country-specific advantage (CSA) – firm-specific advantage (FSA) framework by integrating an institution-based view of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extend the classic country-specific advantage (CSA) – firm-specific advantage (FSA) framework by integrating an institution-based view of CSAs into the discussion of FSAs. In his classic CSA – FSA framework, Rugman suggests that successful multi-national enterprises (MNEs) are often built on the interaction between strong FSAs and strong CSAs at home. In the case of emerging market multi-nationals (EMNEs), he argued that strong CSAs were of particular importance in allowing EMNEs to develop FSAs. In particular, we examine CSAs at the sub-national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors suggest that sub-national heterogeneity in market-supporting institutions is an important feature of emerging market economies, and that consideration of such heterogeneity contributes to our understanding of firm capabilities and overseas investment behavior of emerging market firms. The authors also identify explicitly the mechanisms through which sub-national institutions at home affect FSAs and, subsequently, the ability of emerging market firms’ entry into developed markets. Specifically, the authors argue that strong local institutions that support effective and well-functioning markets create the conditions that induce firms in that location to develop market-related capabilities in R & D and marketing, which, in turn, enable them to expand into developed countries.

Findings

Using a unique data set on overseas investment by Chinese firms and causal mediation analysis, the authors find strong evidence in support of the view that strong sub-national institutions help emerging market firms develop the capabilities to enter developed country markets.

Originality/value

This study extends the classic CSA–FSA framework by integrating an institution-based view of CSAs into the discussion of FSAs. In particular, the authors examine CSAs at the sub-national level.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Kerryn Ayanda Malindi Krige and Verity Hawarden

Teaching objective 1: Students are able to identify and apply characteristics of a social entrepreneur, and social enterprise, as defined by Dees (2001). Teaching…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

Teaching objective 1: Students are able to identify and apply characteristics of a social entrepreneur, and social enterprise, as defined by Dees (2001). Teaching objective 2: Students are able to identify and apply the four tensions identified by Smith, Gonin and Besharov (2013) that manifest in social enterprises. Teaching objective 3: Students are able to apply Institutional Theory to social entrepreneurship. Students are able to explain legitimacy and the influence of context on the social enterprise. Teaching objective 4: Students through using the Change Canvas, are able to distinguish between profit and purpose characteristics of the organisation; and are able to make recommendations based on the process they have followed.

Case overview/synopsis

Kovin Naidoo is the CEO Of a multi-national social enterprise, Australia-based The Brien Holden Institute. The case explores Naidoo's journey as a social entrepreneur, and the partnership forged with Brien Holden as they built their multinational social enterprise. Naidoo is catapulted to the position of CEO after the sudden death of his friend, and is trying to balance the competing pressures of profit and purpose. The case introduces the foundational characteristics of social entrepreneurship, before exploring Institutional Theory and the Change Canvas as a tool for managing tensions between profit and purpose.

Complexity academic level

This case study is aimed at students of entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, corporate social investment, development studies, innovative health-care systems, sustainable livelihoods and asset-based development. It is written at an Honours / Masters level and is therefore also appropriate for use in customised or short programmes.

Supplementary Materials

Videos (including a TedX by Naidoo), Web materials and a book chapter are included in the supplementary materials list.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000