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Article

Ethné Swartz, Frances M. Amatucci and Susan Coleman

The purpose of this study is to explore an optimal research design for research on women entrepreneurs involved in negotiating term sheets for private equity capital. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore an optimal research design for research on women entrepreneurs involved in negotiating term sheets for private equity capital. This research explores new ways for researchers to connect with such current “invisibles” through the use of a mixed method and mixed mode research design to expand sampling options and secure respondent participation. The authors discuss existing data sets that have been used as secondary sources for data on financing of companies and consider their inadequacy for research questions about process issues in negotiation. The authors present process-related findings regarding the efficacy of the research design.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews research on research methodology, incorporating a discussion of practices outside of the entrepreneurship discipline to discover effective practices for identifying respondents and data not currently captured in entrepreneurship data sources. The respondents were found through social media sites, angel networks, University networks and via identification through a proprietary financial intelligence database.

Findings

An optimal research design to identify women business owners of growth-oriented firms who have negotiated private equity should consider mixed methods designs and mixed modes, including the use of digital networks that signal to potential respondents that research is being done.

Research limitations/implications

Although the authors developed the multi-method, mixed mode (MMMM) research design, the sample size is still relatively small. This raises concerns about generalizability to the larger population and limits statistical analysis more suitable with larger data sets. However, the MMMM research design has enabled the authors to reach a difficult target sample. It has proven effective, although a longer time frame would have been helpful.

Research limitations/implications

All of the large scale databases in entrepreneurship have limitations in providing optimal sampling frames for process-related research. The present research study was able to use conventional networks, social media sites and angel networks to connect with women business owners who have raised private equity, but who lack visibility in current data sets. The study shows that through the use of multiple methods, women entrepreneurs can be researched and some will share their experiences about process issues. The sample size was small and the quantitative data cannot be generalized. However, the methodology works and allows researchers to explore experiences that are not captured in existing data sets.

Social implications

Entrepreneurship researchers can connect with “invisibles” by becoming more “social” and using social media sites that are used by women entrepreneurs. Researchers may not have immediate access to women entrepreneurs through these means, but rather they need to develop interpersonal contacts, build a social presence and trust to recruit respondents to complete online questionnaire studies about substantive topics such as negotiating term sheets for equity investments in their companies.

Originality/value

This paper summarizes the “research on research methodologies” in entrepreneurship, reviews secondary data sources and discusses their limitations for specific types of research questions. A review of the value of MMMM research designs and best practices in online survey research outside of entrepreneurship provides insights into the incorporation of digital tools in other disciplines.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article

Sumita Srivastava and Rupali Misra

The purpose of this study is to identify the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions of young women in India because currently Indian Government is emphasizing heavily…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions of young women in India because currently Indian Government is emphasizing heavily on women’s participation in the mainstream of economic activities in the country. This study focuses on entrepreneurial intentions as the most important stage of entrepreneurship process. Based on the theory of planned behavior, propounded by Ajzen (1991), it points out intentions as the most significant predictor of human behavior.¤

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses multi-method analysis for validation of the model proposed by Linan. In Study 1, an adapted version of Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) (Linan and Chen, 2009) was administered to a group of 248 female students studying in under-graduate science, commerce, arts or management courses, who voluntarily participated in the survey. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using partial least square (PLS) path-modeling algorithm. In Study 2, qualitative study was conducted on 110 young female students using focus group interview technique. Framework analysis was used for the data analysis of the qualitative study.

Findings

This study confirms the role of social valuation as an important antecedent of entrepreneurial intentions among women. However, it also identifies that entrepreneurship education is also an important element that affects the entrepreneurial intentions of young women in India.

Originality/value

The study uses multi-method analysis for identifying entrepreneurial intentions among young women in India.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article

Laura Smith, Roger Maull and Irene C.L. Ng

The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight into operations management of the product-service (P-S) transition, known as servitization, and the resulting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight into operations management of the product-service (P-S) transition, known as servitization, and the resulting product service system (PSS) offerings. In exploring the P-S transition, this paper adopts a service-dominant (S-D) logic view of value creation, using it as a lens through which to explore value propositions of the P-S transition and their operations design.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an in-depth case study of an original equipment manufacturer of durable capital equipment who, over the last five years, has expanded its offerings to include use- and result-orientated PSS. The research design uses a multi-method approach; employing 28 in-depth qualitative interviews with customers and employees and analysis of texts, documents and secondary data including five years of enterprise resource planning (ERP), call centre and contract data.

Findings

The paper identifies ten generic P-S attributes that are abstracted into four nested value propositions: asset value proposition; recovery value proposition; availability value proposition; and outcome value proposition. In examining the operations design for delivery of these value propositions, it is found that the role and importance of contextual variety increases as the organisation moves through the value propositions. Interdependencies amongst the value propositions and differences in operational design for each value proposition are also found.

Research limitations/implications

The paper investigates PSS through a S-D logic mindset. First, the paper considers value propositions of PSS not according to “product” or “service” but in terms of how resources (both material and human) are optimally designed to co-create customer value. Second, a value co-creation system of nested value propositions is illustrated. In so doing, the findings have a number of implications for literature on both PSS and S-D logic. In addition, the research adds to the PSS literature through the identification and consideration of the concept of contextual use variety.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates the complexity of the transition from product to service. Specifically, service cannot be seen as a bolt-on extra to their product offering; complexity caused by interactions and changes to the core offering require a systems perspective and consideration of both firm and customer skills and resources.

Originality/value

This paper extends existing literature on the P-S transition and its implications for operations management. Notably, it takes an S-D logic perspective of value creation and in so doing highlights the importance and role of contextual use variety in the P-S transition. It also provides further empirical evidence that the P-S transition cannot be treated as discrete stages but is evolutionary and requires a complex systems perspective.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Torbjørn H. Netland, Jason D. Schloetzer and Kasra Ferdows

Why some assembly factories implement a lean program faster than others is an enduring puzzle. We examine the effect of a fundamental characteristic of every assembly…

Abstract

Purpose

Why some assembly factories implement a lean program faster than others is an enduring puzzle. We examine the effect of a fundamental characteristic of every assembly factory—its rhythm of production.

Design/methodology/approach

We designed a multi-method study and collected data from a leading global equipment manufacturer that launched a lean program across its factory network. We use quantitative data gathered from internal company documents to test our hypothesis that production rhythm affects the pace of lean implementation. We then analyze qualitative data from interviews and factory visits to derive theoretical explanations for how production rhythm affects lean implementation.

Findings

Consistent with our hypothesis, we present evidence that factories with faster production rhythms implement lean faster than those with slower rhythms. This evidence is consistent with learning theories as well as the literature on organizational routines and forms of knowledge. We propose a theory of the relation between rhythm and learning in lean implementation.

Research limitations/implications

The hitherto unexplored relation between production rhythm and lean implementation raises intriguing questions for scholars and ushers new insights into how organizations learn to implement lean.

Practical implications

Organizations need to calibrate their expectations for lean implementation pace when their factories have widely different production rhythms and find ways to mitigate any adverse effects slower rhythms may have. Organizations can alleviate the unfavorable context of slower rhythms by inculcating practices in the factory that emulate the learning environment present in faster-paced factories.

Originality/value

We contribute novel quantitative and qualitative evidence that production rhythm affects lean implementation through learning-based mechanisms.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Michael Freundlieb, Matthias Gräuler and Frank Teuteberg

This paper aims to outline a conceptual framework for the quality evaluation of web-based sustainability reports (SRs) aiding managers in determining and evaluating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline a conceptual framework for the quality evaluation of web-based sustainability reports (SRs) aiding managers in determining and evaluating quality criteria for the sustainability report of their company.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews quality criteria in existing standards and guidelines on sustainability reporting and identifies research gaps. A conceptual framework including a multi-method approach for the quality evaluation of SRs is developed and evaluated.

Findings

Existing standards and guidelines on sustainability reporting mainly focus on the content of the reports and neglect common information systems (IS) acceptance criteria such as ease of use and visual appeal. The proposed framework directly involves different stakeholder groups and research methodologies into the quality evaluation process.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the research approach offer a number of starting points for future research. The proposed framework needs to be further evaluated by a larger number of test users in a more natural use setting.

Practical implications

The application of a multi-method approach as well as the direct involvement of the stakeholders allows for an in-depth quality evaluation of SRs, enabling reporting companies to meet the readers' demand for information on economic, environmental and social activities of the reporting company. Common acceptance factors from the field of IS should be integrated into existing standards and guidelines on sustainability reporting. Coaching of the users through help functions, wizards, instructional videos or avatars is desirable.

Originality/value

The proposed framework applies innovative technologies such as eye-tracking and software-supported attention analysis. By applying the framework to a set of sample reports, its usefulness and applicability are demonstrated.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article

Kofi Koranteng Adu

This study aims to examine the role of stakeholders in the digital preservation under the following key research questions: What are the levels of awareness of the volumes…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of stakeholders in the digital preservation under the following key research questions: What are the levels of awareness of the volumes of digital material? What are the contributory factors for the growth of digital records and the types of information and communication technology products?

Design/methodology/approach

With the convergence of questionnaire, documentary evidence, observation, interview and questionnaire, this paper aims to examine the state and role of stakeholders in the digital preservation environment. The adoption of the multi-methods approach to the study offered a panoramic view of the inquiry where the quantitative paradigm became the emphasis or the priority for the study, while the qualitative data set provided a secondary or supportive role.

Findings

The study underscored the adoption of collaborative and participatory opportunities in the digital preservation environment and reinforced the concept of Open Data, which thrives on citizen’s trust, participation and collaboration (UN e-government survey, 2014). It further revealed lack of knowledge about the likely growth of digital material across the ministries and agencies and confirmed that government legislations have contributed to the increased demand for information and the growth of digital records.

Originality/value

The study underlined two mutually exclusive concepts (collaboration and participation) as part of the strategies to ameliorate the digital preservation conundrum confronted by memory institutions in Ghana. The applications of these concepts as solutions to the digital preservation problems are novel and currently gaining prominence and acceptance within the archival community Their adoption in this study could not have come at a better time, particularly when public sector organizations are confronted with the challenge of preserving digital records.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Book part

Mark S. Glynn

This paper focuses on the role of manufacturer brands for resellers within retail channels. This topic is important because of the strategic value of manufacturer brands…

Abstract

This paper focuses on the role of manufacturer brands for resellers within retail channels. This topic is important because of the strategic value of manufacturer brands and the increasing influence of resellers within channels of distribution. Much of the branding research emphasizes a customer-brand knowledge perspective; however, emerging perspectives suggest that brands are also relevant to other stakeholders including resellers. In contrast, channels research recognizes the manufacturer sources of market power, but does not consider the impact of manufacturer “push and pull” strategies within channels. Existing theoretical frameworks, therefore, do not address the reseller perspective of the brand. As a result, the research approach is a multi-method design, consisting of two phases. The first phase involves in-depth interviews, allowing the development of a conceptual framework. In the second phase, a survey of supermarket buyers on brands in several product categories tests this framework. Structural equation modeling analyzes the survey responses and tests the hypotheses. The structural model shows very good fit to the data with good construct validity, reliability, and stability. The findings show that manufacturer support, brand equity, and customer demand reflect the manufacturer brand benefits to resellers. A key contribution of this research is the development of a validated scale on manufacturer brand benefits from the point of view of a reseller. This research shows that the resources that relate to the brand, not just the brand name itself, create value for resellers in channel relationships.

Details

Business-To-Business Brand Management: Theory, Research and Executivecase Study Exercises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-671-3

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Article

Check-Teck Foo, Weiwei Wu and Tachia Chin

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a multi-method design for research on corruption in China. Corruption in any society is inimical to good governance. Singapore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilize a multi-method design for research on corruption in China. Corruption in any society is inimical to good governance. Singapore, despite her size, is argued to be a plausible model for China.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking a multi-method approach, the phenomena of corruption is investigated from: etymological analyses for corruption (European roots) and its Chinese equivalent, 贪污 (pinyin: tan wu) case studies taken from three periods: current, Qing Dynasty and to founding of China (zhong guo, Qin Dynasty) to ground our policy recommendation of China be modeling after Singapore on the basis of our analysis of statistical (2013 and longitudinal) data. In the process, the authors embark on inter-country comparisons (mainly Confucian China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan).

Findings

Here are the key insights: scholars are unaware the English word corruption is narrower in scope than the Chinese equivalent tan wu贪污. As far back as 3,000 years, the Chinese had attributed wu, 污 as filthy, polluting, dirty to psychological concept of greed tan, 贪. In English, corruption does not denote greed per se. Falsification of facts as a political ploy dates back to Qin dynasty. Destabilizing corrupt cases occurred in China today as in Qing Dynasty. Singapore rather Hong Kong is a better model for China in reforming society.

Practical implications

This paper illustrates a distinctively, in-depth approach to research on Chinese management. It shows why it is important to clarify key concepts: corruption in the West and tan wu贪污in the East. Historical cases are utilized to show the presence of a continuing Chinese mind set. The authors argued for China to embark on a city-by-city strategy (modeling after Singapore) toward becoming a corruption-free society. Now, as 3,000 years ago, the Chinese conceptualization of corruption embeds the psychology of greed.

Social implications

China is at a crossroad of her economic development. There is a possible risk of China being destabilized through the corruption of the top rung of leadership. Chinese authorities must with urgency, rein in corruption. An approach is proposed in this paper.

Originality/value

In terms of style, approach and method of research, this paper is highly original. The integrative research here provides a rationale and basis for the Chinese leaders to implement a policy for a less corrupt society.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article

Robert W. Marans and Jack Y. Edelstein

The purpose of this paper is to determine the behaviors, attitudes, and levels of understanding among faculty, staff, and students in efforts to design programs aimed at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the behaviors, attitudes, and levels of understanding among faculty, staff, and students in efforts to design programs aimed at reducing energy use in University of Michigan (UM) buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method approach is used in five diverse pilot buildings including focus groups, behavioral observations, environmental measures, and web surveys. The analyses consider differences between buildings and between the three population groups.

Findings

Among the findings, UM staff are most concerned about conserving energy in UM buildings while students are the least concerned. A significant proportion of survey respondents are not aware of past university efforts to conserve energy; among those who are aware, many felt that university efforts are inadequate. The observations and self‐reports reveal an abundance of energy‐consuming equipment in offices, and lights and computers are often left on when work spaces and conference rooms are unoccupied. Furthermore, occupants tend to wear heavy clothing during warm weather months indicating excessively low building temperatures. Finally, most occupants are willing to accept higher building temperatures during warm weather months and lower temperatures during cold weather months.

Originality/value

There has been limited work in institutional/organizational settings that considers occupant behavior as a factor in designing programs to conserve energy. The research uses a multi‐method approach to understand what people do, think, and have vis‐à‐vis energy use and conservation. Additionally, the researchers – working with university officials – have designed programs aimed at changing the behaviors of building occupants. These programs have been implemented in the five pilot buildings; plans are currently underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the programs.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article

Alex Maritz, Quan Nguyen and Martin Bliemel

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the status of entrepreneurship education (EE) in Australia, replicating and expanding a similar study in 2015. The aim is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the status of entrepreneurship education (EE) in Australia, replicating and expanding a similar study in 2015. The aim is to review neoteric global best practice EE initiatives, enabling the examination and embedding of EE offerings and initiatives at all 40 higher education institutions (HEIs) in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors introduce a review of prominent and recent global EE scholarship, enabling an iterative and emergent inquiry perspective aligned to inductive and nascent multi-method empirical research associated with theoretical underpinnings of symbolic and substantive management theory.

Findings

This paper highlights the sparse and inconsistent distribution of EE programs and initiatives across all 40 Australian HEIs, particularly against the backdrop of rapidly expanding start-up and entrepreneurship ecosystems. Furthermore, outcomes provide best practice EE initiatives, which included staff mobility and transferability of skills. HEIs in Australia are experiencing a moderate EE boom, albeit marginally down on global EE transformation initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation of the data is subject to availability and accuracy of online documents and material resources, although implications have been mitigated using multi-method research design.

Practical implications

The findings provide critical grounding for researchers, practitioners and HEIs wishing to enhance EE within ever-expanding entrepreneurship ecosystems.

Originality/value

This study is the first multi-methods inquiry into the status of EE in Australia, consisting of quantitative, qualitative and algorithmic methods.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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