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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen and Ziyaad Mahomed

This study aims to examine the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge on the sales performance of the salesforce at Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) with special…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge on the sales performance of the salesforce at Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) with special reference to addressing the heterogeneous effects of work experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 335 samples were collected from the sales professionals of IFIs in Malaysia using a purposive sampling technique and the empirical analysis was conducted with the measures of model fit and bootstrapping technique using partial least square structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge is evident among salesforce and the magnitude of the impact remains consistent across the groups of salesforces with different levels of work experience.

Practical implications

Findings suggest respective authorities of IFIs intensify capacity building for their salesforce particularly in the area of Shariah knowledge and nature of underlying Islamic contracts used in the financial products. An insignificant heterogeneous effect of work experience suggests respective authorities that the actions and policy formulations are equally important among the entire salesforce regardless of the number of years of job tenure each salesforce holds.

Originality/value

As customer awareness and knowledge may be influenced by the information transferred via the IFI employees (especially salesforce in IFIs), any information overload (i.e. additional requirement of Shariah knowledge/features) on the IFI employees may, therefore, negatively influence customer patronage and reduce IFI market share. However, the increased information expectation (i.e. Shariah knowledge/features) on IFI employees and its impact on market share along with the heterogeneous effect of work experience has not been documented before. If a burdening effect of Shariah knowledge is identified, this may be a formidable reason for the slowing growth of Islamic finance.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Pitsamorn Kilenthong, Claes M. Hultman and Gerald E. Hills

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test whether a systematic relationship exists between firms’ level of entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviours and firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test whether a systematic relationship exists between firms’ level of entrepreneurial marketing (EM) behaviours and firms’ characteristics, including firm age, firm size and firm’s founder.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper quantitatively investigates EM behaviours from data collected from 752 business owners through structured interviews. The data analysis applied was multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (multi-group CFA).

Findings

Results from the analysis show that not all of the firms’ characteristics determine firms’ level of EM practice. The level of EM behaviours has a systematic relationship with firms’ age but not with the founding status of the firms’ manager. The impact of firm size on the level of EM behaviours is evident only when the firms’ age is taken into account.

Research limitations/implications

This paper concludes that relationships between EM behaviours and firm characteristics are more complicated than anticipated. Firms’ characteristics alone may not be a good measure for identifying the level of a firm’s EM. EM cannot be conceptualized solely in relation to the activities of small firms, young firms or founder-operated firms.

Originality/value

This paper examines EM behaviours in a large survey and uses multi-group CFA to examine firms’ EM practice through latent variables, instead of observed variables. The findings should complement knowledge regarding the EM concept generated from existing literature.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2019

Jesús Garcia-Madariaga, Nuria Recuero Virto, Maria Francisca Blasco López and Joaquín Aldas Manzano

Studies that examine users’ perceptions of museum’s website quality are scarce. The purpouse of this paper is to propose a multi-group comparison between two superstar…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies that examine users’ perceptions of museum’s website quality are scarce. The purpouse of this paper is to propose a multi-group comparison between two superstar museums to outline the variables that define website quality regarding museum websites towards achieving e-loyalty, trust and perceived control.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 305 valid online questionnaires, collected from a panel survey using a quota-sampling technique. The proposed model was tested using partial least squares analysis multi-group comparison between Prado and Thyssen-Bornemisza museum websites.

Findings

Website quality plays a determinant role in users’ behavioural outcomes. As evidenced in the results for the first time in a museum setting, website quality has the potential of influencing e-loyalty, trust and perceived control. Besides, trust has a positive influence on e-loyalty and perceived control, on trust. The multi-group comparison revealed no significant differences between the two museum superstars, which offer highly useful insights for the correct design of these websites.

Originality/value

This research addresses a multi-group comparison using partial least squares, a quite recent technique that advances knowledge regarding this method. It contributes to knowledge museum website management and online literature by means of proposing website quality as a dimension that includes content, ease of understanding, emotion, informational fit-to-task, promotion and visual appeal and by revealing significant effects of the relationships of the proposed model. Museum managers are provided with valuable inputs to design websites in an appropriate and suitable way for their users so they will be more willing to repeat their navigation experience.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Byung Han So, Ji Hyun Kim, Yun Jeong Ro and Ji Hoon Song

The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale of employee engagement that can be used in human resources departments in any industry field.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale of employee engagement that can be used in human resources departments in any industry field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the measurement development process with three steps. The first step was to generate items for measuring employee engagement. For this reason, the authors proposed an integrated conceptual model based on the results of a literature review and justify the concepts from self-determination theory and person-environment fit theory as the theoretical foundation. The second step was to determine the types of questions suitable for measurement, examining the content validity. Content validity was conducted two times by the group, academic experts and business practitioners. The last step was to examine the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-group analysis and reliability with 352 survey responses from the South Korean business context.

Findings

Findings of the measurement scale development procedure, i.e. employee engagement, should be managed in a balanced manner in all dimensions, as it is composed of four dimensions (person engagement, work engagement, organization engagement and relation engagement) and 16 sub-factors. Additionally, organization engagement was the major factor among the four dimensions of employee engagement with the highest variance explanation. From the statistical standpoint, the employee engagement scale (EES) is possible to use in any industry field because it demonstrated not only content validity and internal consistency reliability but also the three steps of factor analysis (EFA, CFA and multi-group analysis).

Research limitations/implications

This survey was conducted with an assistant manager located in Korea. Therefore, it will be necessary to analyze both leader and employee engagement for those who live in foreign countries. The EES is useful to leaders and human resource managers because it is applicable to managing engagement levels of employees and fosters customized training programs.

Originality/value

This is the first study to develop measurement tools for employee engagement in South Korea. In addition, most studies demonstrated that individual feeling was valued to drive employee engagement. This research, however, proposes an extended concept of employee engagement for four dimensions (person, work, relation and organization) and emphasizes the important relationship between individuals and colleagues in an organization. Based on these results, a theoretically integrated model of employee engagement was developed and a practically valid measurement tool for capturing comprehensive domains of employee engagement was proposed.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar, Dania Makki and Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the value of university social responsibility (USR) by investigating its impact on student–university identification and student…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the value of university social responsibility (USR) by investigating its impact on student–university identification and student loyalty. It also examines the mediating effect of student–university identification and the moderating effect of the perceived importance of USR. A comparative study is also conducted between students from two diverse cultural backgrounds.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was administered to students of universities in two different emerging markets economies (Lebanon and Colombia). The collected data were tested by applying descriptive techniques, cluster analysis and partial least square structural equation modeling with multi-group analysis using SmartPLS3.0 software.

Findings

The findings revealed that USR affects student loyalty both directly and indirectly through student–university identification.

Research limitations/implications

Assessing the model through a more varied sample population from different cultural backgrounds would entail more universal results and the ability to generalize the causality relationship between USR and student identification and loyalty.

Originality/value

This study is a valuable addition to the scarce literature on USR and its interplay with student–university identification. It presents USR as a vital marketing tool to achieve student identification and loyalty, being key factors that impact student enrollment and retention. It also translates into a competitive advantage for higher education institutions to overcome the fierce competition in the educational market. Additionally, this research can be considered a laboratory for theory testing and theory building due to its unique context and original primary data.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Ilias O. Pappas, Adamantia G. Pateli, Michail N. Giannakos and Vassilios Chrissikopoulos

Satisfaction and experience are essential ingredients for successful customer retention. This study aims to verify the moderating effect of experience on two types of…

Abstract

Purpose

Satisfaction and experience are essential ingredients for successful customer retention. This study aims to verify the moderating effect of experience on two types of relationships: the relationship of certain antecedents with satisfaction, and the relationship of satisfaction with intention to repurchase.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies structural equation modelling (SEM) and multi-group analysis to examine the moderating role of experience in a conceptual model estimating the intention to repurchase. Responses from 393 people were used to examine the differences between high- and low-experienced users of online shopping.

Findings

The research shows that experience has moderating effects on the relationships between performance expectancy and satisfaction and satisfaction and intention to repurchase. This study empirically demonstrates that prior customer experience strengthens the relationship between performance expectancy and satisfaction, while it weakens the relationship of satisfaction with intention to repurchase.

Practical implications

Practitioners should differentiate the way they treat their customers based on their level of experience. Specifically, the empirical research demonstrates that the expected performance of the online shopping experience (performance expectancy) affects satisfaction only on high-experienced customers. Instead, the effort needed to use online shopping (effort expectancy) and the user's belief in own abilities to use online shopping (self-efficacy) influence satisfaction only on low-experienced customers. The effect of trust and satisfaction is significant on online shopping behaviour on both high- and low-experienced customers.

Originality/value

This paper investigates how different levels of experience affect customers' satisfaction and online shopping behaviour. It is proved that experience moderates the effect of performance expectancy on satisfaction and the effect of satisfaction on intention to repurchase. It also demonstrates that certain effects (effort expectancy and performance expectancy) are valid for only one of the two examined groups, while only one effect (trust) is valid for both (high- and low-experienced).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Vasco M. Pontinha and Rita Coelho do Vale

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a brand love measurement scale, adopting an etic approach and testing for differences on how consumers experience brand love…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a brand love measurement scale, adopting an etic approach and testing for differences on how consumers experience brand love across different cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative model of brand love was first developed and then data was collected through an online survey (N = 322) in two countries (the USA and Portugal) with different characteristics (individualistic vs collectivistic). A structural equation model method was followed, including an exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analysis to test the set of hypotheses.

Findings

As proposed in the initial model, results indicate that brand love is the result of a dynamic interaction between five integrated emotional dimensions: passionate driven behavior, commitment, affection and connection, consumer-brand identification and brand relationship. The multi-group analysis across countries suggests that the socio-cultural context, namely, the collectivistic vs individualistic nature of the sample, significantly influences the brand love experience.

Originality/value

This is the first brand love measurement scale developed from an etic perspective, encompassing complex and dynamic emotional dimensions that in combination, form the brand love experience. Results indicate that the brand love experience may significantly differ from culture to culture, pointing out the most relevant dimensions in each of the socio-cultural contexts that better predict brand love and its consequences. These findings are particularly relevant for practitioners working on global brand management.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Juan Carlos Londono, Bradley Wilson and Fabian Osorio-Tinoco

This paper aims to test the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) in the prediction of entrepreneurial intentions of high school students. It also uncovers heterogeneity…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) in the prediction of entrepreneurial intentions of high school students. It also uncovers heterogeneity and differences in structural paths. The study aims to expand the toolbox of theoretical models that are useful to interpret entrepreneurial intentions by including the MGB. The MGB explains the role of desires, anticipated emotions and frequency of past behavior (FPB). These aspects are underplayed in other models.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for a study using PLS path modeling. The authors applied questionnaires to 643 students (260 boys and 383 girls) from 34 high school institutions of a large metropolitan city in a developing country. Data analysis used a multi-group analysis and a finite mixture (FIMIX) approach.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and confirms the role that desires and FPB have in their development. MGA results suggest that PBC relevance depends on gender, and emotions vary with socio economic level (SEL).

Research limitations/implications

Research results are limited to high school students. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further with university students and the general population in other developing and developed countries.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for teaching curriculum and government policy in entrepreneurship. The results encourage the study of entrepreneurship from a young age and the importance of teaching how to overcome negative emotions in the entrepreneurial process.

Originality/value

This paper satisfies a recognized need to evaluate competing models that explain entrepreneurial intentions. The grouping analysis uncovers opportunities to develop innovative education and training strategies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Junqing Yang and Hong Chen

This paper aims to examine whether rewards incentives of non-state-owned enterprises can settle the matters of motivation lack, strained labor relations and frequent…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether rewards incentives of non-state-owned enterprises can settle the matters of motivation lack, strained labor relations and frequent labor-capital conflicts and realize co-win cooperation of workers, enterprises and the society.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data of 1,617 questionnaires in 257 enterprises, this research reveals the total rewards factors that affect the labor motivation of non-stated-owned enterprises in China and improve labor productivity by adopting the hierarchical linear regression analysis and multi-group path analysis, and establishes a new model of win-win cooperation between labor and capital and the society through the incentive function of these elements by stimulating the enthusiasm of workers, improving labor productivity, increasing profits, expanding capital accumulation and absorbing labor force.

Findings

The authors have discovered that in general the main incentives that stimulate the enthusiasm of employees are the factors of performance and recognition and development and career opportunity in total rewards. The factor of benefits also has a significant incentive effect on employees in the western area of China, migrant workers with lower education and male employees, but negative effect on the post-1990s employees in non-state-owned enterprises. However, the compensation factor should be used with caution when encouraging employees in eastern region and the post-1980s. The total rewards factors of development and career opportunities and the performance and the recognition and benefits should be used to motivate workers to improve labor productivity, increase corporate profits and absorb more labor force, which is a long-term solution to win-win cooperation between labor and capital and social sustainable development. It is an important way to increase profits and absorb more labor force by increasing employee’s human capital investment and improving labor proficiency of employees under age 45. The conclusions provide new effective management methods for non-state-owned enterprises in China.

Practical implications

As a consequence, it will encourage employees to improve labor productivity and increase profits and thus absorb more labor force, if we use these factors of performance and recognition, development and career opportunity and benefits integratedly, we will find a permanent solution that the two sides of the labor and management and the society enjoy a win-win cooperation.

Originality/value

The research will provide theoretical basis for non-state-owned enterprises to apply a new and effective management style so that we can establish a win-win cooperation between the labor and management. What’s more, the research will develop the Dual Economy Theory of Lewis and the employment theory of Keynes and will also provide a theoretical basis for the realization of Taylor’s harmonious industrial relations.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen, Saiful Azhar Rosly and Syed Abdul Hamid Aljunid

This study aims to examine the decision-making behaviour of Islamic banking practitioners of the United Arab Emirates with special reference to the operational line…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the decision-making behaviour of Islamic banking practitioners of the United Arab Emirates with special reference to the operational line heterogeneity by employing factors that are religious in nature such as intellect, satanic force and divine knowledge as encapsulated in al-Ghazali’s ethical philosophy.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 337 samples were collected from the Islamic banking practitioners in the United Arab Emirates using a purposive sampling technique, and the empirical analysis was conducted with the measures of model fit and bootstrapping technique using Partial least square Structural equation modelling and multi-group analysis.

Findings

The empirical findings reveal that the dedicated use of intellect in making decisions related to ethical issues where desires and emotions tend to overwhelm reason and human choices. While divine knowledge is found ineffective guidance of the intellect, the element of satanic force is found significantly impacting decision-making. As the lack of religious consciousness is evident among respondents, higher exposure to operational risk is expected. These findings were found identical across the Islamic banking practitioners in different lines of operations.

Research limitations/implications

The span of the study is limited to a single country. Future studies are recommended to replicate the study to more markets where the share of Islamic finance is significant.

Practical implications

Findings of the study highly suggest respective authorities of Islamic financial institutions to intensify the capacity-building programs on the foundation of faith which includes Islamic thought and worldview, to enhance the corporate ethical decision-making. Moreover, equal importance should be given to all the banking practitioners regardless of line of business operations.

Originality/value

With undue emphasis is given to the juristic (fiqh) aspects of Shariah compliance in the Islamic banking and finance industry, less has been attempted to explore its ethical dimension (akhlaq) in the compliance parameters that leave a relatively large gap to address prevailing unethical practices in Islamic finance institutions. Findings from this study can be useful as a warning to the Islamic banking firms to enhance the sense of God-fearing and improve existing measures in the organisation in mitigating operational risks that may arise from people or system and consequently ensure the smooth governance of the Islamic banks.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

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