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Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using…
Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarm Optimization represent two widely used Swarm Intelligence (SI) optimization techniques. Information processing using Multiple-Valued Logic (MVL) is carried out using more than two discrete logic levels. In this paper, we compare two the SI-based algorithms in synthesizing MVL functions. A benchmark consisting of 50,000 randomly generated 2-variable 4-valued functions is used for assessing the performance of the algorithms using the benchmark. Simulation results show that the PSO outperforms the ACO technique in terms of the average number of product terms (PTs) needed. We also compare the results obtained using both ACO-MVL and PSO-MVL with those obtained using Espresso-MV logic minimizer. It is shown that on average, both of the SI-based techniques produced better results compared to those produced by Espresso-MV. We show that the SI-based techniques outperform the conventional direct-cover (DC) techniques in terms of the average number of product terms required.
The purpose of this paper is to apply the quantum “eigenlogic” formulation to behavioural analysis. Agents, represented by Braitenberg vehicles, are investigated in the…
The purpose of this paper is to apply the quantum “eigenlogic” formulation to behavioural analysis. Agents, represented by Braitenberg vehicles, are investigated in the context of the quantum robot paradigm. The agents are processed through quantum logical gates with fuzzy and multivalued inputs; this permits to enlarge the behavioural possibilities and the associated decisions for these simple vehicles.
In eigenlogic, the eigenvalues of the observables are the truth values and the associated eigenvectors are the logical interpretations of the propositional system. Logical observables belong to families of commuting observables for binary logic and many-valued logic. By extension, a fuzzy logic interpretation is proposed by using vectors outside the eigensystem of the logical connective observables. The fuzzy membership function is calculated by the quantum mean value (Born rule) of the logical projection operators and is associated to a quantum probability. The methodology of this paper is based on quantum measurement theory.
Fuzziness arises naturally when considering systems described by state vectors not in the considered logical eigensystem. These states correspond to incompatible and complementary systems outside the realm of classical logic. Considering these states allows the detection of new Braitenberg vehicle behaviours related to identified emotions; these are linked to quantum-like effects.
The method does not deal at this stage with first-order logic and is limited to different families of commuting logical observables. An extension to families of logical non-commuting operators associated to predicate quantifiers could profit of the “quantum advantage” due to effects such as superposition, parallelism, non-commutativity and entanglement. This direction of research has a variety of applications, including robotics.
The goal of this research is to show the multiplicity of behaviours obtained by using fuzzy logic along with quantum logical gates in the control of simple Braitenberg vehicle agents. By changing and combining different quantum control gates, one can tune small changes in the vehicle’s behaviour and hence get specific features around the main basic robot’s emotions.
New mathematical formulation for propositional logic based on linear algebra. This methodology demonstrates the potentiality of this formalism for behavioural agent models (quantum robots).
In this paper we study a class of complexity measures, induced by a new data structure for representing k-valued functions (operations), called minor decision diagram. When assigning values to some variables in a function the resulting functions are called subfunctions, and when identifying some variables the resulting functions are called minors. The sets of essential variables in subfunctions of are called separable in .
We examine the maximal separable subsets of variables and their conjugates, introduced in the paper, proving that each such set has at least one conjugate. The essential arity gap of the function is the minimal number of essential variables in which become fictive when identifying distinct essential variables in . We also investigate separable sets of variables in functions with non-trivial arity gap. This allows us to solve several important algebraic, computational and combinatorial problems about the finite-valued functions.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new mathematical method for the reliability analysis and evaluation of multi-state system (MSS) reliability that agrees with…
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new mathematical method for the reliability analysis and evaluation of multi-state system (MSS) reliability that agrees with specifics of such system. It is possible based on the application of multiple-valued logic (MVL) that is a natural extension of Boolean algebra used in reliability analysis.
Similar to Boolean algebra, MVL is used for the constriction of the structure function of the investigated system. The interpretation of the structure function of the MSS in terms of MVL allows using mathematical methods and approaches of this logic for the analysis of the structure function.
The logical differential calculus is one of mathematical approaches in MVL. The authors develop new method for MSS reliability analysis based on logical differential calculus, in particular direct partial logical derivatives, for the investigation of critical system states (CSSs). The proposed method allows providing the qualitative and quantitative analyses of MSS: the CSS can be defined for all possible changes of any system component or group of components, and probabilities of this state can also be calculated.
The proposed method permits representing the MSS in the form of a structure function that is interpreted as MVL function and provides the system analyses without special transformation into Boolean interpretation and with acceptable computational complexity.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the structural and computational potentials of a powerful class of neural networks (NNs), called multiple-valued logic neural…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the structural and computational potentials of a powerful class of neural networks (NNs), called multiple-valued logic neural networks (MVLNN), for predicting the behavior of phenomenological systems with highly nonlinear dynamics. MVLNNs are constructed based on the integration of a number of neurons working based on the principle of multiple-valued logics. MVLNNs possess some particular features, namely complex-valued weights, input, and outputs coded by kth roots of unity, and a continuous activation as a mean for transferring numbers from complex spaces to trigonometric spaces, which distinguish them from most of the existing NNs.
The presented study can be categorized into three sections. At the first part, the authors attempt at providing the mathematical formulations required for the implementation of ARX-based MVLNN (AMVLNN). In this context, it is indicated that how the concept of ARX can be used to revise the structure of MVLNN for online applications. Besides, the stepwise formulation for the simulation of Chua’s oscillatory map and multiple-valued logic-based BP are given. Through an analysis, some interesting characteristics of the Chua’s map, including a number of possible attractors of the state and sequences generated as a function of time, are given.
Based on a throughout simulation as well as a comprehensive numerical comparative study, some important features of AMVLNN are demonstrated. The simulation results indicate that AMVLNN can be employed as a tool for the online identification of highly nonlinear dynamic systems. Furthermore, the results show the compatibility of the Chua’s oscillatory system with BP for an effective tuning of the synaptic weights. The results also unveil the potentials of AMVLNN as a fast, robust, and efficient control-oriented model at the heart of NMPC control schemes.
This study presents two innovative propositions. First, the structure of MVLNN is modified based on the concept of ARX system identification programming to suit the base structure for coping with chaotic and highly nonlinear systems. Second, the authors share the findings about the learning characteristics of MVLNNs. Through an exhaustive comparative study and considering different rival methodologies, a novel and efficient double-stage learning strategy is proposed which remarkably improves the performance of MVLNNs. Finally, the authors describe the outline of a novel formulation which prepares the proposed AMVLNN for applications in NMPC controllers for dynamic systems.