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The conditions and implications for the use of multi‐rater feedback or “360‐degree” methods are studied from both a psychological and an organizational perspective…
The conditions and implications for the use of multi‐rater feedback or “360‐degree” methods are studied from both a psychological and an organizational perspective. Psychological research indicates that multi‐ratings cannot be put on the same footing as ratings obtained from more “objective” sources as for instance the assessment center. Multi‐rater feedback can be interpreted either as standing in the tradition of assessment centers, or originating from “total quality management”, but it seems more congenial to the TQM method of organizing “customer feedback”. Since multi‐rater feedback presupposes social interaction and consequently a work organization, the communicative conditions for such a feedback system are subsequently investigated from the perspective of organization science. It is investigated how various structural and cultural changes offer a fertile soil for the introduction of such kinds of feedback. However, the authors warn of the terror of “total feedback”.
360° feedback processes have gained popularity as a performance management and career development tool in contemporary organisations. This monograph explores the nature of…
360° feedback processes have gained popularity as a performance management and career development tool in contemporary organisations. This monograph explores the nature of 360° feedback, investigates the factors which have influenced its emergence and contrasts it with more traditional performance management processes used by organisations. It specifically identifies the benefits and problems associated with 360° feedback in the context of management of performance and employee career development. The monograph considers the issues surrounding different sources of feedback, i.e. peer, subordinate and self. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the issues pertaining to the use of multi‐rater feedback as a tool for performance improvement and career development.
Success in the new economy is more dependent on successful relationships with internal and external stakeholders than ever before. The “business ecosystem” has created…
Success in the new economy is more dependent on successful relationships with internal and external stakeholders than ever before. The “business ecosystem” has created webs of interdependent relationships between organizations and their employees, suppliers, customers, and business partners. These relationships not only impact how firms add value to customers and create competitive advantage, but various internal processes as well. Unfortunately, these relationships often fail to capture their full potential due to misalignment between the organization and its stakeholders. This article presents a practical guide for organization‐based 360 degree leadership assessment, which should help organizations to identify gaps or “blind spots” with internal and external stakeholders. Borrowing from the multi‐rater feedback literature, a discussion of the steps in using the organization’s leadership as the focal point is provided. Self‐assessment on a series of organizational leadership dimensions is proposed, which is compared to evaluations by employees, customers, suppliers and business partners. The proposal should provide direction for practitioners seeking greater stakeholder feedback, and a foundation for further academic inquiry.
Focuses on 360 degree feedback which is defined as a contrived method of providing a flow of feedback to employees from all directions. Addresses the purposes of feedback within the organization, with special emphasis on its use for employee development and careeµr development; the benefits of such feedback to the organization and the individuals involved; the mechanisms used to obtain feedback; and, finally, the pitfalls of 360 degree feedback.
Discusses the effective use of 360‐degree feedback for enhancing managers’ self‐awareness and challenging them to engage in developmental work. Such feedback is…
Discusses the effective use of 360‐degree feedback for enhancing managers’ self‐awareness and challenging them to engage in developmental work. Such feedback is instrumental for an unfreezing process in which managers are motivated to rethink their behaviour and its impact on others. A number of factors are important for maximizing the developmental potential of 360‐degree feedback: providing the manager with good data from multiple perspectives, encouraging openness to hearing and accepting feedback, a developmental plan that is acted on, and organizational support for development. In short, 360‐degree feedback needs to be embedded in a larger management development process.
Leadership and management skills are increasingly required to navigate organisations through the complexities and changes of contemporary environments. Over the last…
Leadership and management skills are increasingly required to navigate organisations through the complexities and changes of contemporary environments. Over the last decade, 3608 feedback is a process that has gained wide usage to help development of these skills. Summarises current research on 3608 feedback and the development of an integrated model of leadership and management based on the theories of Wilber. The article describes a comprehensive “integral” model and a questionnaire that uses elements of 3608 feedback to measure roles of leadership and management, as well as dimensions of self‐development and strategic change skills. This approach is applied to a sample of 304 managers and over 1,000 subordinates. The construction, validity and results of the questionnaire are discussed, as well as the major leadership strengths and weaknesses of the sample managers. Issues and experiences in the use of this model and the 3608 process are described.
Multi‐source processes have been increasingly adopted by organisations in recent years and most projections suggest this trend will continue. As a developmental technique, one underlying rationale to such systems is their potential impact on target managers’ self‐awareness; increasing self awareness is thought to enhance performance. The main theme of this paper relates to the potential of 360‐degree assessment for yielding measures of self‐awareness and the different ways of deriving indices of this variable. The relationship between self‐awareness indices and measures of performance are discussed in light of research findings. It is concluded that different self‐awareness measures used in the research literature are not equivalent, and may have differential relationships to performance. It is argued that self‐awareness should be assessed in selection and other settings using a variety of methods, not necessarily utilizing the kinds of measures typically associated with multi‐source feedback systems.
Does executive coaching really work? Does it help improve leadership effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the…
Does executive coaching really work? Does it help improve leadership effectiveness and productivity? This action research study answers these questions by tracking the progress of 281 executives participating in a six‐month coaching and 360 feedback process. The results suggest that the combination of multi‐rater feedback and individual coaching do increase leadership effectiveness up to 60 per cent ‐‐ according to direct report and peer post‐survey feedback. Implications of the results for future executive development programs are discussed, and specific recommendations are provided.
How generalizable are 360-degree feedback instruments in different cultures? Research investigating the validity and utility of these instruments across the globe is…
How generalizable are 360-degree feedback instruments in different cultures? Research investigating the validity and utility of these instruments across the globe is scarce, yet, extraordinarily important. This chapter investigates the utility of a 360-degree feedback instrument across the globe, as well as how different raters from various cultures perceive leaders.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a data-driven approach to driving accountability for behavior change at the individual level, i.e. the “Development Check-In”…
The purpose of this paper is to describe a data-driven approach to driving accountability for behavior change at the individual level, i.e. the “Development Check-In” (DCI). It has become an accepted reality that 70 per cent of all organizational change efforts fail. The reasons cited are many and include such factors as a lack of focus on the hard and soft sides of the organization, misaligned reward systems, disengaged leadership and new interventions introduced at the expense of existing efforts. While all of these are important, we argue that accountability is the most critical element for ensuring an intervention sticks and delivers lasting results.
The DCI reflects the principles of agility and accountability, and has been used with great success in a large consumer products organization. The paper begins with an overview of the need for feedback tools to drive accountability, followed by a discussion of the design and process of the DCI.
Highlights from the authors’ use of the customized process to measure and reinforce leader capability development over time are then provided. The paper concludes with some recommendations and additional considerations.
Behavior change is not easy and requires focus, direction and a way of measuring progress. The DCI is an example of an agile multi-rater feedback accountability mechanism that provides leaders and managers with targeted and positively oriented feedback to support their continued development. This type of tool can be used beyond leadership development for a variety of types of interventions because it is based on sound organization development principles.