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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Y. IKEGAWA and J.A. HUDSON

Until now, identification of three‐dimensional non‐convex (concave) blocks has not been accomplished. However, a direct body concept, which is introduced here, can deal…

Abstract

Until now, identification of three‐dimensional non‐convex (concave) blocks has not been accomplished. However, a direct body concept, which is introduced here, can deal with both convex and concave blocks in the same process in connection with detection of individual blocks and computation of physical quantities. Thus, the dilemma in the generalization of identifying three‐dimensional multi‐block systems has been eliminated. The directed body concept used in geometrical identification problems makes it possible to build a novel automatic identification system for three‐dimensional multi‐block systems. This new system eliminates the time‐consuming work on geometrical identification, and copes with a variety of applications in multi‐body systems, such as rock masses.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Jianping Huang, Wenyuan Liao and Zhenchun Li

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new finite difference method for solving the seismic wave propagation in fluid-solid media, which can be described by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new finite difference method for solving the seismic wave propagation in fluid-solid media, which can be described by the acoustic and viscoelastic wave equations for the fluid and solid parts, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors introduced a coordinate transformation method for seismic wave simulation method. In the new method, the irregular fluid–solid interface is transformed into a horizontal interface. Then, a multi-block coordinate transformation method is proposed to mesh every layer to curved grids and transforms every interface to horizontal interface. Meanwhile, a variable grid size is used in different regions according to the shape and the velocity within each region. Finally, a Lebedev-standard staggered coupled grid scheme for curved grids is applied in the multi-block coordinate transformation method to reduce the computational cost.

Findings

The instability in the auxiliary coordinate system caused by the standard staggered grid scheme is resolved using a curved grid viscoelastic wave field separation strategy. Several numerical examples are solved using this new method. It has been shown that the new method is stable, efficient and highly accurate in solving the seismic wave equation defined on domain with irregular fluid–solid interface.

Originality/value

First, the irregular fluid–solid interface is transformed into a horizontal interface by using the coordinate transformation method. The conversion between pressures and stresses is easy to implement and adaptive to different irregular fluid–solid interface models, because the normal stress and shear stress vanish when the normal angle is 90° in the interface. Moreover, in the new method, the strong false artificial boundary reflection and instability caused by ladder-shaped grid discretion are resolved as well.

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

H. Lai, Y.Y. Yan and J.M. Smith

A calculation procedure is proposed for heat and fluid flows in geometries with a time‐dependent boundary. The procedure incorporates a moving mesh arrangement with…

Abstract

A calculation procedure is proposed for heat and fluid flows in geometries with a time‐dependent boundary. The procedure incorporates a moving mesh arrangement with multi‐block iteration and has been developed to assist future simulations of heat and mass transfer with phase change. The solver for the basic equations is the SIMPLE algorithm with a non‐staggered grid arrangement. The space conservation law is invoked and applied for the explicit tracking of a moving boundary with a moving mesh. For mapping complex geometries a multi‐block iteration strategy is employed. A cubic spline interpolation allows the “uniqueness of zonal boundary” requirement to be met. An interpolation method is also developed for variables near the zone boundaries.The calculation procedure using multi‐block iteration and a moving mesh is applied to three benchmark‐testing problems. The numerical results are in very good general agreement with available experimental data.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Prabodh Bajpai and Sri Niwas Singh

The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimal bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in the network constrained electricity markets and to analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an optimal bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in the network constrained electricity markets and to analyze the impact of network constraints and opponents bidding behavior on it.

Design/methodology/approach

A bi‐level programming (BLP) technique is formulated in which upper level problem represents an individual GenCo payoff maximization and the lower level represents the independent system operator's market clearing problem for minimizing customers' payments. The objective function of BLP problem used for bidding strategy by economic withholding is highly nonlinear, and there are complementarity terms to represent the market clearing. Fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization (FAPSO), which is a modern heuristic approach, is applied to obtain the global solution of the proposed BLP problem for single hourly and multi‐hourly market clearings. Opponents' bidding behavior is modeled with probabilistic estimation.

Findings

It is very difficult to obtain the global solution of this BLP problem using the deterministic approaches, even for a single hourly market clearing. However, the effectiveness of this new heuristic approach (FAPSO) has been established with four simulation cases on IEEE 30‐bus test system considering multi‐block bidding and multi‐hourly market clearings. The joint effect of network congestion and strategic bidding by opponents offer additional opportunities of increase in payoff of a GenCo.

Practical implications

FAPSO having dynamically adjusted particle swarm optimization inertia weight uses fuzzy evaluation to effectively follow the frequently changing conditions in the successive trading sessions of a real electricity market. This approach is applied to find the optimal bidding strategy of a GenCo competing with five GenCos in IEEE 30‐bus test system.

Originality/value

This paper is possibly the first attempt to evaluate an optimal bidding strategy for a GenCo through economic withholding in a network constrained electricity market using FAPSO.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

P.R. Ess and C.B. Allen

A computational fluid dynamics code for the calculation of laminar hypersonic multi‐species gas flows in chemical non‐equilibrium in axisymmetric or two‐dimensional…

1396

Abstract

Purpose

A computational fluid dynamics code for the calculation of laminar hypersonic multi‐species gas flows in chemical non‐equilibrium in axisymmetric or two‐dimensional configuration on shared and distributed memory parallel computers is presented and validated. The code is designed to work efficiently in combination with an automatic domain decompositioning method developed to facilitate efficient parallel computations of various flow problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The baseline implicit numerical method developed is the lower‐upper symmetric Gauss‐Seidel scheme, which is combined with a sub‐iteration scheme to achieve time‐accuracy up to third‐order. The spatial discretisation is based on Roe's flux‐difference splitting and various non‐linear flux limiters maintaining total‐variation diminishing properties and up to third‐order spatial accuracy in continuous regions of flow. The domain subdivision procedure is designed to work for single‐ and multi‐block domains without being constrained by the block boundaries, and an arbitrary number of processors used for the computation.

Findings

The code developed reproduces accurately various types of flows, e.g. flow over a flat plate, diffusive mixing and oscillating shock induced combustion around a projectile fired into premixed gas, and demonstrates close to linear scalability within limits of load imbalance.

Research limitations/implications

The cases considered are axisymmetric or two‐dimensional, and assume laminar flow. An extension to three‐dimensional turbulent flows is left for future work.

Originality/value

Results of a parallel computation, utilising a newly developed automatic domain subdivision procedure, for oscillating shock‐induced combustion around a projectile and various other cases are presented. The influence of entropy correction in Roe's flux‐difference splitting algorithm on diffusive mixing of multi‐species flows was examined.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Kenneth J. Klassen and Reena Yoogalingam

Physician lateness and service interruptions are a significant problem in many health care environments but have received little attention in the literature. The purpose…

1210

Abstract

Purpose

Physician lateness and service interruptions are a significant problem in many health care environments but have received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to design appointment systems that reduce waiting times of the patient while maintaining utilization of the physician at a high level.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data from time studies and surveys of medical professionals from multiple outpatient clinics are used to motivate the study. Simulation optimization is used to simultaneously account for uncertainty and to determine (near) optimal scheduling solutions.

Findings

As lateness increases, it is shown that, in general, appointment slots should be shorter and pushed later in the session. Conversely, as interruptions rise, appointments in the middle of the session should be longer. These findings are fairly consistent over a variety of environmental conditions, including clinic sizes, service time variance, and costs of physician time compared to patients' time.

Practical implications

This paper demonstrates that the dome/plateau‐dome scheduling patterns that have been found in prior studies work well under many of the new factors modeled here. This is encouraging because it suggests that a generalizable pattern is emerging in the literature for the range of environments studied in these papers and this research provides guidance as to how to adjust the pattern to account for the factors studied here. In addition, it is shown that some environments will perform better with a different pattern, which the authors denote a “descending step” pattern.

Originality/value

This paper differs from most prior studies in that the complexity of environmental variables and stochastic elements of the model are simultaneously accounted for by the simulation optimization algorithm. The (very few) prior papers that have used simulation optimization have not addressed the factors studied here.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1965

An Outline of the Spares Support Scheme and Maintenance Schedule with a Brief Assessment of Maintenance Cost in Man Hours per Flight Hour. AN efficient Spares Support…

Abstract

An Outline of the Spares Support Scheme and Maintenance Schedule with a Brief Assessment of Maintenance Cost in Man Hours per Flight Hour. AN efficient Spares Support Organization is essential to ensure the satisfactory operation of any aircraft in airline service and Hawker Siddeley were determined from the beginning that the Argosy would not suffer from any lack of planning arrangements.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Giovanni Droandi and Giuseppe Gibertini

The purpose of this paper is to present the aerodynamic blade design of a tiltwing aircraft with a multi-objective optimization procedure. The aerodynamic design of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the aerodynamic blade design of a tiltwing aircraft with a multi-objective optimization procedure. The aerodynamic design of tiltrotor blades is a very challenging task in the project of this type of aircraft.

Design/methodology/approach

Tiltrotor blades have to give good performance both in helicopter and aeroplane modes. According to the design parameters (the chords, the twists and the airfoils along the blade), as the optimization objectives are different from one operating condition to another, the blade is the result of a multi-objective constrained optimization based on a controlled elitist genetic algorithm founded on the NSGA-II algorithm. The optimization process uses a BEMT solver to compute rotor performance. To avoid negative effects due to compressibility losses in aeroplane mode, the blade shape has been refined following the normal Mach number criterion.

Findings

It has been found that the optimized rotor blade gives good performance both in terms of figure of merit and propulsive efficiency if compared with experimental data of existing rotor (ERICA tiltrotor) and propeller (NACA high-speed propeller).

Practical implications

The optimization procedure described in this paper for the design of tiltrotor blades can be efficiently used for the aerodynamic design of helicopter rotors and aircraft propellers of all typology.

Originality/value

In this work, advanced methodologies have been used for the aerodynamics design of a proprotor optimized for an aircraft which belongs to the innovative typology of high-performance tiltwing tiltrotor aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 87 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Da Kang, M. Prabhu, Ramyar Rzgar Ahmed, Zhuo Zhang and Atul Kumar Sahu

In the present era, executives are shifting keenly toward industrial Internet of things (IIoTs) spheres. It is observed that IIoTs spheres become a key for each industry…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present era, executives are shifting keenly toward industrial Internet of things (IIoTs) spheres. It is observed that IIoTs spheres become a key for each industry to grow up and bear the largest entrepreneurship opportunities globally and is linked to improve the shifting sphere of publics (SSPs). The core objective of research work is SSPs, which is nexus on secondary objectives. The authors proposed the two DSSs ( decision support systems) to full fill secondary objectives as discussing: In case of first objective, the authors proposed a fuzzy-DSS, which assists the executives to identify the weak and poor performing IIoTs spheres so that performance of IIoTs spheres can be accelerated. In case of second objective, grey-DSS aids the same executives to evaluate and benchmark alternative partner under considered IIoTs spheres so that the best partner can be chosen by company 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted the significant systematic literature review and realistic empirical survey in the context of industry IIoTs spheres and extract the appropriate IIoTs spheres. Next, the authors built a framework by compiling the global standardized IIoTs spheres. The framework is utilized to build the two DSSs such as fuzzy- and grey-DSS (to full fill secondary objectives). The both DSSs are simulated by acting on a case study. The authors implemented the fuzzy set coupled with degree of similarity approach on proposing framework as a part of first case-objective and hybrid technique accompanied with grey set on same framework as a part of second case-objective, respectively.

Findings

A South African automobile parts manufacturing company is investigated as a case study company 4.0 for the prototype testing and simulation of DSSs. The performance gaps are computed and measured by subtracting each sphere's weight of functional units (FUs) from evaluated ideal weight. The weak performing spheres and FUs are suggested to be improved in future as a part of first objective. Next, A3 parts supplier/partner is advised as the best alternative by simulating the grey-DSS under IIoTs framework as a part of second case-objective. Both secondary objectives (two DSSs) are framed to attain the core objective (SSPs).

Originality/value

As discussed, the core objective of research work is to attain the SSPs, linked to secondary objectives. The research work integrates the knowledge and thinking of SSPs as well as IIoTs researchers to create the novel mathematical and statistical IIoTs in focusing on advance SSPs networks. The research work is momentous for entire Industry 4.0 companies, which troubles to bear more entrepreneurship opportunities (improving the SSPs) at global standard.

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Eslam Ezzatneshan

Numerical simulations are performed for studying the vorticity dynamics of a dipole colliding with the wall in a bounded flow and the wake structure and separated flow…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerical simulations are performed for studying the vorticity dynamics of a dipole colliding with the wall in a bounded flow and the wake structure and separated flow properties past a circular cylinder at the values of Reynolds numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

The near wake statistics of separated fluid flows are investigated by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a two-dimensional framework. A multi-block technique is applied to accurately resolve the flow characteristics by the grid refinement near the wall and preserve the stability of the numerical solution at relatively high Reynolds numbers.

Findings

The results show that the rolling-up of the boundary layer occurs due to the shear-layer instabilities near the surface which causes a boundary layer detachment from the wall and consequently leads to the formation of small-scale vortices. These shear-layer vortices shed at higher frequencies than the large-scale Strouhal vortices which result in small-scale high-frequency fluctuations in the velocity field in the very near wake. The present study also demonstrates that the efficiency of the multi-block LBM used for predicting the statistical features of flow problems is comparable with the solvers based on the Navier-Stokes equations.

Practical implications

Studying the separated flow characteristics in aerospace applications.

Originality/value

Applying a multi-block lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for simulation of separated fluid flows at high-Reynolds numbers. Studying of the near wake statistics of unsteady separated fluid flows using the multi-block LBM. Comparison of flow characteristics obtained based on the LBM with those of reported based on the Navier-Stokes equations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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