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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Junrui Zhang, Nanyan Dong and Muhammad Abdul Majid Makki

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crucial question of whether gender diversity in boardroom is associated with CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the data of companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for a sample consisting of KSE-100 index companies for the period of five years. The authors used the ordinary least square regression technique to test the developed hypotheses. The authors also used the two-step Heckman selection model, two-stage least square regression and propensity score matching method to control the problem of endogeneity.

Findings

The authors find reliable evidence of a negative association between gender diversity and CEO pay and of board gender diversity’s strengthening the relationship between CEO pay and firm performance. The authors also find that women director are more effective in setting the optimal contract in non-family-owned firms and firms with dispersed ownership structure as compared to family-owned firms and firms with concentrated ownership structure. Moreover, results also reflect that the influence of board diversity on both CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link is stronger when gender diversity goes beyond tokenism.

Practical implications

The findings have implications in terms of providing the basis for policy makers to accord the same level of importance to gender diversity in the boardroom as well as contributing to the current debate on the desirability of mandating or recommending gender diversity on boardrooms.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies which investigate the moderating role of boardroom gender diversity on the CEO pay-performance link. In addition, this study contributes to the institutional theory by providing the empirical evidence that the effect boardroom gender diversity on CEO pay and CEO pay-performance link varies by type of ownership.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2019

Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Junrui Zhang, Muhammad Abdul Majid Makki and Muhammad Kaleem Khan

This paper aims to investigate the question concerning whether gender diversity in the boardroom matters to lenders or not?

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the question concerning whether gender diversity in the boardroom matters to lenders or not?

Design/methodology/approach

To answer this question, the authors use the data from 2009 to 2015 of all A-share listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. The authors use ordinary least squares regression and firm fixed effect regression to draw our inferences. To check and control the issue of endogeneity the authors use one-year lagged gender diversity regression, two-stage least squares regression, propensity score matching method and Heckman two-stage regression.

Findings

The results suggest that the presence of female directors on the board reduces managerial opportunistic behavior and information asymmetry and, consequently, creditors’ perceptions about the probability of loan default and the cost of debt. The authors find that lenders charge 4 per cent less from borrowers that have at least one female board member than they do from borrowers with no female board members. The authors also find that the board structure (i.e. gender diversity) of government-owned firms also matters to lenders, as government-owned firms that have gender-diverse boards have a lower cost of debt (i.e. 5 per cent lower interest rate).

Practical Implications

The findings have implications for individual borrowers and for regulators. For example, borrowers can get debt financing at lower rates by altering their boards’ composition (i.e. through gender diversity). From the regulatory perspective, the results support recent legislative initiatives around the world regarding female directors’ representation on boards.

Originality Value

This paper makes several contributions. First, beyond the recent studies on boardroom gender, the authors investigate the relationship between gender diversity in the boardroom and the cost of debt. Second, the authors extend the literature on the association between government ownership and cost of debt by first time providing evidence that the board composition (e.g. gender diversity) of government-owned firms also matters to the lenders. The other contributions are discussed in the introduction section.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Muhammad Umar Farooq, Ahsan Ullah, Memoona Iqbal and Abid Hussain

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to find out the perception of university librarians about the current and required competencies and to identify the current rank and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to find out the perception of university librarians about the current and required competencies and to identify the current rank and to point out the benchmark for competencies of library professionals at public universities in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research design is used for the conduct of the current study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The Special Libraries Association instrument “Competencies for Information Professionals of the 21st Century” was used to design the questionnaire. A paired sample t-test is used to establish whether there is any noteworthy distinction between the current and required levels of skills. Inferential statistic was also used and independent sample t-test and ANOVA was used to identify the difference in perception on the basis of different demographic variables.

Findings

There is a significant gap between the perceptions of university librarians about their present skills and required skills. The present level of skills is lower than the desired level of competence. There is no significant relationship between the length of job (i.e. experience), grade and skills of academic librarians. But in the case of gender, male have a higher score on the current level of competencies while female have a higher score on the required level of skills.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are helpful for universities in the recruitment, management and training of their librarians on the basis of required skills. Furthermore, it will be useful for librarians in their career planning and continuing education and library schools to revise their curriculum in accordance with needs.

Details

Library Management, vol. 37 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Umar Farooq, Muhammad Ali Jibran Qamar and Abdul Haque

The purpose of this paper is to explain the multi-stage dynamic process of financial distress. An attempt is made to explore multiple adverse heterogeneous events of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the multi-stage dynamic process of financial distress. An attempt is made to explore multiple adverse heterogeneous events of financial distress leading a firm closer to bankruptcy progressively.

Design/methodology/approach

Sample comprises 321 ongoing, 54 suspended and 91 delisted non-financial firms from Pakistan Stock Exchange. Financial distress is segregated into three stages, i.e. profit reduction, mild liquidity (ML) and severe liquidity (SL). Flow diagrams are used to explain the transition of healthy firms through proposed stages of financial distress.

Findings

Results showed that firms liquidated/winding-up by court documented SL problems and closed their operations well before the delisting year. It is found that healthy firms are more likely to face SL when faced ML problem at first stage. Distressed firms can recover to a healthy position at any stage, however after approaching to SL, recovery is less expected.

Practical implications

The proposed process will provide a foundation for future studies to develop more relevant, robust and accurate early warning system of corporate failure that will help stakeholders to respond potential crisis accordingly and timely.

Originality/value

Previously, most of the studies used the ex post definition of bankruptcy that is criticized due to the contextual application, sample bias and non-segregation by the degree of liquidity problems. The originality of the proposed ex ante model is its segregation into a three-stage process that can be generalized regardless of specific bankruptcy law.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Khawaja Fawad Latif, Aqib Nazeer, Faisal Shahzad, Mohsin Ullah, Muhammad Imranullah and Umar Farooq Sahibzada

Drawing on the knowledge-based view (KBV), the study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial leadership (EL) on knowledge management (KM) processes and further examines…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based view (KBV), the study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial leadership (EL) on knowledge management (KM) processes and further examines the mediating role of KM processes on the linkage between EL and project success (PS).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 304 project workers in software projects, and the proposed relationships were assessed through SMART-PLS structural equation modeling tool.

Findings

The study found a significant impact of EL on KM processes and PS. The analysis also revealed that KM processes significantly impact project success while EL impact PS indirectly through KM processes.

Originality/value

The relevancy of the research stems from the scarcity of research on EL, while studies on the role of leadership as a predictor of KM are significantly limited. Additionally, there is a scarcity of research on the impact of KM on project success. This is one of the earliest studies that investigate the inter-relationship among EL, KM processes and project success.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Muhammad Ramzan Akhtar

The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) laid the foundations of the Islamic state in Medina in 622 A.D. The state expanded gradually during the 10‐year rule of the Prophet (pbuh). The…

Abstract

The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) laid the foundations of the Islamic state in Medina in 622 A.D. The state expanded gradually during the 10‐year rule of the Prophet (pbuh). The Arabian Peninsula and Southern Palestine were conquered during that period. The state expanded enormously during the reign of Umar (RA). Many countries of the Roman and Persian empires comprising an area of more than 2.2 million were annexed. Historians have noted that this framework played a vital role in integrating these people which in turn strengthened the state.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Abstract

Details

Monetary Policy, Islamic Finance, and Islamic Corporate Governance: An International Overview
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-786-9

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Umar Habibu Umar and Junaidu Muhammad Kurawa

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the inheritance of a business from the Islamic accounting perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the inheritance of a business from the Islamic accounting perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adapts the relevant provisions of conventional accounting standards and practices that conform to Sharīʿah (Islamic law). In addition, the provisions of the Islamic accounting standard for musharakah (AAOIFI’s FAS No. 4) found to be relevant are also adapted.

Findings

The study shows that the assets of an inherited business should be measured at their fair values and that liabilities and legacies must be deducted therefrom with the view to arriving at the equity (or residue). The equity is then distributed among the heirs based on the sharing ratio established according to the Noble Qurʾān, the Sunnah (the Prophet’s way) and Muslim jurists’ views. Therefore, the inherited business becomes a family business as each heir is admitted into it. By extension, Islam emphasizes that the business should remain a going concern to generate income to sustain the welfare of the heirs.

Research limitations/implications

The discussion of the paper is limited to the inheritance of a business and its going concern in line with the Sharīʿah.

Practical implications

Special attention should be paid to the inherited business to ensure not only its continuity to generate income for the heirs but also that each heir gets a correct share of the equity of the business as regulated by the Sharīʿah.

Originality/value

This study links Islamic inheritance to the going concern of the business, which from all indications has not been given full consideration by previous studies.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2018

AbdulRazzaq Abdul-Majeed Alaro and Abdulrahman Habeeb Alalubosa

This paper aims to explore the option of Sharī’ah-compliant microfinance as a viable alternative to many previous approaches adopted by the Nigerian State in tackling the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the option of Sharī’ah-compliant microfinance as a viable alternative to many previous approaches adopted by the Nigerian State in tackling the menace of poverty in the land. In spite of many poverty alleviation policies and interventions of the past three decades, millions of Nigerians still live in abject poverty, while thousands of university graduates roam the streets looking for jobs. Many unemployed Nigerians with good business ideas are usually discouraged by the alarmingly high interest rate charged on start-up capitals by local banks.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve its objective, this paper used both analytical and qualitative methods after thoroughly examining many relevant literature and empirical works. The study explores four Sharī’ah tools for the implementation of the proposed scheme, to wit: musharakah, mudharabah, zakat and waqf.

Findings

The study finds that the suggested Sharī’ah tools are viable and sustainable in lunching microfinance projects in the Nigerian context. The paper further argues that exploring Islamic non-interest microfinance options will guarantee the financial inclusion of a large percentage of Nigerians, pursuant to the Constitutional provision on economic rights of the entire citizenry (s.16 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as amended).

Originality/value

The paper identifies a yet-to-be explored viable option, with great potential not only in enhancing government policies for poverty alleviation but also in assuring a large percentage of the citizens of financial inclusion.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Syed Abdul Rehman Khan, Zhang Yu, Muhammad Umar, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour and Rahul S. Mor

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on social and eco-environmental sustainability. It will also investigate the effect of advanced technologies in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of Covid-19 on social and eco-environmental sustainability. It will also investigate the effect of advanced technologies in the post-pandemic era.

Design/methodology/approach

To get the robust findings, GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) modeling is employed on the panel data of 50 countries across the globe.

Findings

The outcomes indicate that gross fixed capital, logistical operations, knowledge spillover are positive, while Covid-19 is negatively associated with international trade. The results also revealed that Covid-19 spurs poverty and vulnerable employment, while the fertility rate increase creates pressure on economic growth. Also, fossil fuel and energy consumption contribute to carbon emission, while green and advanced technologies may mitigate the environment's adverse effects.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to provide a solution to the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic in the post-pandemic environment. Furthermore, researchers, managers and legislators can use this article's findings to formulate relevant policies for post-pandemic.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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