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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Muhammad Issa khan, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Shahzad Hussain and Muhammad Tayyab Tariq

Unleavened flat bread (chapatis and rotis) is staple food of the Pakistani population. Almost 90 per cent of wheat produced in the country is used for chapatis and roti…

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Abstract

Purpose

Unleavened flat bread (chapatis and rotis) is staple food of the Pakistani population. Almost 90 per cent of wheat produced in the country is used for chapatis and roti preparation. Present study was carried out to prepare composite flour, assess suitable level of composition. The main aim was to increase the mineral content of the diet, as they are deficient in the diet of the Pakistani people as for other developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Composite flours were prepared by replacing wheat flour with 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 per cent soy flour. Composite flour and chapatis were analysed for mineral and phytate contents. Sensory evaluation (color, flavor, taste, texture, folding ability and chewing ability) of chapatis was also carried out to assess acceptance of suitable level by the consumers.

Findings

The statistical analysis of data obtained showed significant increase in minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca and Mg) and phytic acid content of flour. Significant decrease in phytate was found during the baking of chapatis. Chapatis were found acceptable by the panel of judges up to 24 per cent supplementation of soy flour. To combat mineral deficiency in developing countries composite flour technology can use as replacement of mineral salts fortification. As in case of composite flour natural source of nutrient are used.

Practical implications

Soy supplementation of wheat flour can be successfully done through flourmills and small‐scale grinders as it causes no problem in milling operations.

Originality/value

The research carried out is one of outstanding type as no such research was done earlier. Phytate besides minerals was also given due consideration in same study which is one of chelating agent found in plant source of minerals.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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