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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir and Muhammad Sabihuddin Butt

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and agriculture growth employing Cobb‐Douglas function by incorporating…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and agriculture growth employing Cobb‐Douglas function by incorporating financial development as an important factor of production over the period 1971‐2011.

Design/methodology/approach

The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration with structural breaks is applied to examine long run relationship between the variables. The direction of causality is detected by vector error correction method (VECM) Granger causality test and robustness of causality analysis is tested through innovative accounting approach (IAA).

Findings

The empirical analysis confirmed that the series are cointegrated for long run relationship between agriculture growth, financial development, capital and labor. The results indicated that financial development has positive effect on agricultural growth. This implies that financial development plays a significant role in stemming agricultural production and hence agricultural growth. Both capital and labour in the agriculture sector also add to agricultural growth. The Granger causality analysis revealed bidirectional causality between agricultural growth and financial development. The robustness of these results is confirmed by innovative accounting approach (IAA).

Practical implications

This study has important policy implications for policy‐making authorities to stimulate agricultural growth by improving the efficiency of the financial sector.

Originality/value

This paper convincingly argues that there is a need for case‐by‐case study on such a project in view of each country's unique characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2010

Ateeq‐ur‐ Rehman and Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between religiosity and new product adoption (NPA) among Muslim consumers.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between religiosity and new product adoption (NPA) among Muslim consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed to university students. Religiosity represented the independent variable and was measured using five dimensions: ideological, ritualistic, intellectual, consequential and experimental dimensions. NPA represented the dependent variable.

Findings

Religiosity affects NPA among Muslim consumers; their beliefs influence how and what products they adopt.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to investigate the relationship between religiosity and NPA, not only in Pakistan but also in the entire Islamic market. Moreover, this is a relatively new issue that remains largely undiscovered by researchers worldwide. This paper will help to emphasize its importance and implications to business decisions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Maheen Iqbal Awan, Amjad Shamim, Muhammad Shoaib Saleem and Shahbaz Shabbir Gill

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for measuring service inclusion for tourists with disabilities in tourism and hospitality services. Transformative service…

317

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for measuring service inclusion for tourists with disabilities in tourism and hospitality services. Transformative service research serves as the basis for the conceptualization and dimensionality.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop and purify the items as well as develop dimensions, standard scale development procedures were applied. Two studies were undertaken. In Study 1, the factorial structure of the service inclusion was constructed and confirmed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In Study 2, the field study was conducted to validate the scale.

Findings

The study developed a new scale for measuring service inclusion. The results show that service inclusion is a higher-order construct with four dimensions, namely, enabling opportunity, offering choice, relieving suffering and fostering happiness. Furthermore, service inclusion has a significant effect on tourists’ well-being perception, which results in more favorable behavioral responses. The newly constructed scale is declared as valid and reliable by the study that examined it for nomological validity by examining the relationship between service inclusion and tourists’ perceptions of their well-being.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to develop measurement scale for service inclusion in the tourism and hospitality industry. The scale is proven as reliable and valid and is well suitable for measuring service inclusion for tourists with physical disabilities. It has potential to use for other relevant service contexts.

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Hummera Saleem, Malik Shahzad Shabbir and Muhammad Bilal khan

The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic causal relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), gross domestic product (GDP) and trade openness (TO) on a set of five selected South Asian countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used newly developed bootstrap auto regressive distributed lags (ARDL) cointegration test to examine the long-run relationship among FDI, GDP and TO for selected South Asian countries for 1975–2016.

Findings

The economic growth (EG) is significantly related to TO for Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka and the expansion of TO is crucial for growth in these countries. The results show that all countries (except Bangladesh) found the existence of long-run cointegration between FDI, GDP and TO, whereas FDI is a dependent variable. These results concluded that FDI and TO are contributing to EG in these selected countries.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first attempts to investigate the causal relationship and address the short and long dynamic among FDI, GDP and TO regarding five south Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Abdul Farooq, Ahsan Anwar, Muhammad Ahad, Ghulam Shabbir and Zulfiqar Ali Imran

This research aims to inspect the existence of the “environmental Kuznets curve” (EKC) in the presence of foreign direct investment (FDI), financial development (FD) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to inspect the existence of the “environmental Kuznets curve” (EKC) in the presence of foreign direct investment (FDI), financial development (FD) and urbanization throughout 1972–2018 for Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

For time series analysis, Phillips and Perron (PP) and Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) unit root tests are used to confirm the level of integration. For robustness, Kim and Perron (2009)’s structural break unit root test is employed, which identifies the order of integration in the presence of structural break years. Further, combined cointegration analysis is performed to confirm the existence of a long-run association between underlying variables. Furthermore, autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) analysis is employed for the robustness of the cointegration approach.

Findings

The cointegration analysis confirms the existence of a long-run association among variables. The authors find a positive and significant impact of urbanization, FD and foreign development on environmental degradation in the long run. Similarly, only FDI increases environmental degradation in the short run. In addition, the authors find an inverted U-shape relationship between economic growth and environmental quality which, further, confirms the presence of EKC in Pakistan.

Originality/value

This research contributes to applied economics in many ways: the combined effect of urbanization, FD, FDI and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is checked simultaneously. To avoid ambiguity, this study constructs the FD index through the principal component analysis (PCA). Moreover, the role of structural breaks has been considered through the analysis. Novel Bayer-Hanck combined cointegration analysis is employed to detect the existence of long-run relationships among underlying variables.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Talita Leoni Rizkitysha and Arga Hananto

Despite the high research interest regarding Halal products, most studies on Halal products focused on food and cosmetics. This study aims to examine the factors that…

1383

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the high research interest regarding Halal products, most studies on Halal products focused on food and cosmetics. This study aims to examine the factors that affect the attitude and purchase intention of non-food Halal products in a limited context of detergent products. This study is derived from the theory of reasoned action. It incorporates knowledge, religiosity and perceived usefulness of Halal label as antecedents of attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied a self-administered online questionnaire. Data were collected through an online survey with a non-probability sampling technique (convenience sampling). The study retained a total of 264 valid responses. The respondents mainly consisted of Muslim consumers from the 18–24 age group (62.5%), followed by the 25–31 age group (29.2%). Data were analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicate that attitude toward Halal-labeled detergent is affected by the perceived usefulness of the Halal label, and knowledge of Halal. Consequently, attitude toward Halal-labeled detergent positively affects intention to buy Halal-labeled detergent. This study also suggests that religiosity has a positive effect on the perceived usefulness of the Halal label and purchase intention of Halal detergent.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies that discuss the antecedents and consequences of attitude toward Halal products in the context of detergent, a non-food Halal product category besides cosmetics. Muslim consumer responses toward Halal label were mostly researched in food and cosmetics contexts, while in some countries such as Indonesia, Halal labeling on all products has recently become mandated by legislation. Hence, this study provides some insights regarding Muslim consumer’s attitudes toward Halal-labeled products besides food and cosmetics.

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Andriani Kusumawati, Sari Listyorini, Suharyono and Edy Yulianto

This study aims to examine the impact of religiosity on fashion knowledge, consumer-perceived value and patronage intention.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of religiosity on fashion knowledge, consumer-perceived value and patronage intention.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied purposive sampling method. The population size used a minimum number of samples (100) in the WarpPLS analysis. The inferential statistical technique used is structural equation modeling. A tool for analyzing the structural models is the partial least square method.

Findings

Religiosity is a consumer belief in religion, which does not generate fashion knowledge so that high and low religiousness cannot increase or decrease fashion knowledge. Consumer confidence in their religion can increase consumer-perceived value of Muslim fashion products. It causes consumers to behave positively toward future behavioral intentions, that is, the patronage intention. Consumer religiosity is not the cause of patronage intention so that the high or low level of religiousness does not increase or decrease in the willingness of consumers to visit the store (or patronage intention). Fashion knowledge has a positive influence on consumer-perceived value. Consumer knowledge of fashion can increase the patronage of consumer intention toward Muslim fashion products. Fashion knowledge brings the knowledge to consumers in regard to Islamic law that regulates the prohibited and allowed actions, especially in wearing fashion. The high or low level of consumer-perceived value does not provide a cause for increase or decrease in the willingness of consumers to revisit the store (or patronage intention).

Originality/value

With regard to the relationship between religiosity and knowledge, it is found that there are still limited studies and differences in the sectors studied regarding the influence of religiosity and knowledge. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the religiosity variable in influencing consumer-perceived value has not been used in previous studies. Religiosity is associated with consumer-perceived value expressed as originality in this study because the researcher has not found this relationship in the previous studies. Regarding the relationship between religiosity and store patronage intention, it is found that there are still different opinions in the research results on the effect of religiosity and store patronage intention. Concerning the relationship between knowledge and consumer-perceived value, it is found that there are still different opinions in the research results on the effect of knowledge and consumer-perceived value. The authors found no use of the knowledge variable in influencing store patronage intention in previous research studies. Knowledge associated with store patronage intention is expressed as the originality trait in this study because the researcher has not found this relationship in the previous studies. As for the relationship between consumer-perceived value and store patronage intention, it is found that there are still different opinions in the research results of the study regarding the influence of consumer-perceived value and store patronage intention.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Muhammad Shahbaz and Avik Sinha

The purpose of this paper is to provide a survey of the empirical literature on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the…

2551

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a survey of the empirical literature on environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the period of 1991–2017.

Design/methodology/approach

This survey categorizes the studies on the basis of power of income in empirical models of EKC. It has been hypothesized that the EKC shows an inverted U-shaped association between economic growth and CO2 emissions.

Findings

For all the contexts, the results of EKC estimation for CO2 emissions are inconclusive in nature. The reasons behind this discrepancy can be attributed to the choice of contexts, time period, explanatory variables, and methodological adaptation.

Research limitations/implications

The future studies in this context should not only consider new set of variables (e.g. corruption index, social indicators, political scenario, energy research and development expenditures, foreign capital inflows, happiness, population education structure, public investment toward alternate energy exploration, etc.), but also the data set should be refined, so that the EKC estimation issues raised by Stern (2004) can be addressed.

Originality/value

By far, no study in the literature of ecological economics has focused on the empirical estimation of EKC for CO2 emissions. This particular context has been used for this study, as CO2 is one of the highest studied pollutants in the ecological economics, and especially within the EKC hypothesis framework.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Sadiq and Muhammad Salman Ahmad

The aim of this empirical study is to examine how religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism interact to influence judgment about US products and purchase actions of young…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this empirical study is to examine how religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism interact to influence judgment about US products and purchase actions of young consumers in a conservative Islamic country like Pakistan. Many studies have been conducted before in progressive Islamic countries such as Malaysia, Jordan, Turkey and Tunisia but not in conservative Islamic countries like Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A validated questionnaire derived from literature is used for data collection. Data were collected from 381 college students in four provincial capital cities of Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Peshawar). Structural equation modeling is used to test the framework.

Findings

This study reveals key significant cause and effect relationships like consumers religiosity on foreign product judgment, consumers animosity on foreign product judgment, consumers religiosity on ethnocentric tendencies of consumers, consumers ethnocentric tendencies on foreign product judgment and foreign product judgment on purchase action of consumers.

Originality/value

This study attempts to add value to the existing literature on consumer behavior, especially the role of religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism in young consumers. This study is the first of its kind on examining religiosity, animosity and ethnocentrism among young consumers in Pakistan. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study will guide the marketing managers to formulate appropriate strategies when targeting young consumers, especially when they decide to boycott US products.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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