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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to increase the level of knowledge pertaining to nutritional status of preschoolers and to identify/quantifying the relative importance of various socioeconomic and environmental factors which may have significant role in determining nutritional status of preschoolers in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food availability, childcare practices, and child health status being focused as proximate determinants of child nutritional status pose problems for the simple regression analysis. An ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation of the regression with nutrition as an outcome and these three proximate variables as determinants could be biased for two reasons. First, there may be unobserved variables that are relegated to the error term but are correlated with the variables included on the right side. Second, explanatory variables may exit that are endogenous or codetermined with the outcome variable and hence are correlated with the error term. The approach to address these problems is to use instrumental variables (IV) approach. The credibility of the IV approach will rest on the ability to find variables that are correlated with the suspected endogenous explanatory variables but that do not affect the outcome variable (other than through the explanatory variable being instrumented).

Findings

The results from empirical analysis shows that factors on the maternal and household level are more important determinants of child nutritional status. Food availability, childcare practices and child health (diarrhea) are significantly related to child nutritional status. Household size has negative and significant impact on child nutritional status. Household income has an important and significant impact on child nutritional status. Childcare practices are negatively and significantly related to child nutritional status. This may suggest that as childcare practices improve, they may complement the need for other sources of improved energy for preschooler's nutritional status. The findings suggest that women's education plays a very important role in improving children's nutritional status and that the nutrition status among children depends on both better sanitary conditions and on dietary intake.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to data limitation present analysis employed child calorie adequacy ratio (CCAR) as a proxy of child nutritional status. For that to estimate, commonly used measures are nutrient intake, caloric adequacy ratio and relative caloric allocation.

Practical implications

A key message of this research is that significant achievement could be made toward reducing malnutrition through actions in sectors that have not been the traditional focus of nutritional interventions like improved hygiene conditions.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child nutritional status with the help relative more robust analytical technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

The main purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the relative importance of various socioeconomic factors and maternal care practices which may have significant…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the relative importance of various socioeconomic factors and maternal care practices which may have significant role in determining child mortality at different level of child ages in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the role of household, demographic and environment factors as determinants of early children mortality in Pakistan. A number of individual, household and local characteristics are related to the probability of child mortality. This study employed a sequential model which is based on a sequence of binary choice models for the conditional probability of choosing a higher response category.

Findings

This study identifies that mother feeding protects children from early exposure to diseases and ill‐health in different ways. It also appeared that mother's education is strongly related to neonatal mortality, infant mortality as well as child mortality not only through the improved child caring practices but also through other proximate determinants such as prenatal care, income and environmental contamination.

Research limitations/implications

Social policies attempting to promote early initiation of mother feeding and utilization of prenatal care could make major contribution to the reduction of under five years mortality in Pakistan

Practical implications

Health care intervention programmes should focus on illiterate mothers whose children have all the cumulative risks due to poor health care utilization.

Originality/value

This could be the first ever effort in describing child mortality status with the help of sequential probit technique for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Uzma Iram and Muhammad S. Butt

Food security is a broad concept, encompassing issues related to the nature, quality, and security of the food supply as well as issues of food access. The world has been…

Abstract

Food security is a broad concept, encompassing issues related to the nature, quality, and security of the food supply as well as issues of food access. The world has been facing a paradox of widespread food insecurity and malnutrition amid net food surpluses. Increased food supplies do not automatically enhance access to food by the poorer groups of society. Food security measures alone may have a limited effect on the nutritional well being of individuals, unless the reinforcing detrimental linkages between food insecurity, disease, poor sanitation and inadequate education are addressed. Current theory holds that good nutrition for pre‐schoolers depends on household food security, an adequate health environment, and adequate maternal and childcare. Pakistan is a low‐income developing country with a per capita income of US$443, one of the lowest in the world. Pakistan is not a food insecure country. It generally has the economic ability to import the required food. This paper considers the main features of determinants of food security in Pakistan, particularly household economy assessment, and looks at what conclusions can realistically be drawn out of analysis when conducted within a conceptual framework.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Ki-Soon Han and Pooja Garg

This paper aims to explore the role of workplace democracy in generating psychological capital, which is an inevitable paradigm for the contemporary organizations. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of workplace democracy in generating psychological capital, which is an inevitable paradigm for the contemporary organizations. The study also provides a conceptual framework which connotes the nexus between the two constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is qualitative in nature and uses content analysis to identify the determinants of workplace democracy and psychological capital. Furthermore, the study used SPSS macro, i.e. PROCESS, a computational tool for calculating inter-coder reliability by using KALPHA, i.e. Krippendorff’s alpha reliability estimate (Hayes, 2013; Krippendorff, 2011).

Findings

The present study adds to the literature by signaling the dire need for building democratic workplaces and offers significant insights for the management and human resource practitioners to cultivate workplace democracy to build their employees’ psychological strengths, which in turn will result in enhanced organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

The present study brings attention toward the necessity for a shift in the generic organizational strategies and instigate organizations to nurture a democratic setup for developing employees’ psychological capital.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 41 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Norafni @ Farlina binti Rahim

Islamic finance and Halal product sectors are thriving successfully. This chapter is a general review of the perception of Asian consumers on Islamic finance and Halal…

Abstract

Purpose

Islamic finance and Halal product sectors are thriving successfully. This chapter is a general review of the perception of Asian consumers on Islamic finance and Halal sectors in the global Halal economy.

Methodology/approach

The first section will briefly describe the Halal concept in both Islamic finance and Halal industries, and the growth of both sectors in Asian countries. The second part highlights the review of Asian consumers’ perception towards Islamic finance products and Halal products.

Findings

The review found that the consumers’ perception towards the Islamic finance products and Halal products is distinctive. This is due to the diversity of Asian countries in terms of geography, religion, culture, ethnic, school of thoughts (madzahib), income per capita and government’s involvement.

Originality/value

The third part of the chapter concentrates on planning towards Halal marketing, which involves the move and future challenges in different layers of industries to gear up and strengthen the Halal economy.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Amin Kardgar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate conjugate heat transfer of natural convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in the presence of external magnetic field…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate conjugate heat transfer of natural convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in the presence of external magnetic field via numerical approach in an inclined square cavity enclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

Control volume finite volume method with collocated arrangement of grids was used for discretization of continuity, momentum, solid and fluid energy equations. Rhie and Chow interpolation technique was applied to avoid checkerboard problem in pressure field and the well-established SIMPLE algorithm was followed to deal with the pressure and velocity coupling. The cavity is filled with water and nanoparticles of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3). This study has been conducted for the certain pertinent parameters of the volume fraction of nanoparticle (φ = 0–0.08), the angle of inclination (ϴ = 0°–330°), the Ra number (Ra = 103–108), the solid to fluid conductivity ratio (ksf = 1–400), the Ha number (Ha = 0–80) and the wall thickness ratio (δ/L = 0–0.3).

Findings

The results indicate that averaged Nu number increases by approximately 9% by increasing volume fraction from 0.0 to 0.08. Nu increases with an increasing inclination angle to 40° and decreases abruptly in 90° because of the formation of two weaker vorticity with opposite circulation pattern intensifying the density of isotherm curves in a vertical direction. Nu increases sharply with increasing Ra more than 105. Nu also augments almost 67% by increasing ksf = 1 to ksf = 50 and remains constant by increasing ksf more than 50. Nu number reduction is almost 72% with a variation of wall thickness ratio from d/L = 0 to 0.3. Entropy generation because of fluid flow, magnetic field and heat transfer reduces linearly almost 30%, 19% and 16% by increasing volume fraction, respectively. With increasing ksf, entropy generation because of fluid flow, magnetic field and heat transfer increases asymptotically, but Bejan number decreases.

Originality/value

A brief review of conducted research studies in nanofluid flow and heat transfer reveals that the effect of wall thermal inertia was not investigated in MHD natural convection of nanofluids in an inclined enclosure. The aim of the present study is to analyze conjugate heat transfer in an inclined cavity filled with water and Al2O3.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Sajjad Haider, Adnan Saeed Butt, Imran Syed Muhammad, Asif Ali, Yun-Zhang Li, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqvi and Muhammad Adnan Qaiser

The purpose of this study is to theoretically probe the shape impacts of nano-particle on boundary layer flow of nano-fluid toward a stretching cylinder with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to theoretically probe the shape impacts of nano-particle on boundary layer flow of nano-fluid toward a stretching cylinder with heat-transmission effects. The base fluid used for this study is pure water, and aluminum oxide nano-particles are suspended in it. Four different shapes of nano-particle, namely, cylindrical, brick, platelets and blades, are considered to carry out the study.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem is modelled mathematically and the nonlinear system of equations is attained by using appropriate transmutations. The solution of transmuted equations is achieved by utilizing a shooting technique with Fourth-Fifth order Runge–Kutta Fehlberg scheme. Numerically attained results are elucidated through graphs and tables which are further compared under limiting cases with existing literature to check the validity of the results.

Findings

It is observed that fluid velocity and temperature of cylindrical shaped water nano-fluids are more than the nano-fluid having brick-shaped nano-particles. Moreover, it is seen that the nano-fluids suspended with platelets-shaped nano-particles have higher velocity and temperature than the nano-fluids containing blade-shaped nano-particles. The curvature parameter and nano-particles volume fraction have increasing effects on flow velocity and temperature of nano-fluids containing all types of nano-particle shapes.

Originality/value

Numerous authors have examined the impacts of nano-particle shapes on characteristics of heat transfer and fluid flow. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the shape impacts of nano-particles on boundary layer flow of nano-fluid toward a stretching cylinder with heat-transmission effects have not been discussed. So, to fulfill this gap, the present paper explicates the impacts of various nano-particle shapes on Al2O3–water-based nano-fluid flow past a stretching cylinder with heat-transfer effects.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Susan Rose, Stephen Wilkins and Junaid Ul Haq

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of…

Abstract

Purpose

Multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to compete in markets worldwide should not underestimate the influences of religion on consumer demand. Almost one quarter of the world’s population is Muslim so it is important for MNCs to get into the Muslim mind set when operating in countries where Islam has a large influence. The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which consumer-based brand equity in a religious market results from the psychological and behavioural characteristics of consumers rather than from product characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey method was adopted, using a total sample of 551 Muslim consumers in Malaysia and Pakistan. A holistic model conceptualising three potential psychological and behavioural predictors of consumer-based halal brand equity (CBHBE) was created and then tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The strength of an individual’s religious identity was found to be a strong predictor of consumer halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive religious benefits. Consumers’ halal choice behaviour and perceived self-expressive benefits directly predict CBHBE. Moreover, consumer halal choice behaviour partially mediates the relationship between self-expressive benefits and CBHBE.

Practical implications

The authors conclude that firms targeting Muslim consumers can maximise CBHBE by focussing their marketing strategies on the three psychological and behavioural constructs identified in the model. For example, by using halal certification logos and providing convincing information about the halalness of their brand, businesses can facilitate Muslim consumers’ search processes in relation to their choice behaviour.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing international branding literature in two main ways. First, it introduces and defines the concept of CBHBE. Second, it identifies and empirically validates the important psychological and behavioural predictors of CBHBE.

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Stephen Wilkins, Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Farshid Shams and Andrea Pérez

International restaurant and fast food chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Subway currently serve halal food in some non-Muslim countries, with mixed results. The purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

International restaurant and fast food chains such as KFC, McDonald’s and Subway currently serve halal food in some non-Muslim countries, with mixed results. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that most influence the product judgements of halal food amongst non-Muslim consumers in non-Muslim countries and to assess the extent to which these judgements are related to willingness to consume halal food.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey method was adopted, using a total sample of 1,100 consumers in Canada, Spain and the UK. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results suggest that it may be possible for firms to satisfy specific niche market segments with standardised mass market products. Consumer cosmopolitanism and non-Muslim religious identity were found to be positively related to halal product judgement, and consumer ethnocentrism and national identification were negatively related to halal product judgement. There was a strong relationship between product judgement and willingness to consume halal food.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that halal marketing may provide promising business opportunities for international restaurant and fast food chains, as well as food manufacturers and retailers. However, in countries or regions where there are many consumers with high levels of national identification or consumer ethnocentrism, firms should not expect non-target consumers to accept halal products.

Originality/value

This is the first study to suggest that, in non-Muslim countries, food companies may switch entirely to halal produce for certain products as an effective market segmentation strategy targeting Muslim consumers.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Troy Heffernan, Stephen Wilkins and Muhammad Mohsin Butt

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the critical relational variables of university reputation, student trust and student-university identification influence student behaviour towards transnational education partnerships.

Design/methodology/approach

Students undertaking British degrees at two transnational partnership locations (Hong Kong, n=203 and Sri Lanka, n=325) completed a quantitative survey questionnaire. A conceptual model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

University reputation and student trust were found to be significant predictors of student identification with each partner institution, and student-university identification was a significant predictor of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours towards both the local and foreign educational organisations.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that student relationship management strategies should focus on strengthening the higher education institution’s reputation, and increasing the students’ trust and identification with the institution. Moreover, universities should also assess potential partners for these qualities when entering into transnational education partnerships.

Originality/value

Drawing on theories of social and organisational identification, this is the first study to consider student-university identification as the linchpin between the exogenous constructs of reputation and trust, and the endogenous constructs of student satisfaction, loyalty and extra-role behaviours in both the international education and international business literatures.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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